Muhammad Ibn Musa Alkhwarizmi
Muḥammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī[note 1] (lang-fa|محمد بن موسى خوارزمی;), Turawa sun canja sunansa zuwa latin amatsayin Algorithmi,[note 2] Dan Persian ne Yakasance fitacce kuma kwararren Malami, wanda yayi ayyuka da dama a fannonin Lissafi, astronomy, da geography a karkashin kula da taimakon Caliph Al-Ma'mun na Daular Abbasiyyah.rp|668 Around 820 AD he was appointed as the astronomer and head of the library of the House of Wisdom in Baghdad.
Al-Khwarizmi's popularizing treatise on algebra (The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing, c. 813–833 CE tazo da hanyoyi na farko akan warware matsalolin linear da quadratic equations. Daya daga cikin babban nasararsa itace hanyar daya nuna tayadda za'a warware matsalar quadratic equations ta hanyar completing the square, for which he provided geometric justifications. dalilin shi kadaine yafara warware algebra as an independent discipline sannan kuma yashigo da hanyar "reduction" da "balancing" (the transposition of subtracted terms to the other side of an equation, that is, the cancellation of like terms on opposite sides of the equation), An bayyana shi a matsayin Baba ko wanda ya kirkiri algebra. Kalmar algebra itama tasune daga sunan littafinsa (musamman Kalmar al-jabr dake ma'anar "completion" ko "rejoining"). Sunansa ya haifar da wadannan kalmomin Algorism da algorithm. Har wayau sunansa itace mafarin sunan (Spanish) guarismo da kuma na (Portuguese) algarismo, wadanda dukkanin su ke nufin digit.
A karni na 12th, fassarar Latin na littafin sa akan arithmetic (Algorithmo de Numero Indorum) which codified the various Indian numerals, Ita tazo da decimal positional number system zuwa yammacin duniya. The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing, da aka fassara zuwa Latin wanda Robert of Chester yayi a 1145, anyita amfani dashi har zuwa karni na goma sha shida, a matsayin babban littafin lissafi na karatu a Jami'o'in turai.
Kari akan mafi kyawun aikinsa, he revised Ptolemy's Geography, da jeranta longitudes da latitudes na birane da dama da garuruwa. Yakaiga samarda a set of astronomical tables da kuma rubutu akan calendaric works, as well as the astrolabe and the sundial.
Anazarci[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]
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- The Math Book: From Pythagoras to the 57th Dimension, 250 Milestones in the ... : p. 84
- cite journal|last1=Saliba|first1=George|title=Science and medicine|journal=Iranian Studies|date=September 1998|volume=31|issue=3–4|pages=681–690|doi=10.1080/00210869808701940|accessdate=|quote=Take, for example, someone like Muhammad b. Musa al-Khwarizmi (fl. 850) who may present a problem for the EIr, for although he was obviously of Persian descent, he lived and worked in Baghdad and was not known to have produced a single scientific work in Persian.
- harvnb|Toomer|1990; cite web|first=Jeffrey A.|last= Oaks|url=http://facstaff.uindy.edu/~oaks/MHMC.htm%7Ctitle=Was al-Khwarizmi an applied algebraist?|publisher=University of Indianapolis|accessdate=2008-05-30; cite journal|first=Jan P.|last=Hogendijk|title=al-Khwarzimi|journal=Pythagoras|volume=38|issue=2|date=1998|pages=4–5|url=http://www.kennislink.nl/publicaties/mohammad-ibn-musa-al-khwarizmi%7Cformat=%7Cref=harv%7Cissn=0033-4766
- Arndt, A. (1983). Al-Khwarizmi. The Mathematics Teacher, 76(9), 668–670.
- Maher, P. (1998). From Al-Jabr to Algebra. Mathematics in School, 27(4), 14–15.
- Oaks, J. (2009). Polynomials and equations in arabic algebra. Archive for History of Exact Sciences, 63(2), 169–203.
- (Boyer 1991, "The Arabic Hegemony" p. 229) "It is not certain just what the terms al-jabr and muqabalah mean, but the usual interpretation is similar to that implied in the translation above. The word al-jabr presumably meant something like "restoration" or "completion" and seems to refer to the transposition of subtracted terms to the other side of an equation; the word muqabalah is said to refer to "reduction" or "balancing" – that is, the cancellation of like terms on opposite sides of the equation."
- Boyer, Carl B., 1985. A History of Mathematics, p. 252. Princeton University Press. "Diophantus sometimes is called the father of algebra, but this title more appropriately belongs to al-Khowarizmi..." , "...the Al-jabr comes closer to the elementay algebra of today than the works of either Diophantus or Brahmagupta..."
- S Gandz, The sources of al-Khwarizmi's algebra, Osiris, i (1936), 263–277,"Al-Khwarizmi's algebra is regarded as the foundation and cornerstone of the sciences. In a sense, al-Khwarizmi is more entitled to be called "the father of algebra" than Diophantus because al-Khwarizmi is the first to teach algebra in an elementary form and for its own sake, Diophantus is primarily concerned with the theory of numbers."
- https://eclass.uoa.gr/modules/document/file.php/MATH104/20010-11/HistoryOfAlgebra.pdf, dead link|date=February 2018 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes "The first true algebra text which is still extant is the work on al-jabr and al-muqabala by Mohammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi, written in Baghdad around 825"
- Cite book|url=https://books.google.com/?id=9HUDXkJIE3EC&pg=PA188&lpg=PA188&dq=Al-Tusi+introduced+a+new+discipline%E2%80%94algebraic+geometry%E2%80%94that+relies+on+equations+to+study+curves.%22#v=onepage&q=Al-Tusi%20introduced%20a%20new%20discipline%E2%80%94algebraic%20geometry%E2%80%94that%20relies%20on%20equations%20to%20study%20curves.%22&f=true%7Ctitle=The Oxford History of Islam|last=Esposito|first=John L.|date=2000-04-06|publisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=978-0199880416|language=en|page=188|quote=Al-Khwarizmi is often considered the founder of algebra, and his name gave rise to the term algorithm.
- cite book|author=Knuth, Donald|url=http://historical.ncstrl.org/litesite-data/stan/CS-TR-80-786.pdf%7Ctitle=Algorithms in Modern Mathematics and Computer Science|publisher=Springer-Verlag|date=1979|isbn=978-0387111575|authorlink=Donald Knuth|deadurl=yes|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20061107213306/http://historical.ncstrl.org/litesite-data/stan/CS-TR-80-786.pdf%7Carchivedate=2006-11-07%7Cdf=
- harvnb|Struik|1987| p= 93
- Cite book|url=https://books.google.com/?id=lQbcCwAAQBAJ&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false%7Ctitle=History of the Arabs|last=Philip Khuri Hitti|publisher=|year=2002|isbn=978-1137039828|location=|pages=379
- Cite book|url=https://books.google.co.in/books?id=9S0XAQAAIAAJ%7Ctitle=A History of the Islamic World|last=Fred James Hill, Nicholas Awde|publisher=|year=2003|isbn=978-0781810159|location=|page=55|quote="The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing" (Hisab al-Jabr wa H-Muqabala) on the development of the subject cannot be underestimated. Translated into Latin during the twelfth century, it remained the principal mathematics textbook in European universities until the sixteenth century
- Cite web|url=http://www.ms.uky.edu/~carl/ma330/project2/al-khwa21.html%7Ctitle=Al-Khwarizmi%7Clast=Shawn Overbay, Jimmy Schorer, and Heather Conger|first=University of Kentucky|date=|website=|access-date=
- Cite web|url=http://www.sjsu.edu/people/patricia.backer/history/islam.htm%7Ctitle=Islam Spain and the history of technology|website=www.sjsu.edu|access-date=2018-01-24
- L., V.D. (1985). A history of algebra: from al – Khwarizmi to emmy noether. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.