Benin City (Birnin Benin)

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Globe icon.svgBenin City
Areal view of the ancient city of Benin.jpg

Wuri
 6°19′03″N 5°36′52″E / 6.3176°N 5.6145°E / 6.3176; 5.6145
Ƴantacciyar ƙasaNajeriya
Jerin jihohi a NijeriyaEdo
Babban birnin
Yawan mutane
Faɗi 1,147,188 (2006)
• Yawan mutane 952.81 mazaunan/km²
Labarin ƙasa
Yawan fili 1,204 km²
Altitude (en) Fassara 80 m
Bayanan tarihi
Ƙirƙira 1899 (Julian)
Bayanan Tuntuɓa
Kasancewa a yanki na lokaci
Benin City.

Benin City birni ne, da ke a jihar Edo, a ƙasar Nijeriya. Birnin itace babban birnin jihar Edo dake kudancin Najeriya. Itace birni na hudu a girma bayan Birnin Lagos Kano da Ibadan da kimanin jimillar jama'a akalla mutum 1,782,000 a shekara ta 2021.[1] Birnin tana nan daga kilomita 40 kilometres (25 mi) daga rafin Benin River, da kuma nisan tsakanin kilomita 320 kilometres (200 mi) daga gabacin Lagos. An gina birnin Ibadan kafin karni na sha huɗu. Benin itace cibiyar sarrafa roba da kuma samar da a Najeriya.[2]

Itace birni mafi muhimmanci a duk masarautar Benin wacce ta wanzu a tsakanin karni na 13th zuwa karni na 19th. Suna da kyakyawar fahimta ta hanyar kasuwanci da kasar Portugal a 'yan shekaru wanda daga bisani turawan Ingila suka amsa mulkin kasar a 1897. Turawa sun kwashe ababan tarihi da dama da suka hada da gumaka na tagulla da makamantansu a yankin bayan cin galabarsu da yaki.[3]

Asalin mutanen gari sune mutanen Edo, kuma suna magane ne da harsunan Edo da makamantansu. Muatnen gari suna da shiga na kaya irin na alfarma kuma ansansu da amfani da duwatsun bids, zane a jiki,sarkoki da awarwaro da kuma noma na doya, plantain da rogo.[4]

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Mutanen Edo[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A tarihance, asalin mutanen Edo kuma wanda suka samar da Daular Edo na karkashin mulkin Ogiso (Kings of the Sky) wanda ke kiran kasarsu da suna Igodomigodo. Igodo, watau Ogiso na farko yayi tsananin karfin mulkin kuma yayi fice a matsayin sarki adali na lokacin. Ya mace bayan mulki mai tsawon sannan Ere baban danshi ya gajeshi. Rikici ya kaure tsakanin matar tsohon sarkin (Ogiso) da kuma babban dansa wato "Ekaladerhan". Matar baban nasa ta kulla masa sharri da ya jawo aka yanke masa hukuncin kisa. Wadanda aka aika su kashe shi kuma daga bisani suka sake shi a Ughoton. Yarima mai gudun hijira ya kama hanya zuwa Ife inda ya canza sunansa zuwa Izoduwa, ma'ana "na samu natsuwa". A wannan yanayi na rudani ne mutanen Benin karkashin jagorancin Chief Oliha suka bazama neman yarima Ekaladerhan - wanda a yanzu mutane Ife ke kiransa Oduduwa.[5]

Yarima Ekaladerhan yaki yadda ya dawo Benin saboda da yadda aka wulakanta shi, bayan su gano cewa ba'a kashe shi ba. Daga bisani ya yi dabarar tura dansa Oramiyan don ya zama sarki a matsayinsa.[6] Oramiyan ya zauna a cikin fada wacce dattijan Uzama suka gina masa, yanzu ya zama wurin bauta na shekara-shekara. Nan da nan ya auri kyakyawar budurwa diyar Osa-nego; Enogie of Egor na tara.[7] Shi da ita sun sama rabon da namiji. Bayan 'yan shekaru daga bisani, ya kira taro inda ya sanar da murabus da kujerarsa, a cewarsa garin na'yan jin zafi ne "Ile-Ibinu" sannan kuma dan asalin haihuwar kasan wanda yayi ilimi kuma ya kware da hatsabibancin mutanen garin ne kadai zai iya mulkan su.[8] Garin ta samo asalin sunanta daga sunan. Ya saka an nada dandansa a matsayin sarki a maimakonsa, sannan kuma ya koma cikin birnin Benin da zama. Ya tafi ya bar dansa "Ajaka" a garin wanda ya zamo sarkin Benin na farko na wannan zamanin (Oba of Benin, shi kuma Oramiyan na sarauta matsayin "Ọọni of Ifẹ". Haka zalika Ọranmiyan na Ife, mahaifin Ẹwẹka I, shi kumasarkin Benin (Ọba of Benin) shine mahaifin Ajaka; sarkin Oyo (wato "Alaafin of Ọyọ"). Sarkin Ife Ọọni of Ife watau Ọba Ẹwẹka ya canzawa Ile-Binu (babban birnin daular Benin) suna zuwa "Ubinu". A wajen mutanen Portugal wannan kalman na iya zama "Benin" da yarensu. A tsakanin 1470, Ẹwuare ya canza sunan garin zuwa Edo.[9] Wannan yazo daidai da lokacin da mutanen Ọkpẹkpẹ sukai kaura zuwa birnin Benin. A wata fuskar kuma Yabawa suna da nasu labarin akan Oduduwa.[10]A cewan Yarbawa wai saboda tsananin karfin ikonnsa da mulkinsa ne yasa ya yaki mutanen da ke kai wa Benin hare-hare hakan yasa mutanen Benin suka zabe shi matsayin sarki wato 'Ọba of Benin". Duk da haka duka yarukan biyu watao Yarbawa da mutanen Edo sun amince da cewa Oduduwa ya tura dansa Oranmiyan na Ife ya zama sarkin Benin kuma ya samar da daular Oba a birnin Benin.[11][12]

Tsarin mulkin Benin ya fara ne a karni na 13 lokacin mulkin Oba Ewedo.[13]

Zuwan Turawa da kwace garin[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Turawan Portugal sun zuiyarci Birnin Benin a 1485. Tattalin arzikin Benin ya habaka a tsakanin karni na 6th da na 17th a dalilin kasuwanci a Kudancin Najeriya, da kuma kasuwanci da turawa musamman kasuwancin yaji da kasusuwan dabbobi. A farkon karni na 16, Sarkin garin ya tura wakili zuwa kasar Portugal, shi kuma sarkin Portugal ya turo malaman kiristoci zuwa Benin. Har izuwa karni na 19, wasu daga cikin 'yan asalin garin Benin na iya magana da harshen Portugal. Har wayau, akan iya samun kalmomin aro na yaren Portugal a harsunan yankin. Wani kaptin na Portugal yayi bayanin garin da; "Benin mai girma, inda sarakuna ke zaune, tafi girman Lisbon, duka tituna sun tafi santal kuma iya ganin idanu. Gidajensu na da girma, musamman gidan sarkin garin, wanda aka kawata ta matuka kuma tana da dauyi masu kyawu. Birnin tana da arziki da kuma ikon kere-kere. Ana mulkanta da adalci wanda a sanadiyyar hakan ba'a sata a garin ba kuma mutanen garin na zaune cikin aminci da kariya wanda ko kofofi babu a gidajen garin". Wannan yazo daidai da lokacin da kisan kai da sata sukai tsanani a birnin Lisbon, Portugal.[14][15]

A ranar 17 ga watan Febrerun 1897 ne birnin Benin ya fada hannun Turawan Ingila.[16] A wani gangami da ake kira "Punitive Expedition", ayarin rundunar sojojin turawa masu yawan mutum 1,200 a karkashin jagorancin Admiral Sir Harry Rawson, bayan sun keta garin baki daya amma sojojin turawa biyu kadai aka kashe wanda Consul na wucin gadi General Philips ya jagoranta.[17][18]Alan Boisragon, ya rubutu akan sadaukarwa da kisan gilla da akaiwa mutanen garin a 1898 (shekara daya bayan faruwar al'amarin).[19] James D. Graham ya rubuta cewa, duk da cewa "sadaukarwa na daya daga cikin mafi mahimmancin al'amarin al'umman Benin a farkon lokaci," shedu na zahiri sun bambamta matuka, wanda wasu sunyi bayanai akansu, wasu kuma basu ce komai ba.

Turawa sun kwashe gumakan da akai da tagulla, zane masu asali da makamantasu na tarihin garin, wanda a yanzu ake nuna su a wuraren tarihi dabn-daban na duniya.[20] Anyi gwanjon wasu daga cikin tagullolin don maimaye barnan da akai a lokutan baya. An tura sakonnin barar maido irin wadannan kaya na tarihi acikin 'yan shekarun nan. Daya daga cikin ire-iren wadannan kayan tarihi masu daraja sun hada da kokon fuskan Sarauniya Idia "Queen Idia mask" wanda akayi amfani dashi matsayin kokon rufe fuska a wajen taron Second Festival of Arts Culture (FESTAC '77) wanda aka gudanar a shekara ta 1977, wanda akafi sani a yanzu da "Festac Mask".[21]

Kame Birnin Benin ya zamo sharan fage ga ayyukan sojojin turai da kuma hade yankunan mulkin mallakan turawa na Afurka zuwa yankunan kulawa na turaw watau Niger Coast Protectorate, sai kuma Protectorate of Southern Nigeria sannan daga karshe yankin kulwa da gudanarwan turawa na Najeriya. Turawan sun bada umurnin mayar da sarautar Benin a 1914, amma duk da haka ainihin iko yana wajen turawan mulkin mallakan Najeriya.

Samun 'yancin Najeriya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Gabanin samun 'yanci Najeriya a 1960, Benin ta zamo cibiyar tsakiyar yammacin yankunan Najeriya wato Mid-Western Region bayan an raba yankin daga yankin yammacin kasar a June 1963. A lokacin da aka mayar da sunan yankin Jihar Bendel watau Yankin Yamma ta Tsakiya, Najeriya a 1976, Benin ta cigaba da kasancewa babban birnin yankin sannan daga bisani ta kasance babban birnin Edo bayan rarraba jihar Bendel zuwa jihohin Delta da Edo.

Labarin Kasa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yanayin climate na nufin yanayin sararin samaniya ta kasa dangane da wani wuri kayajajje, yanayi weather kuma na nufin canjin yanayi na yau da kullum, na dan kankanin lokaci a wannan kayajjajen wurin. Abubuwan da ake la'akari dasu wajen lissafa yanayin wuri sun hada da yanayin zafi/sanyi, abubuwan da ke zubowa daga gajimare (kamar ruwan sama, raba, kankara da sauransu) damshi da matsi, iska/guguwa, hasken rana da giza-gizai.[22][23] Benin tana da yanayi na "tropical savanna climate (Köppen Aw)" kuma tana iyaka da yanayi na tropical monsoon climate (Am). Yanayin garin bai da dadi akwai zafi da kuma dumi kusan har karshen shekara musamman tsakanin watannin Juli da Satumba.

Climate data for Birnin Benin
Watan Janairu Fabrairu Maris Afrilu Mayu Yuni Yuli Ogusta Satumba Oktoba Nuwamba Disamba Shekara
Record high °C (°F) 34.4
(93.9)
36.1
(97.0)
36.1
(97.0)
35.6
(96.1)
35.0
(95.0)
33.3
(91.9)
31.7
(89.1)
31.1
(88.0)
32.8
(91.0)
32.8
(91.0)
34.4
(93.9)
34.4
(93.9)
36.1
(97.0)
Average high °C (°F) 31.9
(89.4)
33.3
(91.9)
33.0
(91.4)
32.4
(90.3)
31.6
(88.9)
29.9
(85.8)
27.9
(82.2)
27.9
(82.2)
28.8
(83.8)
30.3
(86.5)
31.8
(89.2)
32.0
(89.6)
30.9
(87.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) 25.8
(78.4)
26.7
(80.1)
26.7
(80.1)
26.4
(79.5)
25.9
(78.6)
24.9
(76.8)
23.8
(74.8)
23.7
(74.7)
24.3
(75.7)
25.0
(77.0)
25.9
(78.6)
25.7
(78.3)
25.4
(77.7)
Average low °C (°F) 21.4
(70.5)
22.1
(71.8)
22.6
(72.7)
22.6
(72.7)
22.6
(72.7)
21.9
(71.4)
21.6
(70.9)
21.2
(70.2)
21.8
(71.2)
21.8
(71.2)
22.1
(71.8)
21.2
(70.2)
21.9
(71.4)
Record low °C (°F) 12.8
(55.0)
13.3
(55.9)
18.3
(64.9)
19.4
(66.9)
19.4
(66.9)
18.3
(64.9)
16.7
(62.1)
16.1
(61.0)
18.9
(66.0)
18.9
(66.0)
15.6
(60.1)
14.4
(57.9)
12.8
(55.0)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 18
(0.7)
33
(1.3)
97
(3.8)
168
(6.6)
213
(8.4)
302
(11.9)
320
(12.6)
211
(8.3)
318
(12.5)
241
(9.5)
76
(3.0)
15
(0.6)
2,012
(79.2)
Average rainy days (≥ 0.3 mm) 2 4 9 12 16 20 23 19 25 21 7 2 160
Average relative humidity (%) 84 81 84 85 87 90 93 92 91 89 86 84 87
Mean monthly sunshine hours 179.8 178.0 173.6 177.0 176.7 144.0 99.2 89.9 81.0 148.8 192.0 213.9 1,853.9
Mean daily sunshine hours 5.8 6.3 5.6 5.9 5.7 4.8 3.2 2.9 2.7 4.8 6.4 6.9 5.1
Source: Deutscher Wetterdienst[24]

Ilimi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Benin gida ce ga manyan jami'oin Najeriya kamar Jami'ar Benin, wacce ke Ugbowo da Ekenwan,[25] Jami'ar Ambrose Alli University wacce ke Ekpoma,[26] da Kwalejin Ilimi na Ekiadolor, Jami'ar Igbinedion,[27] Jami'ar Benson Idahosa[28] da kuma Jami'ar Wellspring.[29]

Akwai Makarantun sekandare da suka hada da; Edo College,[30] Edo Boys High School (Adolo College), Western Boys High School, Oba Ewuare Grammar School, Greater Tomorrow Secondary School, Garrick Memorial Secondary School, Winrose Secondary School, Asoro Grammar School, Eghosa Anglican Grammar School, Edokpolor Grammar School, Covenant Christian Academy, Niger College, Presentation National High School, Immaculate Conception College, Uselu secondary school, Idia College, University of Benin Demonstration Secondary School, University Preparatory Secondary School, Auntie Maria School, Benin Technical College,[31] Headquarters of Word of Faith Group of Schools, Lydia Group of Schools, Nosakhare Model Education Centre and Igbinedion Educational Center,[32] Federal Government Girls College, Benin City,[33] Paragon Comprehensive College, da kuma Itohan Girls Grammar School. Wasu daga cikin makarantun Micro International Training Center, Computer Technology da kuma Training Center, kungiyoyin makarantun Okunbor (Okunbor Group of Schools).

Matsalolin Muhalli[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Sauyin Yanayi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Birnin tana fuskantar sauyin yanayi musamman ta hanyar karuwar zafi, karancin damshi damshi da ruwan sama na tsakanin 1981 da kuma 2015.[34]

Kula da ambaliya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Birnin Benin na fuskantar ambaliya akai-akai. Bincike iri-iri sun nuna bayanai akan haka tun akalla shekara ta 1993. Masana sunyi yunkurin kawo hanyoyin shawo kan matsalar ambaliya a yankin ta hanyoyi daban daban kamar; kula da tsarukan amfani da filaye da kuma gine-gine da ci-gaba, kirkiro shiye-shirye akan wayar wa mutane da hankali kan kula da muhalli da illolin rashin hakan da makamantansu.

Mutane da yawa sun rasa muhallinsu a dalilin ambaliya da akayi a watan June 2020. A lokacinda talakawa sukayi kukan cewa rashin samar da hanyoyin ruwa masu kyau da kuma kin cigaba da tsare-tsaren kawo karshen ambaliya suka jawo hakan.

Dumaman Birane[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Birnin tana da zafin digiri .5 fiye da kauyukan garin, kuma zafin yafi karuwa acikin mako lokutan da ma'aikata suke gudanar da harkokinsu na ayyukan yau da kullum da samar da kazanta iri-iri.

Kula da Shara[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bincike da mujallar Nature tayi, ya nuna cewa birnin bata da isassun kayan kula da muhalli wanda gwamnatin Jihar Edo ta samar. Bayan bincike da aka gudanar ga mazauna birnin mutum 2720, ya nuna cewa mutane da yawa basu san aihin yadda kula da muhallansu ba. Bugu da kari, mutanen basu san yadda gurbacewa ke da alaka da sakin Greenhouse Gasses ba.[35] Wani binciken ya nuna cewa wasu da yawa basu san illolin rashin kula da muhalli akan lafiyarsu ba.

Al'adu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Wurare masu kayatarwa sun hada da gidan sarki, unguwar Igun Street (inda ake sarrafa karafuna da tagulla). Wasu wureren sun hada da ababen gargajiya da koramu da ke zagaye da gidaje, King's square (wanda akafi sani da Ring Road) da kuma kasuwannin gargajiya.

An san mutanen Benin da sarrafa tagulla da yi mata sifofi iri-iri na kwarewa. Benin birni ce ta tsaffin sarakunan duniya. Akwai bukukuwar gargajiya da dama da ake gudanarwa a Benin don murna da tunawa da wasu lokuta na tarihi a Birnin. Bikin Igue festival shi yafi fice inda sarki ke fitowa ayi murnan al'adun mutanensa sannan ya albarkaci mutanensa da kasarsa.

Bukukuwan Gargajiya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Benin tana da bukukuwa iri-iri dan murnan al'adun gargajiya kamar Igue Festival da ake gudanarwa duk shekara. Bikin na da muhimmanci sosai ga birnin musamman na tunawa da daular ta na zamunan da da kuma al'adunsu.

Banda wadancan bukuwar, Benin tana daukan nauyin bikin "Benin City Film Festival". Bikin na bada dama don bunkasa ayyukan da gidajen shirye-shirye na gida sukayi. Har wayau tana bunkasa shirye-shiryen Najeriya da kasashen wajen.

Ranakun Kasuwannin Benin[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Mutanen Benin na da ranakun cin kasuwanni uku; Ekioba, Ekenaka, Agbado, da kuma Eken.[36][37]

Sufuri[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Benin na da filayen jiragen sama guda uku da ke sufurin mutane zuwa yankuna daban daban wanda suka hada Arik Air, Air Peace da kuma Azman

Sanannun Mutane[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Hotuna[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]


Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

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