Dmitry Bortniansky

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Simpleicons Interface user-outline.svg Dmitry Bortniansky
Бортнянский (1788).jpg
Rayuwa
Haihuwa Hlukhiv (en) Fassara, 28 Oktoba 1751
ƙasa Russian Empire (en) Fassara
Mutuwa Saint-Petersburg, 10 Oktoba 1825
Makwanci Tikhvin Cemetery (en) Fassara
Karatu
Makaranta Kyiv-Mohyla Academy (en) Fassara
Harsuna Rashanci
Malamai Baldassare Galuppi (en) Fassara
Ɗalibai
Sana'a
Sana'a mai rubuta kiɗa, conductor (en) Fassara da sopranist (en) Fassara
Employers Catherine II of Russia (en) Fassara  (1779 -  1796)
Paul I of Russia (en) Fassara  (1796 -  1801)
Artistic movement opera (en) Fassara
western classical music (en) Fassara
concerto (en) Fassara
religious music (en) Fassara
Kayan kida piano (en) Fassara
harpsichord (en) Fassara
Imani
Addini Eastern Orthodox Church (en) Fassara

Dmitry Stepanovich Bortniansky [1] [2] ( yaren Russian: Дмитрий Степанович Бортнянский, yaren Ukraine ; madadin fassarar sunayen sune Dmitri Bortnianskii, da Bortnyansky ; 28 Oktoba 1751, a Glukhov [3] [4] [5] - 10 October [ , a St. Petersburg ) [6] dan Rasha ne [7] da kuma Ukrainian mawaki, mawaƙa da madugu wanda ya yi aiki a kotun Catherine Great . Bortniansky ya kasance mai mahimmanci ga tarihin kiɗa na Ukraine da Rasha, tare da al'ummomin biyu suna da'awar shi a matsayin nasu.

Bortniansky, wanda aka kwatanta da Palestrina, [8] an san shi a yau don muhimman gudunmawarsa ga nau'in wasan kwaikwayo na choral. Ya kasance daya daga cikin "Golden Three" na zamaninsa, tare da Artemy Vedel da Maxim Berezovsky. Bortniansky ya kasance sananne sosai a cikin daular Rasha cewa an wakilta adadi a cikin 1862 a cikin abin tunawa na tagulla na Millennium na Rasha a cikin Novgorod Kremlin. Ya tsara nau'ikan kiɗa daban-daban da yawa, gami da waƙoƙin waƙoƙi a cikin Faransanci, Italiyanci, Latin, Jamusanci da Slavonic Church.

Tarihin Rayuwa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

dalibi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An haifi Dmitry Bortniansky a ranar 28 ga watan Oktoba, shekarar alif 1751, a garin Glukhov, [9] Cossack Hetmanate, Daular Russia (Ukraine ta yau). Mahaifinsa shi ne Stefan Skurat (ko Shkurat), ɗan gudun hijira na addini na Lemko-Rusyn Orthodox daga ƙauyen Bartne a yankin Malopolska na Poland. Skurat yayi aiki a matsayin Cossack karkashin Kirill Razumovsky ; An shigar da shi a cikin rajistar Cossack a cikin 1755. Mahaifiyar Dmitry 'yar asalin Cossack ce; Sunanta bayan aurenta na farko shine Marina Dmitrievna Tolstaya, a matsayin gwauruwar wani mai gidan Rasha Tolstoy, wanda ke zaune a Glukhov . Sa’ad da yake ɗan shekara bakwai, ƙwararren gwanin Dmitry a ƙungiyar mawaƙa na cocin ya ba shi damar zuwa babban birnin daular kuma ya rera waƙa tare da mawakan Imperial Chapel a St. Petersburg . Dan'uwan Dmitry Ivan Tolstoy shi ma ya rera waka tare da Imperial Chapel Choir. [10] A can Dmitry ya yi karatun kiɗa da abun ciki a ƙarƙashin darektan ƙungiyar mawaƙa ta Imperial Chapel, masanin Italiyanci Baldassare Galuppi . Lokacin da Galuppi ya tafi Italiya a shekarar alif 1769, ya ɗauki yaron tare da shi. A Italiya, Bortniansky ya sami babban nasara wajen hada operas : Creonte (1776) da Alcide (1778) a Venice, da Quinto Fabio (1779) a Modena. Ya kuma tsara ayyuka masu tsarki a cikin Latin da Jamusanci, duka cappella kuma tare da ƙungiyar makaɗa (ciki har da Ave Maria don muryoyi biyu da makaɗa).

Jagora[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kabarin Bortniansky a Saint-Petersburg

Bortniansky ya koma Kotun Saint-Petersburg Capella a shekara ta 1779 kuma ya bunƙasa da kirkira. Ya hada aƙalla ƙarin operas guda huɗu (duk cikin Faransanci, tare da libretti na Franz-Hermann Lafermière ): Le Faucon (1786), La fête du seigneur (1786), Don Carlos (1786), da Le fils-kishiya ou La moderne Stratonice. (1787). Bortniansky ya rubuta ayyuka masu yawa na kayan aiki a wannan lokacin, ciki har da piano sonatas, piano quintet tare da garaya, da kuma sake zagayowar waƙoƙin Faransanci. Ya kuma hada kiɗan liturgical na Ikilisiyar Orthodox na Gabas, yana haɗa nau'ikan Gabas da Yammacin Turai na kiɗa mai tsarki, wanda ya haɗa da polyphony da ya koya a Italiya; Wasu ayyuka sun kasance polychoral, ta yin amfani da salon da ya fito daga fasahar polychoral na Venetian na Gabrielis .

Bayan wani lokaci, Bortniansky ya kasance mai girma don yin watsi da shi, kuma a cikin 1796 an nada shi Daraktan mawaƙa na Imperial Chapel, darekta na farko daga Daular Rasha. Tare da irin wannan babban kayan aiki a hannun sa, ya samar da ƙididdiga akan ƙididdiga masu yawa, gami da ayyukan addini sama da 100, kade- kade na alfarma (35 don gaurayewar ƙungiyar mawaƙa mai kashi huɗu, 10 don waƙoƙin waƙa biyu), cantatas, da waƙoƙin yabo .

Bortniansky ya mutu a St. An canza gawarsa zuwa gidan sufi na Alexander Nevsky a cikin karni na 20.

Wakokin da bari[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A shekara ta alif 1882, Pyotr Tchaikovsky ya gyara ayyukan liturgic na Bortniansky, wanda aka buga a cikin littattafai goma. Bortniansky ya rubuta wasan operas da wake-wake, amma ayyukan wakokinsa masu tsarki ana yin su a yau. Wannan babban aikin ya kasance tsakiya ba kawai don fahimtar kiɗan Orthodox na ƙarni na 18 ba, amma kuma ya zama abin ƙarfafawa ga ƴan uwansa mawakan Yukren a ƙarni na 19.

Waƙar da ya rubuta a harshen Latin Tantum Ergo daga ƙarshe ya zama sananne a ƙasashen Slavic da Коль славен (Kol slaven), wanda a cikinsa har yanzu ana rera ta a matsayin waƙar coci a yau. Har ila yau waƙar ta shahara tare da masu zaman kansu . Ya yi tafiya zuwa ƙasashe masu jin Turanci kuma an san shi da sunayen Rasha, St. Petersburg ko Wells . A Jamus, an haɗa waƙar tare da rubutu ta Gerhard Tersteegen kuma ya zama sanannen chorale da al'ada na al'ada na bikin soja Großer Zapfenstreich (Grand Tattoo), mafi girman bikin na sojojin Jamus, wanda aka ba shi a matsayin girmamawa ga fitattun mutane. mutane a lokuta na musamman. Kafin juyin juya halin watan Oktoba, a shekara ta alif 1917, waƙar ta Moscow Kremlin carillon kowace rana da tsakar rana.

James Blish, wanda ya ba da labarin jerikan asali na Star Trek, an lura da shi a cikin labari daya, Wanda Allah ya halaka, cewa Bortniansky's Ich bete an die Macht der Liebe shine taken "wanda duk azuzuwan Starfleet Academy suka yi tafiya zuwa kammala karatunsu."

Bortniansky yayi sautin "The Angel Greeted the Gracious One" (waƙar yabo ga Uwar Allah da aka yi amfani da shi a Pascha) a matsayin majami'u uku da yawancin majami'un Orthodox ke amfani da su a lokacin Easter .

Tasiri[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

" Millennium na Rasha " abin tunawa a Veliky Novgorod wanda ke nuna Bortniansky

Ayyukan Bortnyansky sun yi tasiri sosai a kan cigaban kiɗan Ukrainian da na Rasha.

Kusan rabin karni na rayuwar Bortnyansky an hade shi da ilimin kiɗa, tare da mafi mahimmancin matakai na samuwar al'adun kiɗa a Rasha, saboda abin da ya zama mawallafin Rasha a Rasha. [11] A cewar masanin kida na Rasha B. Asafyev, "Bortnyansky ya ci gaba da salon salon da ya dace, wanda ya ci gaba da yin tasiri ga al'ummomi masu zuwa. Wadannan roko na al'ada ba kawai sun isa Mikhail Glinka ba, har ma Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, da Alexander Borodin ". [12]

A lokaci guda, a farkon shekarun 1920, aikin Bortnyansky ya zama batun kulawa na musamman na mawakan Ukrainian. Stanislav Lyudkevych 's labarin "D. Bortnyansky da Contemporary wakar Ukraine" (1925) kira ga Ukrainian mawaƙa don inganta hadisai kafa Bortnyansky, "don nutse zurfi da kuma sosai a cikin babban al'adu taskar mayar da hankali a Bortnyansky ta ayyukan, don nemo kafofin. a cikinsa da ginshikan farfaɗowar mu”.

A al'adance, mawakin kasar Ukraine ya jaddada yin amfani da intonations na Ukrainian mutãne songs a choral aiki, tun lokacin da mawaki ta farko m ra'ayi da aka samu a Ukraine, Ukrainians kuma mafi yawan abokan Bortnyansky a cikin mawaƙa da kuma malaminsa Marko Poltoratsky . Musamman, Lydia Korniy ta lura: [13]

  • Hali don waƙoƙin Ukrainian suna saukowa lyrical na shida V - VII # - I digiri (misali na kide kide da wake-wake: № 13, ƙarshen sashin II, da № 28, ƙarshe)
  • juzu'i na yau da kullun tare da raguwa na huɗu tsakanin digiri na III da VII # a ƙarami,
  • na yau da kullun don waƙoƙin waƙoƙin makoki na makoki tare da haɓaka na biyu tsakanin III da IV # digiri a kanana.

Lyudkevych kuma ya lura da sautukan Ukraine a cikin ayyukan Bortnyansky:

although he adopted the manners of the Italian style and became a reformer of church singing in St. Petersburg, nevertheless, all his works (even with such disgusting to our spirit "fugues") hid so much typically Ukrainian melody that because of it he just now became unpopular Muscovites, and every foreigner from the first time hears in them something unknown to himself, original[14]

An lura da tasirin aikin Bortnyansky a cikin ayyukan mawaƙa na Ukrainian Mykola Lysenko, Kyrylo Stetsenko, M. Verbytsky, Mykola Leontovych, M. Dremlyuga, Levko Revutsky, K. Dominchen, B. Lyatoshynsky, da sauransu.

Ayyuka[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Wasannin Opera[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Creonte (1776 Venice )
  • Alcide (1778 Venice)
  • Quinto Fabio (1779 Modena )
  • Le faucon (1786 Gatchina a cikin Faransanci, tare da libertto na Franz-Hermann Lafermière )
  • La Fête du seigneur [15] (1786 Pavlovsk a Faransanci, tare da libretto na Franz-Hermann Lafermière)
  • Don Carlos (1786 St Petersburg a Faransanci, tare da libertto ta Franz-Hermann Lafermière)
  • Le Fils-Kishiya ou La Moderne Stratonice (1787 Pavlovsk a Faransanci, tare da libretto na Franz-Hermann Lafermière)

Amshi (a cikin Old Church Slavonic)[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Da ispravitsia molitva moja ("Bari Addu'ata Ta Tashi") no. 2.
  • Kjeruvimskije pjesni (Waƙoƙin Cherubic) nos. 1-7
  • Concerto No. 1: Vospoitje Gospodjevi ("Waƙa ga Ubangiji")
  • Concerto No. 6: Slava vo vyshnikh Bogu, y na zemli mir ("Ɗaukaka ga Allah a cikin mafi ɗaukaka, da salama a duniya")
  • Concerto No. 7: Priiditje, vozradujemsja Gospodjevi ("Zo Mu Yi Murna")
  • Concerto No. 9: Sei djen', jego zhe Gospodi, konchinu moju
  • Concerto No. 11: Blagoslovjen Gospod' ("Albarka tā tabbata ga Ubangiji")
  • Concerto No. 15: Priiditje, vospoim, ljudije
  • Concerto No. 18: Blago jest ispovjedatsja ("Yana da kyau a yabi Ubangiji", Zabura 92)
  • Concerto No. 19: Rjechje Gospod' Gospodjevi mojemu ("Ubangiji Ya Ce wa Ubangijina", Zabura 110)
  • Concerto Na 21: Zhyvyi v pomoshshi Vyshnjago ("Mai Zama", Zabura 91)
  • Concerto No. 24: Vozvjedokh ochi moi v gory ("Na Daga Idanuna Zuwa Duwatsu")
  • Concerto No. 27: Glasom moim ko Gospodu vozzvakh ("Da Muryata Na yi kuka ga Ubangiji")
  • Concerto No. 32: Skazhy mi, Gospodi, konchinu moju ("Ubangiji, Ka Sanar Da Ni Ƙarshe")
  • Concerto No. 33: Vskuju priskorbna jesi dusha moja ("Me yasa Ka Raina, Ya Raina?" , Zabura 42:5.

Sautukan Concerto-Symphony[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Concerto-Symphony na Piano, Harp, Violins Biyu, Viola da gamba, Cello da Bassoon a cikin B Flat Major (1790).

Quintet[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Quintet for Piano, Harp, Violin, Viola da gamba and Cello (1787).

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Ritzarev, Marina: Eighteenth-Century Russian Music. London and New York: Routledge, 2016. P. 105.
  2. The Cambridge History of Music
  3. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Music
  4. Ritzarev, Marina: Eighteenth-Century Russian Music. London and New York: Routledge, 2016. P. 105.
  5. History of Russian Church Music, 988-1917. Brill, 1982. P. 94.
  6. "HymnTime". Archived from the original on 2010-02-09. Retrieved 2022-03-16.
  7. Dmitry Stepanovich Bortniansky (The Columbia Encyclopedia)
  8. Rzhevsky, Nicholas: The Cambridge Companion to Modern Russian Culture. Cambridge 1998. P. 239.
  9. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Music
  10. Kovalev, Konstantin: Bortniansky. Moscow 1998. P. 34.
  11. Проблемы «украинизации» творчества и имени композитора Д. С. Бортнянского
  12. Asafiev. Complete collection of works. Vol.1 — М. 1954. — p. 125 [in Russian]
  13. Korniy L. History of Ukrainian music. Vol.2 .Kyiv; Kharkiv, New-York: M. P. Kotz, 1998. — p.244 [in Ukrainian]
  14. Ludkewicz S. (1905)Nationalism іn music In S. Liudkevych. Doslidzhennia, statti, retsenzii, vystupy [S. Lyudkevich. Research, articles, reviews, speeches] (1999): Vol. 1, p.39
  15. (in Russian) "Бортнянский, Дмитрий Степанович". Krugosvet Encyclopedia

Littattafai[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Hanyoyin haɗi na waje[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]