Bob Marley

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The Honourable
Bob Marley
Template:Post-nominals
Black and white image of Bob Marley on stage with a guitar
Marley performing at the Dalymount Park in Dublin in July 1980
Haihuwa Robert Nesta Marley
(1945-02-06)6 Fabrairu 1945
Nine Mile, Saint Ann Parish, Colony of Jamaica
Mutuwa 11 Mayu 1981(1981-05-11) (shekaru 36)
Miami, Florida, US
Wasu sunaye
  • Donald Marley
  • Tuff Gong
Aiki
  • Musician
  • songwriter
Uwar gida(s)
(m. after 1966)
Partner(s) Cindy Breakspeare (1977–1978)
Yara
Iyaye(s)
Dangi
Musical career
Genre (en) Fassara
Musical instrument (en) Fassara
  • Vocals
  • guitar
  • percussion
Years active 1962–1981
Record label (en) Fassara
Associated acts Bob Marley and the Wailers
Yanar gizo bobmarley.com

Robert Nesta Marley OM (an haife shi a ranar 6 ga watan Fabrairu shekarar 1945 - ya mutum a ranar 11 ga watan Mayu shekarar 1981) kuma a dukkan shekara idan ta zagayo mashaya suna kiran ranan da "Marli=day", ya kasance mawaƙin Jamaica, marubucin waƙa, kuma mawaƙi. Dauke ɗayan ɗayan masu farauta na reggae, aikinsa na kiɗa yana da alamun abubuwa masu haɗuwa na reggae, ska, da rocksteady, da kuma sautinsa na musamman da salon waƙoƙi. Gudummawar Marley ga kiɗa ta ƙara waƙoƙin Jamaica a duniya gabaɗaya, kuma ya sanya shi ya zama babban mutum a cikin al'adun gargajiya sama da shekaru goma. A tsawon aikinsa Marley ya zama sananne ne a matsayin Rastafari icon, kuma ya sanya waƙarsa da ma'anar ruhaniya. Hakanan ana ɗaukar shi a matsayin alama ta duniya ta waƙar Jamaica da al'adu da asali, kuma ya kasance mai jayayya a cikin goyon bayan da ya nuna game da halatta marijuana, yayin da ya kuma yi kira ga Pan-Africanism .

Haihuwar Maril a Nine Mile, Jamaica ta Biritaniya, Marley ya fara aikinsa na kide-kide a shekarar 1963, bayan ya kafa Bob Marley da Wailers . Releasedungiyar ta fitar da kundi na farko na sutudiyo mai suna The Wailing Wailers a shekarar 1965, wanda ke ɗauke da waƙoƙin "Loveauna Daya / Mutane Suna Shirya "; wakar ta shahara a duk duniya, kuma ta kafa kungiyar a matsayin masu tashe a reggae. Daga baya Wailers sun sake fitar da faya-fayan ɗawainiya guda goma sha; yayin da farko suka fara amfani da kayan kida da rera waka, kungiyar ta fara tsunduma cikin aikin rera waka a karshen shekarun 1960s da farkon 1970s, wanda yayi daidai da sauyawar mawakiyar zuwa Rastafari . A wannan lokacin Marley ta ƙaura zuwa London, kuma ƙungiyar ta haɗa da canjin canjin su tare da fitowar kundin kundin Mafi Kyawun Wailers (1971).

Ungiyar ta sami nasarar ƙasa da ƙasa bayan fitowar kundin faifai Kama da Wuta da ' (duka 1973), kuma sun ƙirƙiri suna kamar masu zane-zane. Bayan watsewar Wailers shekara guda daga baya, Marley ya ci gaba da sakin kayan aikinsa ƙarƙashin sunan ƙungiyar. Faifan faifan fim din sa na farko Natty Dread (1974) ya sami kyakkyawar tarba, kamar yadda mai biyewa Rastaman Vibration (1976) yayi. Bayan 'yan watanni da fitar da kundin wakokin Marley ya tsallake yunkurin kisan kai a gidansa da ke Jamaica, wanda hakan ya sa shi komawa Landan din din din. A lokacin da yake Landan ya yi rikodin kundin fitarwa (1977); ya ƙunshi abubuwan da suka haɗa da shuɗi, ruhu, da dutsen Burtaniya kuma sun sami fa'idar kasuwanci da babbar nasara.

A cikin shekarar alib na 1977, Marley ya kamu da cutar acral lentiginous melanoma ; ya mutu sakamakon rashin lafiya a shekarar 1981. Masoyan sa a duk fadin duniya sun nuna alhinin su, kuma ya samu jana'izar kasa a Jamaica. An saki mafi girman kundin Tarihi na Tarihi a cikin shekara ta 1984, kuma ya zama mafi kyawun kundin reggae na kowane lokaci . Marley shima ya kasance ɗaya daga cikin fitattun masu kiɗan kiɗa a kowane lokaci, tare da ƙididdigar tallace-tallace sama da rubuce miliyan 75 a duk duniya. Jamaica ta girmama shi bayan rasuwa jim kaɗan da mutuwarsa tare da tsara alfarmar girmamawa daga alummarsa. A cikin shekarar ta 1994, an saka shi cikin Rock and Roll Hall of Fame . Rolling Stone ya sanya shi A'a. 11 a cikin jerin 100 Mafi Girma Artan wasa na kowane lokaci .

Farkon rayuwa da aiki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An haifi Robert Nesta Marley a ranar 6 ga watan Fabrairu shekarar na 1945 a gonar kakan mahaifiyarsa a Nine Mile, Saint Ann Parish, Jamaica, zuwa Norval Sinclair Marley da Cedella Malcolm . Norval Marley ya fito ne daga Crowborough, East Sussex a Ingila, sannan mazaunin Clarendon Parish, wanda dangin sa suka ce asalin su yahudawan Siriya ne su ma. [2] Norval ya yi iƙirarin cewa ya kasance kyaftin a Royal Marines ; a lokacin aurensa da Cedella Malcolm, wani ɗan Afro-Jamaica a lokacin yana ɗan shekara 18, an dauke shi aiki a matsayin mai kula da shukar. Cikakken sunan Bob Marley shine Robert Nesta Marley, kodayake wasu kafofin sun sanya sunan haihuwarsa a matsayin Nesta Robert Marley, tare da labarin cewa lokacin da Marley ke yarinya karama wani jami'in fasfo din Jamaica ya sauya sunayensa na farko da na tsakiya saboda Nesta ya yi kama da sunan yarinya. Norval ya ba da tallafin kuɗi don matarsa da ɗansa amma ba safai yake ganinsu ba kamar yadda baya yawan zuwa. Bob Marley ya halarci makarantar firamare ta Stepney da kuma karamar makarantar sakandare wacce ke hidiman yankin da ake kamawa na Saint Ann A shekarar na 1955, lokacin da Bob Marley ke da shekaru 10, mahaifinsa ya mutu sakamakon bugun zuciya yana da shekara 70. Mahaifiyar Marley daga baya ta auri Edward Booker, wani ma'aikacin gwamnati daga Amurka, yana ba Marley 'yan uwan biyu: Richard da Anthony.

Bob Marley da Neville Livingston (daga baya aka sani da Bunny Wailer ) sun kasance abokai yara a Nine Mile. Sun fara yin waƙa tare yayin da suke Stepney Primary da Junior High School. Marley ya bar Mil Mili tara tare da mahaifiyarsa lokacin da yake 12 kuma suka koma Trenchtown, Kingston. Ita da Thadeus Livingston (mahaifin Bunny Wailer) suna da 'ya mace tare wanda suka sa mata suna Claudette Pearl, wacce kanwa ce ga Bob da Bunny duka. Yanzu da Marley da Livingston suke zaune a cikin gida ɗaya a Trenchtown, bincikensu na kide-kide ya zurfafa don haɗa da R&B na baya-bayan nan daga gidajen rediyo na Amurka wanda watsa shirye-shiryensu suka isa Jamaica, da sabon kiɗan ska. Matsayin zuwa Trenchtown ya kasance mai wadatar gaske, kuma Marley ba da daɗewa ba ya sami kansa cikin ƙungiyar murya tare da Bunny Wailer, Peter Tosh, Beverley Kelso da Junior Braithwaite . Joe Higgs, wanda ya kasance wani ɓangare na nasarar rawar murya Higgs da Wilson, suna zaune a ranar 3 ta St., kuma tsohuwar mai suna Junior Braithwaite ta tashi tare da abokin wasan sa Roy Wilson. Higgs da Wilson za su sake yin atisaye a bayan gidajen tsakanin titin 2 da na 3, kuma ba da daɗewa ba, Marley (da ke zaune yanzu a kan 2nd St.), Junior Braithwaite da sauran sun taru a kusa da wannan nasarar da suka samu. Marley da sauran ba su buga kowane kayan kida ba a wannan lokacin, kuma sun fi sha'awar zama kungiyar hadin kai ta murya. Higgs ya yi farin cikin taimaka musu wajen haɓaka jituwarsu, kodayake mafi mahimmanci, ya fara koya wa Marley yadda ake kaɗa guitar - ta haka ne zai samar da gado wanda daga baya zai ba Bob Marley damar gina wasu waƙoƙin reggae mafi girma a tarihin tarihin salo

Ayyukan waƙa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A watan Fabrairun shekara ta 1962, Marley ya yi rikodin waƙoƙi huɗu, " Ba Alƙali Ba ", "Kofi Oneaya Na Kofi", "Har Yanzu Kuna Loveauna Na?" da "Terror", a Federal Studios don mai samar da kiɗa na cikin gida Leslie Kong . Uku daga cikin waƙoƙin an sake su ne a kan Beverley tare da "Kofi ɗaya na Kofi" wanda aka sake su a ƙarƙashin sunan ɓoye Bobby Martell.

A cikin shekarar ta 1963, Bob Marley, Bunny Wailer, Peter Tosh, Junior Braithwaite, Beverley Kelso, da Cherry Smith an kira su Matasa. Daga baya suka canza sunan zuwa Wailing Rudeboys, sannan suka koma Wailing Wailers, a wanna lokacin ne furodusa mai rikodin Coxsone Dodd ne ya gano su, daga karshe kuma suka koma Wailers. Singleaurarsu ɗaya " Simmer Down " don alamar Coxsone ta zama ɗan ƙasar Jamaica na Februaryaya a cikin watan Fabrairu shekarar 1964 suna siyar da kimanin kwafi 70,000. Wailers, yanzu suna yin rikodin Studio One a kai a kai, sun sami kansu suna aiki tare da fitattun mawaƙa na Jamaica kamar Ernest Ranglin (mai tsara "It Hurts To Be Alone"), [3] masanin keyboard Jackie Mittoo da saxophonist Roland Alphonso. Zuwa shekarar 1966, Braithwaite, Kelso, da Smith sun bar Wailers, sun bar manyan ukun Bob Marley, Bunny Wailer, da Peter Tosh.

A cikin shekarar 1966, Marley ya auri Rita Anderson, kuma ya koma kusa da gidan mahaifiyarsa a Wilmington, Delaware, a cikin Amurka na wani ɗan gajeren lokaci, a lokacin da ya yi aiki a matsayin mai ba da taimako na dakin gwaje-gwaje na DuPont kuma a layin taron a wani gidan Chrysler da ke kusa da Newark, karkashin laƙabi da Donald Marley.

Kodayake Marley ya tashi a matsayin Katolika, Marley ya sami sha'awar imani na Rastafari a cikin 1960s, lokacin da yake nesa da tasirin mahaifiyarsa. Bayan dawowarsa Jamaica, Marley bisa tsari ya canza zuwa Rastafari kuma ya fara yin katako .

Bayan rashin jituwa ta kuɗi da Dodd, Marley da ƙungiyarsa suka haɗa kai tare da Lee "Scratch" Perry da rukunin studio, Upsetters . Kodayake ƙawancen bai wuce shekara guda ba, sun yi rikodin abin da mutane da yawa ke ɗauka mafi kyawun aikin Wailers. Marley da Perry sun rarrabu bayan takaddama game da sanya haƙƙin rakodi, amma za su ci gaba da aiki tare.

A shekarar 1969 ya kawo wani canji ga mashahurin kiɗan Jamaica wanda ƙwanƙwasa ya ragu har ma da ƙari. Sabuwar kidan ya kasance sannu a hankali, kwari, alamar amo wanda aka fara ji a waƙar The Maytals "Do the Reggay ." Marley ta tunkari furodusa Leslie Kong, wanda aka ɗauka ɗayan manyan masu haɓaka sautin reggae. Don rikodin, Kong ya haɗu da Wailers tare da mawaƙan sautuka da ake kira Beverley's All-Stars, wanda ya ƙunshi mawaƙa Lloyd Parks da Jackie Jackson, ɗan wasan kidan Paul Douglas, 'yan wasan madannin Gladstone Anderson da Winston Wright, da kuma guitar guitar Rad Bryan, Lynn Taitt, da Hux Brown. Kamar yadda David Moskowitz ya rubuta, "Waƙoƙin da aka ɗauka a cikin wannan zaman sun kwatanta ƙoƙarin farko na Wailers a cikin sabon salon reggae. Kahon ska da waƙoƙin saxophone na waƙoƙin da suka gabata sun tafi, tare da hutu da kayan aiki yanzu ana amfani da guitar guitar. " Za a sake waƙoƙin da aka yi rikodin azaman kundin album na Mafi Kyawun Wan Wailers, gami da waƙoƙin "Soul Shakedown Party," "Dakatar da Wannan Jirgin," "Tsanaki," "Ku Faɗa Kan Dutse," "Ba da Daɗewa Ba Ku Zo," "Can ' t Ka Gani, "" Soaukan Rai, "" Yi Murna, "" Baya Baya, "Da" Yi Sau Biyu ".

Exterior of Bob Marley's apartment building in London.
Gidan Bob Marley a cikin 1972 a 34 Ridgmount Gardens, Bloomsbury, London

Tsakanin shekarar 1968 da shekarar 1972, Bob da Rita Marley, Peter Tosh da Bunny Wailer sun sake yanke wasu tsofaffin waƙoƙi tare da JAD Records a Kingston da London a ƙoƙarin kasuwancin sautin Wailers. Bunny daga baya ya tabbatar da cewa waɗannan waƙoƙin "bai kamata a sake su ba a cikin faifai ba ... kawai demos ne don kamfanonin rakodi su saurara". A cikin shekarar1968, Bob da Rita sun ziyarci marubucin waƙa Jimmy Norman a gidansa da ke Bronx. Norman ya rubuta kalmomin da aka tsawaita don Kai Winding 's "Time Is on My Side" (wanda Rolling Stones ya rufe) kuma ya kuma rubuta wa Johnny Nash da Jimi Hendrix. Zama na jam na kwana uku tare da Norman da wasu, gami da marubucin marubucin Norman Al Pyfrom, ya haifar da faifai na minti 24 na Marley yana yin nasa da yawa da kuma na Norman-Pyfrom. Wannan tef din, a cewar mai kula da tarihin Reggae Roger Steffens, ba safai ake samun hakan ba saboda tasirin shi ya mamaye shi maimakon na reggae, a wani bangare na kokarin karya Marley cikin jadawalin Amurka. A cewar wata kasida a The New York Times, Marley ta yi gwaji a kan tef din da sautuka daban-daban, ta hanyar daukar salon doo-wop a kan "Ku Kasance Tare Da Ni" da "salon wakar sannu a hankali na masu fasahar shekarar 1960" a kan "Splish for My Splash". Mai zane-zane har yanzu bai samu damar kafa kansa ba a wajen ƙasar Jamaica, Marley ya zauna a cikin Ridgmount Gardens, Bloomsbury, a lokacin shekarar 1972.

1972–1974: Matsar zuwa rikodin din Tsibiri[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin shekarar 1972, Bob Marley ya sanya hannu tare da CBS Records a London kuma ya fara rangadin Burtaniya tare da mawaƙin rai Johnny Nash . Yayinda suke Landan, Wailers sun nemi manajan hanyarsu Brent Clarke da ya gabatar da su ga Chris Blackwell, wanda ya ba da lasisin wasu abubuwan da Coxsone ya fitar don rikodin Island Records . Wailers sun yi niyyar tattauna batun masarauta da ke tattare da waɗannan sakewar; maimakon haka, taron ya haifar da tayin ci gaban £ 4,000 don yin rikodin kundi. Tun Jimmy Cliff, babban tauraron reggae na tsibiri, kwanan nan ya bar lakabin, Blackwell ya kasance don maye gurbinsa. A cikin Marley, Blackwell ya fahimci abubuwan da ake buƙata don tarkon masu sauraron dutsen: “Ina ma'amala da kiɗan dutsen, wanda da gaske waƙar tawaye ne. Na ji hakan zai iya zama silar fasa kidan Jamaica. Amma kuna buƙatar wanda zai iya zama wannan hoton. Lokacin da Bob ya shiga ciki ainihin hoton ne. ” Wailers sun dawo Jamaica don yin rikodi a Harry J's a Kingston, wanda ya haifar da kundin Catch a Fire .

Primarily recorded on an eight-track, Catch a Fire marked the first time a reggae band had access to a state-of-the-art studio and were accorded the same care as their rock 'n' roll peers. Blackwell desired to create "more of a drifting, hypnotic-type feel than a reggae rhythm", and restructured Marley's mixes and arrangements. Marley travelled to London to supervise Blackwell's overdubbing of the album which included tempering the mix from the bass-heavy sound of Jamaican music and omitting two tracks.

During this period, Blackwell gifted his Kingston residence and company headquarters at 56 Hope Road (then known as Island House) to Marley. Housing Tuff Gong Studios, the property became not only Marley's office but also his home.

An shirya Masu Wailers ɗin za su buɗe wasanni 17 a Amurka don Sly da Dutsen Iyali . Bayan wasanni hudu, an kori ƙungiyar saboda sun fi shahara fiye da ayyukan da suke buɗewa. Wailers ya watse a cikin 1974, tare da kowane ɗayan manyan membobin uku suna neman aikin solo.

1974–1976: Canje-canje na layi da harbi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A crowd of people standing in water and listening to a band perform on stage
Bob Marley & da Wailers suna zaune a Crystal Palace Bowl a kudu maso gabashin London, yayin Tashin Tashin hankali

Despite the break-up, Marley continued recording as "Bob Marley & The Wailers". His new backing band included brothers Carlton and Aston "Family Man" Barrett on drums and bass respectively, Junior Marvin and Al Anderson on lead guitar, Tyrone Downie and Earl "Wya" Lindo on keyboards, and Alvin "Seeco" Patterson on percussion. The "I Threes", consisting of Judy Mowatt, Marcia Griffiths, and Marley's wife, Rita, provided backing vocals. In 1975, Marley had his international breakthrough with his first hit outside Jamaica, with a live version of "No Woman, No Cry", from the Live! album. This was followed by his breakthrough album in the United States, Rastaman Vibration (1976), which reached the Top 50 of the Billboard Soul Charts.

A ranar 3 ga watan Disambar shekarar 1976, kwana biyu kafin " Murmushi Jamaica ", wani baje kolin kyauta da Firayim Ministan Jamaica Michael Manley ya shirya a kokarin sasanta tashin hankali tsakanin kungiyoyin siyasa biyu masu fada, Marley, matarsa, da manajansa Don Taylor sun ji rauni a harin ta wasu 'yan bindiga da ba a san su ba a cikin gidan Marley. Matar Taylor da matar Marley sun sami munanan raunuka amma daga baya suka murmure. Bob Marley ya sami ƙananan raunuka a kirji da hannu. Yunkurin kashe shi ana tunanin yana da nasaba da siyasa, yayin da mutane da yawa ke ganin shagalin da gaske taron nuna goyon baya ne ga Manley. Ko ta yaya, waƙar ta ci gaba, kuma Marley da ya ji rauni ya yi kamar yadda aka tsara, kwana biyu bayan yunƙurin. Lokacin da aka tambaye shi dalili, Marley ta amsa, “Mutanen da ke ƙoƙari su sa duniya ta tabarbare ba sa yin hutu. Ta yaya zan iya? "[ana buƙatar hujja] Membobin kungiyar Zap Pow sun taka rawa a matsayin kungiyar ajiyar Bob Marley a gaban taron bikin na Dubu tamanin 80,000 yayin da mambobin The Wailers har yanzu suka bata ko kuma suna buya. [4]

1976–1979: Komawa zuwa Ingila[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bob Nesta Marley ya bar Jamaica a ƙarshen 1976, kuma bayan tsawon watanni "murmurewa da rubutu" baƙunci a wurin Chris Blackwell's Compass Point Studios a Nassau, Bahamas, ya isa Ingila, inda ya yi shekaru biyu a cikin ƙaura.

Yayin da yake Ingila, ya yi rikodin kundi na Fitowa da Kaya . Fitowa ya kasance a cikin kundin kundin kundin tarihin Burtaniya tsawon makonni 56 a jere. Ya haɗa da UKan wasa guda huɗu na Burtaniya: "Fitowa", "Jiran a ɓoye", "Jamming", da "Loveauna " aya " (wanda ke maimaita muryar Curtis Mayfield, " Mutane Sun Shirya "). A lokacin da yake Landan, an kama shi kuma an yanke masa hukunci kan mallakar ƙananan wiwi . A cikin shekarar 1978, Marley ya koma Jamaica kuma ya yi wani taron kide-kide na siyasa, Loveaya daga cikin Oneaunar Zaman Lafiya, a sake ƙoƙarin kwantar da hankulan ɓangarorin da ke faɗa. Kusa da kammala aikin, bisa bukatar Marley, Michael Manley (shugaban Jam’iyyar Jama’iyya mai mulki a wancan lokacin ) da abokin hamayyarsa na siyasa Edward Seaga (shugaban Jam’iyyar Labour da ke adawa da shi ) sun hade juna a kan mataki tare da musafaha.

A karkashin sunan Bob Marley da Wailers albums 11 aka sake su, kundaye masu rai huɗu da kuma kundi-studio bakwai. Sabbin sun hada da Babila ta Bus, kundin waka sau biyu tare da waƙoƙi 13, an sake shi a cikin shekarar 1978 kuma ya sami yabo mai mahimmanci. Wannan kundin, kuma musamman waƙar ƙarshe "Jamming" tare da masu sauraro cikin fushi sun ɗauki ƙarfin Marley na wasan kwaikwayon kai tsaye.

"Marley wasn't singing about how peace could come easily to the World but rather how hell on Earth comes too easily too many. His songs were his memories; he had lived with the wretched, he had seen the downpressers and those whom they pressed down."

 – Mikal Gilmore, Rolling Stone[5]:61

1979–1981: Shekarun baya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tsira, raini ne mai cike da zargi da siyasa, an sake shi a cikin shekarar 1979. Waƙoƙi irin su "Zimbabwe", " Afirka gama ɗaya ", "Ku farka ka rayu", da kuma "Tsira" sun nuna goyon bayan Marley ga gwagwarmayar 'yan Afirka. Bayyanar sa a bikin Amandla a Boston a watan Yulin shekarar 1979 ya nuna tsananin adawarsa ga mulkin wariyar launin fata na Afirka ta Kudu, wanda ya riga ya nuna a cikin wakarsa ta " War " a shekara ta 1976. A farkon shekarar 1980, an gayyace shi ya yi bikin a ranar 17 ga watan Afrilu na Ranar 'Yancin Zimbabwe.

Tashin hankali a shekarar (1980) shi ne faifan studio na ƙarshe na Bob Marley, kuma yana ɗaya daga cikin shirye-shiryensa na addini; ya hada da "Waƙar fansa" da " Madawwami vingaunar Jah ". Arangama, wanda aka sake shi bayan shekara ta 1983, ya ƙunshi abubuwan da ba a sake su ba a cikin rayuwar Marley, gami da abin da ya faru na " Buffalo Soldier " da kuma sababbin cakuda marassa aure a da ana samunsu kawai a Jamaica.

Rashin lafiya da mutuwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bob Marley singing and playing guitar at a concert in Zurich, Switzerland in 1980.
Marley a cikin shagali a 1980, Zürich, Switzerland

A watan Yulin shekarar alib 1977, Marley ya kamu da wani irin mummunan ƙwayar melanoma a ƙarƙashin ƙusar ƙafa. Akasin labarin alƙarya, wannan cutar ba ta haifar da rauni ba yayin wasan ƙwallon ƙafa a wannan shekarar amma a maimakon haka alama ce ta kansar da ta riga ta kasance. Dole ne ya ga likitoci biyu kafin a yi gwajin, wanda ya tabbatar da aclan lentiginous melanoma . Ba kamar sauran melanomas ba, galibi akan fatar da ake yiwa rana, aclan lentiginous melanoma na faruwa a wuraren da ke da saukin kewarsu, kamar tafin ƙafa, ko ƙarƙashin ƙusoshin ƙafa. Kodayake shine mafi yawan cutar melanoma a cikin mutanen da ke da fata mai duhu, amma ba a san shi da yawa ba, kuma ba a ambata shi a cikin shahararren littafin likita na lokacin ba.

Marley ya ƙi shawarar likitocinsa na yanke yatsan ƙafarsa (wanda hakan zai iya hana shi yin aikinsa), yana mai ambaton imaninsa na addini, kuma a maimakon haka, an cire ƙusa da gadon ƙusa kuma an ɗauke dutsen fata daga cinyarsa don rufe yankin. Duk da rashin lafiyarsa, ya ci gaba da rangadi kuma yana kan tsara jadawalin rangadin duniya na 1980.

Fitowa daga album din an sake shi a watan Mayu shekara ta 1980. Bandungiyar ta kammala wata babbar yawon shakatawa a Turai, inda ta taka rawa mafi girma ga mutane dubu Dari 100,000 a Milan, Italiya. Bayan yawon shakatawa Marley ya tafi Amurka, inda ya yi wasanni biyu a Madison Square Garden a cikin New York City a matsayin wani ɓangare na Tashin Tashin hankali . Ya fadi yayin da yake tsere a Central Park kuma an kai shi asibiti, inda aka gano cewa ciwon kansa ya bazu zuwa kwakwalwarsa, huhunsa, da hanta.

Marley wasan karshe ya gudana bayan kwana biyu a gidan wasan kwaikwayo na Stanley (yanzu Benedum Center For The Performing Arts ) a Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, a ranar 23 ga watan Satumba 1980.[ana buƙatar hujja] Hoton da aka sani kawai daga wasan kwaikwayon an haɗa shi a cikin fim ɗin Kevin Macdonald na 2012 Marley .

Jim kaɗan bayan haka, lafiyar Marley ta tabarbare saboda ciwon kansa ya bazu cikin jikinsa . An soke sauran rangadin kuma Marley ta nemi magani a asibitin Josef Issels da ke Bavaria, Jamus, inda ya yi amfani da wani magani na kansa wanda ake kira magani na Issels wani ɓangare bisa guje wa wasu abinci, abubuwan sha, da sauran abubuwa. Bayan watanni takwas na rashin nasarar magance cutar kansa, Marley ya hau jirgi zuwa gidansa a Jamaica. Yayin tafiyar Marley mahimman ayyuka sun tabarbare. Bayan saukarsa a Miami, Florida, an dauke shi zuwa Cedars na asibitin Lebanon (daga baya Jami'ar Miami Asibitin ) don kula da lafiya kai tsaye, inda ya mutu a ranar 11 ga watan Mayu shekarar 1981, yana da shekara 36, saboda yaduwar cutar melanoma a huhunsa da kwakwalwa. Maganarsa ta ƙarshe ga ɗansa Ziggy ita ce "Kudi ba zai iya sayen rai ba."

An yi wa Marley jana'izar ƙasa a Jamaica a ranar 21 ga watan Mayu shekarar 1981, wanda ya haɗu da abubuwa na Orthodox da al'adar Rastafari. An binne shi a cikin ɗakin sujada kusa da mahaifarsa tare da guitar.

A ranar 21 ga watan Mayu na shekarar 1981, firaministan kasar Jamaica Edward Seaga tsĩrar da karshe jana'izar eulogy ga Marley, ya ce:

Wasiya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kyauta da girmamawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ayyukan Marley a Madame Tussauds, London
  • 1976: Rolling Stone Band na Shekara
  • Yunin 1978: An ba da Lambar Zaman Lafiya ta Duniya ta Uku daga Majalisar Dinkin Duniya. :5
  • Fabrairu 1981: An ba da Kyautar Kyautar Jamaica, sannan girmamawa ta uku mafi girma ta ƙasar.
  • Maris 1994: An Shiga cikin Dutsen da Roll Hall na Shahara .
  • 1999: Kundin karni na Fitowa daga Mujallar Lokaci .
  • Fabrairu 2001: Fitaccen tauraro a Hollywood Walk of Fame .
  • Fabrairu 2001: Kyautar Grammy Life Achievement Award .
  • 2004: Rolling Stone ya sanya shi A'a. 11 a jerin su na 100 Mafi Girma Artists na Duk Lokaci.
  • 2004: Daga cikin waɗanda aka fara ba da izinin shiga zauren Kiɗa na UKasar Burtaniya
  • "Loveauna Daya" mai suna waka ta karni ta BBC .
  • An zabe shi a matsayin ɗayan manyan mawaƙan waka a kowane lokaci ta hanyar zaɓen BBC.
  • 2006: An bayyana allon shuɗi a gidansa na farko a Burtaniya a Ridgmount Gardens, London, wanda Nubian Jak Community Trust ta ba shi kuma Ofishin Kasashen waje da na Commonwealth ya tallafa masa.
  • 2010: Kama Wuta da aka shigar a cikin Grammy Hall of Fame (Reggae Album).

Sauran haraji[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Marley mutum-mutumi a Kingston

An ƙaddamar da mutum-mutumi, kusa da filin wasa na ƙasa a Arthur Wint Drive a Kingston don tunawa da shi. A cikin shekarar 2006, Ma'aikatar Ilimi ta Birnin New York sun hada-baki da wani bangare na hanyar Avenue daga Remsen Avenue zuwa East 98th Street a cikin East Flatbush na Brooklyn a matsayin "Bob Marley Boulevard". A cikin shekarar 2008, an ƙaddamar da mutum-mutumin Bob Marley a Banatski Sokolac, Serbia.

Bangaren kasa da kasa, sakon Bob Marley har ilayau yana ci gaba da bayyana a tsakanin al'ummomi daban-daban na asali. Misali, mutanen Aboriginal na Ostiraliya suna ci gaba da cinna wata wuta mai tsarki don girmama shi a cikin Victoria Park na Sydney, yayin da membobin Asalin Amurka Hopi da kabilun Havasupai suke girmama aikinsa. :5 Hakanan akwai kyaututtuka da yawa ga Bob Marley a duk faɗin Indiya, gami da gidajen cin abinci, otal-otal, da bukukuwan al'adu.

Bob Marley ya samo asali ne zuwa wata alama ta duniya, wacce aka siyar da ita har abada ta hanyar kafofin watsa labarai da yawa. Dangane da wannan ne, marubucin Dave Thompson a cikin littafinsa Reggae da Music na Caribbean, ya koka da abin da ya gani na zama sassaucin kasuwanci na Marley wanda ya fi ƙarfin mayaƙa, yana mai cewa:

Yawancin gyare-gyare na fim sun samo asali kuma. Misali, dogon shirin da aka gabatar game da rayuwarsa, Rebel Music, ya sami kyaututtuka daban-daban a Grammys . Tare da gudummawa daga Rita, The Wailers, da kuma masoyan Marley da yara, shi ma yana ba da labarin sosai a cikin nasa kalmomin. A watan Fabrairun shekarar 2008, darekta Martin Scorsese ya sanar da aniyarsa ta shirya fim din Marley. An saita fim ɗin a ranar 6 ga watan Fabrairu shekarar 2010, a kan abin da zai kasance ranar haihuwar Marley ta 65. Koyaya, Scorsese ya daina aiki saboda matsalolin tsarawa. Jonathan Demme ne ya maye gurbinsa, wanda ya daina aiki saboda bambancin kirkira tare da furodusa Steve Bing a lokacin farkon gyara. Kevin Macdonald ya maye gurbin Demme kuma an sake fim din, Marley a ranar 20 Afrilu 2012 . A shekara ta 2011, tsohuwar budurwa kuma mai shirya fim Esther Anderson, tare da Gian Godoy, sun yi shirin fim din Bob Marley: The Making of a Legend, wanda aka fara a Edinburgh International Film Festival .

A watan Oktoban shekarar 2015, marubucin dan Jamaica Marlon James ' A Brief History of Bakwai Kashe-kashe, wani kirkirarren labari ne na yunƙurin kisan Marley, ya sami lambar yabo ta Man Booker ta 2015 a wani bikin da aka yi a Landan.

A watan Fabrairun shekarar 2020, mawaki ya tashi tsaye !, marubuci Lee Hall ne ya sanar da labarin Bob Marley da darakta Dominic Cooke, tare da Arinzé Kene a matsayin Bob Marley. Za a buɗe shi a gidan wasan kwaikwayo na Lyric da ke Landan a cikin watan Oktoba shekarar 2021, bayan da aka ɗage daga ainihin farkon watan Fabrairu saboda annobar COVID-19 .

Rayuwar mutum[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Addini[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bob Marley ya kasance memba na wasu shekaru na kungiyar Rastafari, wanda al'adunsa suka kasance muhimmiyar mahimmanci na ci gaban reggae. Ya zama mai himma wajen nuna goyon baya ga Rastafari, tare da fitar da kide-kide daga yankunan da jama'a ke fama da talauci a Jamaica da zuwa fagen wakokin duniya. Ya taɓa ba da amsa mai zuwa, wanda yake na al'ada, ga tambayar da aka yi masa yayin wata hira da aka yi rikodin:   Akbishop Abuna Yesehaq ya yi wa Bob Marley baftisma a cikin Cocin Orthodox na Habasha, ya ba shi suna Berhane Selassie, a ranar 4 ga Watan Nuwamba shekara ta 1980, jim kaɗan kafin mutuwarsa.

Iyali[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bob Marley ya auri Alpharita Constantia "Rita" Anderson a Kingston, Jamaica, a ranar 10 ga Watan Fabrairu shekarar 1966. Marley yana da 'ya'ya da yawa: guda huɗu tare da matarsa Rita, biyu waɗanda aka karɓa daga dangantakar da ta gabata da Rita, kuma wasu da yawa tare da mata daban-daban. Tashar yanar gizon Bob Marley ta yarda da yara 11.

Wadanda aka lissafa a shafin hukuma sune:

  1. Sharon, an haife shi ranar 23 ga watan Nuwamba shekarar 1964, 'yar Rita daga dangantakar da ta gabata amma sai Marley ya karɓa bayan aurensa da Rita
  2. Cedella, an haife ta 23 ga Agusta 1967, ga Rita
  3. David "Ziggy", an haife shi 17 ga Oktoba 1968, ga Rita
  4. Stephen, an haife shi a 20 Afrilu 1972, ga Rita
  5. Robert "Robbie", an haife shi 16 Mayu 1972, ga Pat Williams
  6. Rohan, an haife shi 19 Mayu 1972, ga Janet Hunt
  7. Karen, an haife ta 1973 zuwa Janet Bowen
  8. Stephanie, an haife shi 17 ga watan Agusta 1974; a cewar Cedella Booker ita 'yar Rita ce kuma wani mutum ne da ake kira Ital wanda Rita ta yi tarayya da shi; duk da haka, an yarda da ita a matsayin 'yar Bob
  9. Julian, an haife ta 4 Yuni 1975, zuwa Lucy Pounder
  10. Ky-Mani, an haife shi 26 Fabrairu 1976, ga Anita Belnavis
  11. Damian, an haife shi 21 ga Yuli 1978, zuwa Cindy Breakspeare

Sauran rukunin yanar gizon sun lura da ƙarin mutanen da ke da'awar cewa su 'yan uwa ne, kamar yadda aka gani a ƙasa:

  • An haifi Makeda a ranar 30 ga watan Mayu shekarar 1981, ga Yvette Crichton, bayan mutuwar Marley. Littafin Meredith Dixon ya lissafa ta a matsayin ɗiyar Marley, amma ba a lasafta ta haka a cikin gidan yanar gizon Bob Marley ba.
  • Shafukan yanar gizo daban-daban, misali, kuma sun lissafa Imani Carole, an haife shi ranar 22 ga watan Mayu shekarar 1963 ga Cheryl Murray; amma ba ta bayyana a shafin yanar gizon Bob Marley ba.

Marley kuma tana da jikoki uku sanannu, mawaƙa Tsallake Marley, ɗan wasan ƙwallon ƙafa ta Amurka Nico Marley da ƙirar Selah Marley .

Kungiyar kwallon kafa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ra'ayoyin mutum[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Pan-Afirka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bob Marley ɗan asalin Afirka ne kuma ya yi imani da haɗin kan mutanen Afirka a duk duniya. Abubuwan da ya yi imani da su sun samo asali ne daga imaninsa na Rastafari. Marcus Garvey ne ya yi masa kwarin gwiwa sosai, kuma yana da maganganu masu adawa da mulkin mallaka da kuma nuna wariyar launin fata a Afirka a cikin yawancin waƙoƙinsa, irin su " Zimbabwe ", "Fitowa", "Tsira", "Redmanption Blackman", da " Waƙar Fansa ". "Waƙar Redemption" ta sami tasiri daga jawabin da Marcus Garvey ya bayar a Nova Scotia, shekarar 1937. Marley ta tabbatar da cewa 'yancin kan kasashen Afirka daga mamayar Turai nasara ce ga duk wadanda ke cikin kasashen Afirka. A cikin waƙar "Afirka gama ɗaya", ya rera waƙoƙi ne na son dukkan al'ummomin ƙasashen Afirka da su taru su yaƙi "Babila" makamancin haka, a cikin wakar "Zimbabwe", ya nuna 'yanci ga dukkan nahiyar Afirka, kuma yana kira ga hadin kai tsakanin dukkan' yan Afirka, ciki da wajen Afirka.

Cannabis[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bob Marley ta dauki wiwi a matsayin ciyawar warkarwa, "sacrament", da kuma "taimako ga tunani"; ya goyi bayan halatta maganin. Ya yi tunanin cewa amfani da wiwi ya zama sananne a cikin Littafi Mai-Tsarki, karanta wurare kamar Zabura 104: 14 kamar nuna yarda da amfani da shi. Marley ya fara amfani da wiwi lokacin da ya koma addinin Rastafari daga Katolika a shekarar 1966. An kama shi a cikin shekara ta 1968 bayan an kama shi da wiwi amma ya ci gaba da shan wiwi bisa ga imaninsa na addini. Game da shan tabar wiwi, ya ce, "Lokacin da kuke shan ganye, ganye ya bayyana kanku gare ku. Duk muguntar da kake yi, ganye ya bayyana kansa, lamirinka, ya nuna kanka a sarari, saboda ganye yana sa ka yin tunani. Ising ne kawai na halitta kuma yana girma kamar bishiya. Marley ya ga amfani da wiwi a matsayin muhimmiyar mahimmanci ga ci gaban addini da alaƙa da Jah, kuma a matsayin wata hanya ta falsafa da zama mai hikima.

Binciken[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Faifan Studio[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Masu Wailing Wailers (1965)
  • 'Yan Tawayen Rai (1970)
  • Juyin Juya Hali (1971)
  • Mafi Kyawun Masu Wailers (1971)
  • Kama Wuta (1973)
  • Burnin ' (1973)
  • Natty Dread (1974)
  • Faɗakarwar Rastaman (1976)
  • Fitowa (1977)
  • Kaya (1978)
  • Tsira (1979)
  • Tashewa (1980)
  • Rikici (1983)

Kundaye kai tsaye[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Kai tsaye! (1975)
  • Babila ta Bus (1978)

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Lokacin kundi
  • Shafin Bob Marley
  • Jerin masu gwagwarmayar zaman lafiya
  • Fabian Marley
  • Desis bobmarleyi - wani nau'in gizo-gizo ne dake cikin ruwa mai suna don girmama Marley

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

 

Majiya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kara karantawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Freed, Kenneth (13 February 1995). "Bob Marley Festival Spreads Some 'Rastaman Vibration' : Anniversary: Jamaica concert marks the 50th birthday of the late reggae icon and poet-musician". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 2 August 2019. Retrieved 1 August 2019.
  2. Cahyaningtyas, Setyo. 2011.
  3. Ranglin Interview with Angus Taylor (11 February 2011).
  4. Walker, Jeff (1980) on the cover of Zap Pow's LP Reggae Rules.
  5. Henke, James (2006). Marley Legend: An Illustrated Life of Bob Marley. Tuff Gong Books. ISBN 0-8118-5036-6.