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Dokar Albarkatun Ruwa

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Dokar Albarkatun Ruwa
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Muhimmin darasi ruwa

Dokokin albarkatun ruwa (a wasu hukunce-hukuncen, taƙaitaccen zuwa “dokar ruwa”) fanni ne na dokar da ya shafi mallaka, sarrafawa, da amfani da ruwa a matsayin hanya. Yana da kusanci da dokar dukiya, kuma ya bambanta da dokokin da ke kula da ingancin ruwa.[1]

Ruwan da ke ƙarƙashin tsari[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ruwa yana ko'ina kuma baya mutunta iyakokin siyasa. Dokokin albarkatun ruwa na iya aiki ga kowane yanki na hydrosphere akan abin da za a iya yin da'awar don dacewa ko kula da ruwa don yin wani dalili.[1] Irin waɗannan ruwan sun haɗa da, amma ba'a iyakance ba:

  • Ruwan da ke sama — tafkuna, koguna, tekuna, da dausayi.
  • Ruwan da ke gudana a saman ƙasa gaba ɗaya ruwan da ke malalowa daga ruwan sama, ruwan ambaliya, da dusar ƙanƙara kafin ruwan ya kai ga magudanar ruwa, tafkuna, dausayi, ko kuma tekuna;
  • Ruwan ƙasa musamman ruwan da ke cikin magudanan ruwa.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kundin Hammurabi, wanda ke ƙunshe da ɗaya daga cikin ƙa'idodin doka na farko da suka shafi albarkatun ruwa.

Tarihin dangantakar mutane da ruwa ya kwatanta dumbin hanyoyi daban-daban na sarrafa albarkatun ruwa. "Lipit Ishtar da Ur Nammu duk sun ƙunshi tanadin ruwa, kafin Hammurabi da aƙalla shekaru 250, kuma sun ba da ƙayyadaddun ƙa'idodi na yau da kullun waɗanda aka gina Code Hammurabi a kai. Kundin Hammurabi cikin rubutaccen dokokin da aka rubuta don magance matsalolin ruwa, kuma wannan lambar ta haɗa da sarrafa amfani da ruwa. A lokacin da aka rubuta lambar a Mesopotamiya ta da, wayewar da ke kewaye da ita ta dogara ga kogin Tigris da Furat don tsira. Sakamakon haka, shugabannin sun bukaci samar da tsattsauran tsarin magudanar ruwa da na ban ruwa don biyan bukatunsu na ruwa. Sarki Hammurabi na Babila ne ya ƙirƙiro lambar kimanin shekaru 3,800 da suka wuce. [2]

Wahalolin haƙƙin ruwa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ana samun wahala musamman don dai-daita shi dokokin ruwa, saboda an tsara dokoki musamman don ƙasa. Ruwa na tafi da gidanka, wadatar sa ya bambanta da shekara, yanayi, da wuri, kuma ana iya amfani da shi a lokaci guda ta ƙungiyoyi da yawa. Kamar yadda yake a cikin dokar kadarori, ana iya siffanta haƙƙin ruwa a matsayin “gunkin sanduna” mai ɗauke da ayyuka da yawa, waɗanda za su iya samun matakan ƙa’ida daban-daban. Misali, masu amfani da ruwa suna karkatar da shi daga hanyar da ta dace amma suna dawo da galibi ko duka (misali masana'antar samar da wutar lantarki ), yayin da wasu ke cinye yawancin abin da suke sha (kankara, noma ), wasu kuma suna amfani da ruwa ba tare da karkatar da shi ba kwata-kwata. (misali jirgin ruwa ). Kowane nau'in aiki yana da nasa buƙatun kuma a ka'idar ana iya daidaita shi daban. Akwai rikice-rikice iri-iri da dama da ke iya tasowa: cikakken rashi; karancin ruwa a wani lokaci ko wuri, karkatar da ruwa da ke rage kwararar da ake samu ga wasu, gurbatattun abubuwa ko wasu sauye-sauye (kamar zazzabi ko turbidity) da ke sa ruwa bai dace da amfani da wasu ba, da kuma bukatar kula da “magudanar ruwa a cikin rafi” na ruwa don kare yanayin halitta.

Ɗaya daga cikin ka'idar tarihi, wanda aka gabatar a cikin littafin Karl August Wittfogel na Oriental Despotism: A Comparative Study of Total Power, ya ɗauka cewa yawancin dauloli an tsara su a kusa da wata hukuma ta tsakiya da ke sarrafa yawan jama'a ta hanyar sarrafa ruwa. Irin wannan daular hydraulic/(na'ura mai aiki da karfin ruwa) yana haifar da yuwuwar despotism/ kishiyantar dimokuradiyya, kuma yana aiki a zaman tatsuniya don tsara ƙa'idodin ruwa.

Dokar ruwa ta shafi cece-kuce a wasu sassan duniya inda yawan jama'a ke fuskantar kara gasa kan karancin wadataccen abinci. Takaddama kan koguna, tafkuna da magudanan ruwa na karkashin kasa sun ratsa kan iyakokin kasa. Ko da yake har yanzu ana sarrafa dokar ruwa ta kowane ƙasashe, akwai ƙa'idodin ƙasashen duniya da aka gabatar da su kamar ka'idodin Helsinki kan amfani da ruwan kogunan ƙasa Archived 2006-10-06 at the Wayback Machine da ƙasa da sanarwar Hague kan Tsaron Ruwa a ƙarni na 21 .

Batutuwan da suka daɗe a dokar ruwa sun hada da yiwuwar dumamar yanayi kan yanayin ruwan sama da kuma fitar da iska; samuwa da kuma farashin fasaha na desalination kula da gurbatar yanayi da ci gaban kiwo.

Samfuran doka[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Haƙƙin doka na yin amfani da ƙayyadaddun samar da ruwa da aka sani da haƙƙin ruwa. Akwai manyan samfura guda biyu da ake amfani da su don haƙƙin ruwa. Na farko shine haƙƙin raƙuman ruwa, inda mai mallakar ƙasar da ke kusa yana da haƙƙin ruwa a cikin jiki kusa da shi. Sauran manyan samfurin shine samfurin ƙaddamarwa na baya, ƙungiya ta farko don yin amfani da ruwa yana da haƙƙin farko zuwa gare shi, ko da kuwa ko dukiya tana kusa da tushen ruwa. Tsarin magudanar ruwa gabaɗaya ya fi kowa a wuraren da ruwa ke da yawa, yayin da tsarin keɓancewa ya fi kowa a cikin busasshen yanayi. Kamar yadda dokar albarkatun ruwa ta kasance mai rikitarwa, yankuna da yawa suna da haɗuwa da samfuran biyu.

Dokar ruwa ta ƙasa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Dokokin kasa da kasa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An kare haƙƙin amfani da ruwa don biyan buƙatun ɗan adam don amfanin kai da kuma na gida a ƙarƙashin dokar haƙƙin ɗan adam ta duniya . Lokacin shigar da shi cikin tsarin shari'a na ƙasa, ana bayyana wannan haƙƙin ga sauran haƙƙoƙin ruwa a cikin babban tsarin dokar ruwa. An amince da haƙƙin ɗan adam na ruwa a cikin dokokin ƙasa da ƙasa ta takaddun ƙasa da yawa, gami da yarjejeniyoyin haƙƙin ɗan adam na ƙasa da ƙasa, sanarwa da sauran ƙa'idodi. Bugu da kari, Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ta zartar da wani kuduri da ke bayyana cewa, "kasashe mambobin sun amince da hakkin samar da tsaftataccen ruwan sha da tsaftar muhalli a matsayin hakkin dan Adam da ke da matukar muhimmanci don more rayuwa da dukkan hakkokin bil'adama."

Haƙƙin ɗan adam na ruwa ya dora babban nauyi a kan gwamnatoci don tabbatar da cewa mutane za su iya cin gajiyar "isasshen ruwa, mai aminci, ruwa mai araha, ba tare da nuna bambanci ba." Musamman ma, ana sa ran gwamnatoci za su dauki matakan da suka dace don kaucewa gurbataccen ruwa da kuma tabbatar da cewa babu bambance hanyoyin samun ruwa a tsakanin ‘yan kasa. A yau dukkan jihohin sun amince da wata yarjejeniya ta kare hakkin bil adama a fili ko kuma a fakaice, kuma dukkansu sun rattaba hannu a kan akalla wata sanarwar siyasa da ta amince da wannan hakki.

Kanada[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A karkashin Dokar Tsarin Mulki, na1867, an raba ikon hanyoyin ruwa tsakanin gwamnatocin tarayya da na larduna. Hukuncin gwamnatin tarayya ya samo asali ne daga ikon tafiyar da zirga-zirgar jiragen ruwa da sufurin jiragen ruwa, kamun kifi, da gudanar da yankunan arewa, wanda ya haifar da zartar da:

  • Dokar Kifi,
  • Dokar Kariyar Kewayawa,
  • Dokar Rigakafin Ruwan Ruwa na Arctic, da
  • Dokar Oceans.

Hukuncin lardi ya samo asali ne daga ikon mallakar dukiya da hakkokin jama'a, al'amuran gida da na sirri, da kuma kula da filayen Crown. A Ontario, Quebec da sauran larduna, gadaje na duk ruwa suna cikin Crown, sabanin dokar Turanci . [3] Duk gwamnatocin larduna kuma suna gudanar da ingancin ruwa ta hanyar dokoki kan kariyar muhalli da ruwan sha, kamar Dokar Tsabtace Ruwa a Ontario.

Ostaraliya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Dokar ruwa a ƙasar Ostaraliya ta bambanta da kowace jiha.

Tasmania[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kamfanin Ruwa na Tasmania ya mallaki duk wani kayan aikin samar da ruwan sha da kananan hukumomi ke gudanarwa a baya Wannan manufar ba ta shahara ga duk kansilolin kananan hukumomi ba.

Dokar ruwa a Amurka[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

 A Amurka akwai sarƙaƙƙiyar tsarin dokar ruwa don rarraba haƙƙin ruwa wanda ya bambanta da yanki. Waɗannan surori dabam-dabam sun wanzu saboda dalilai na tarihi da na ƙasa. Dokokin ruwa sun ƙunshi ɗimbin batutuwa ko nau'ikan da aka tsara don samar da tsari don warware takaddama da batutuwan manufofin da suka shafi ruwa:

  • Ruwan jama'a, gami da magudanar ruwa da magudanar ruwa.
  • Sauran ruwan saman—gaba ɗaya ruwan da ke bi ta ƙasar da ba na jama'a ba daga ruwan sama, ruwan ambaliya, da narkewar dusar ƙanƙara kafin waɗannan ruwan su kai ga magudanar ruwa na jama'a.
  • Ruwan cikin ƙasa, wani lokaci ana kiransa ta ƙarƙashin ƙasa, percolating, ko ruwan ƙarƙashin ƙasa.
  • Dokokin jama'a na ruwa, gami da kula da ambaliyar ruwa, ka'idojin muhalli jaha da tarayya, tsarin kula da lafiyar jama'a da kuma tsarin kamun kifi.
  • Abubuwan da ke da alaƙa da duk abubuwan da ke sama akwai hulɗar haƙƙoƙin jama'a da masu zaman kansu a cikin ruwa, wanda ya zana abubuwan da suka shafi fitattun dokokin yanki da ikon sashe na kasuwanci na tarayya.
  • Dokokin aikin ruwa: dokar da ta inganta sosai game da samuwar, aiki, da kuɗin jama'a da ƙungiyoyin jama'a waɗanda ke gudanar da ayyukan jama'a na gida na shawo kan ambaliyar ruwa, sarrafa kewayawa, ban ruwa, da guje wa lalata muhalli.
  • Yarjejeniyar Haƙƙin 'ƴan ƙasar Amirka

Dokar da ke jagorantar waɗannan batutuwa ta fito ne daga duk matakan dokokin ruwa. Wasu sun samo asali ne daga ka'idodin doka na gama-gari waɗanda suka bunƙasa tsawon shekaru aru-aru, kuma waɗanda ke tasowa yayin da yanayin jayayyar da ake gabatarwa kotuna ke canzawa. Misali, tsarin shari'a game da haƙƙin masu mallakar ƙasa don karkatar da ruwan saman ya canza sosai a ƙarnin da ya gabata yayin da halayen jama'a game da ƙasa da ruwa suka samo asali. Wasu sun samo asali ne daga dokar doka ta jiha. Wasu suna samun ne daga asalin tallafin filaye da jama'a ke baiwa Jihohi da kuma takardun asalinsu. Wasu sun samo asali ne daga ka'idojin ruwa na jihohi, tarayya da na kananan hukumomi ta hanyar shiyya, kiwon lafiyar jama'a da sauran ka'idoji. Kabilun Indiyawan da ba na tarayya ba ba su da hakkin ruwa.

Jihohi da yawa a tsakiyar yammacin ƙasar Amurka, kamar Wisconsin, North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, da Kansas, suna amfani da tsarin shari'a idan ana maganar albarkatun ruwa.

Dokar ruwa a Ingila da Wales[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kamfanoni masu zaman kansu sun wajabta buga rahoto Duk shekara mai girman gaske wanda ke samar da daidaitattun adadin bayanai na kasa baki daya kan farashi, kudaden shiga, riba, da matakan aiki. Wata hukuma mai zaman kanta ta bangaren masana'antar ruwa tana nazarin sakamakon kamfanoni masu zaman kansu kuma ta tsara matakin da aka ba da izini wanda ba shi da tushe kuma tushen ƙarfafawa. Ba da hannun jari a cikin Burtaniya an gudanar da shi ne ta hanyar saka hannun jari na tarihi akan wani yanki mai ɗimbin kadara.

Dokar ruwa a cikin Tarayyar Turai[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ga ƙasashe a cikin Tarayyar Turai, umarnin da suka shafi ruwa suna da muhimmanci domin a sarrafa albarkatun ruwa da ƙa'idodin muhalli da ingancin ruwa. Muhimman umarni sun haɗa da Dokar Sharar Ruwa ta Birane a shekarata 1992 (yana buƙatar mafi yawan garuruwa da birane su kula da ruwan shararsu zuwa ƙayyadaddun ƙa'idodi), da Dokar Tsarin Ruwa ta 2000/60/EC, wanda ke buƙatar tsare-tsaren albarkatun ruwa bisa raƙuman ruwa, gami da jama'a Shiga bisa ka'idodin Yarjejeniyar Aarhus. Dubi Lokacin Ruwa - mahallin duniya Archived 2005-04-08 at the Wayback Machine, Sashe na 2.

Sauran abubuwa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Dokar Tsabtace Ruwa
  • Dokar Tsabtace Ruwa (Ontario)
  • Dokar Kare Ruwa Tsabta
  • SB X-7
  • Gundumar Kula da Ruwa na Kogin Colorado v. Amurka
  • Dokar magudanar ruwa
  • Dokar Muhalli
  • Amincin abinci
  • Bauta mai kewayawa
  • Dama ga ruwa
  • Ruwa dama

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Thompson, Olivia N. (2009-10-01). "Binational Water Management: Perspectives of Local Texas Officials in the U.S.-Mexico Border Region". An Applied Research Project Submitted to the Department of Political Science, Texas State University-San Marcos, in Partial Fulfillment for the Requirements for the Degree of Masters of Public Administration, December 2009 (in Turanci).
  2. Jones, P. Andrew, and Cech, Tom. Colorado Water Law for Non-Lawyers. Boulder, CO, USA: University Press of Colorado, 2009.
  3. See Samfuri:Sourcetext in Ontario and Civil Code of Quebec Archived 2012-07-23 at the Wayback Machine, s. 919, in Quebec