Gurbataccen abinci mai gina jiki

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Gurɓatar abinci mai gina jiki, wani nau'i na gurɓataccen ruwa, yana nufin gurɓatawar abubuwan gina jiki da yawa. Yana da babban dalilin eutrophication na ruwa mai zurfi (tafkuna, koguna da ruwa na bakin teku ), wanda yawancin abubuwan gina jiki, yawanci nitrogen ko phosphorus, suna ƙarfafa ci gaban algal.[1]

Tushen gurɓacewar kayan abinci sun haɗa da kwararar ƙasa daga filayen gonaki da wuraren kiwo, fitar da tankunan ruwa da wuraren abinci, da hayaƙi daga konewa. Danyen najasa shine babban mai ba da gudummawa ga eutrophication na al'ada tunda najasa yana da yawa a cikin sinadirai. Sakin najasa a cikin babban ruwa ana kiransa zubar da ruwa, kuma har yanzu yana faruwa a duk faɗin duniya. Matsalolin nitrogen mai wuce gona da iri a cikin muhalli suna da alaƙa da yawancin abubuwan da suka shafi muhalli masu girma. Waɗannan sun haɗa da eutrophication na ruwa mai cutarwa, furen algal mai cutarwa, hypoxia, ruwan sama na acid, ƙarancin nitrogen a cikin gandun daji, da canjin yanayi.[2]

Tun bayan bunkasuwar noma a shekarun 1910 da kuma a cikin shekarun 1940 don dacewa da karuwar bukatar abinci, noman noma ya dogara sosai kan amfani da taki.[3] Taki abu ne na halitta ko sinadarai da aka gyara wanda ke taimaka wa ƙasa ta zama ƙasa mai albarka. Wadannan takin sun ƙunshi babban adadin phosphorus da nitrogen, wanda ke haifar da yawan abubuwan gina jiki da ke shiga cikin ƙasa. Nitrogen, phosphorus da potassium sune sinadarai na farko na "Big 3" a cikin takin kasuwanci, kowane ɗayan waɗannan mahimman abubuwan gina jiki suna taka muhimmiyar rawa a cikin abinci mai gina jiki.[4] Lokacin da nitrogen da phosphorus ba su cika amfani da tsire-tsire masu girma ba, ana iya rasa su daga filayen gona kuma suna yin mummunan tasiri ga iska da ingancin ruwa.[5] Waɗannan sinadirai na iya ƙarewa a cikin yanayin yanayin ruwa kuma suna ba da gudummawa ga haɓaka eutrophiation.[6] Lokacin da manoma suka baje takinsu, ko na halitta ne ko na roba, wasu za su bar shi a matsayin malala kuma za su iya tattara abubuwan da ke haifar da eutrophic na al'adu.[7]

Hanyoyi masu ragewa don rage fitar da gurɓataccen abinci mai gina jiki sun haɗa da gyaran abinci, ciniki na gina jiki da rabon tushen abinci.

Sources[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Noma shine babban tushen gurɓatar abinci mai gina jiki a cikin Tekun Mexico . A cikin Chesapeake Bay, noma babban tushe ne, tare da yankunan birane da ajiyar yanayi.

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Misali a cikin Tennessee na yadda ƙasa daga filayen da aka haɗe za ta iya juyewa da sauri ta zama ɗimbin ruwa da ke haifar da ɗumbin abubuwan gina jiki waɗanda ke gudana cikin jikin ruwa na gida.

Babban tushen (s) na gurɓataccen abinci a cikin magudanar ruwa ya dogara da yawan amfanin ƙasa . Madogaran na iya zama tushen batu, maɓuɓɓugar da ba na batu ba, ko duka biyu:

  • Noma : noman dabbobi ko amfanin gona
  • Birni/Babban birni: guguwar ruwa daga tituna da wuraren ajiye motoci; yawan amfani da taki akan lawn; cibiyoyin kula da najasa na birni; hayakin abin hawa
  • Masana'antu: gurɓataccen iska (misali masana'antar wutar lantarki ), fitar da ruwan sha daga masana'antu daban-daban.[8]

Gurɓatar abinci mai gina jiki daga wasu hanyoyin gurɓataccen iska na iya faruwa ba tare da amfanin ƙasar gida ba, saboda jigilar gurɓataccen iska daga nesa mai nisa.

Don auna yadda mafi kyawun hana eutrophication faruwa, dole ne a gano takamaiman hanyoyin da ke ba da gudummawar lodin kayan abinci. Akwai maɓuɓɓuka guda biyu na abinci na gina jiki da kwayoyin halitta: maƙasudi da tushe marasa ma'ana.[9]

Nitrogen[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Amfani da takin zamani, kona man fetur, da samar da dabbobi, musamman ayyukan ciyar da dabbobi (CAFO), sun kara yawan iskar nitrogen zuwa biosphere.[10] A duk duniya, ana rarraba ma'auni na nitrogen ba tare da inganci ba tare da wasu ƙasashe masu ragi da wasu ragi, suna haifar da kewayon batutuwan muhalli na farko. Ga mafi yawan ƙasashe a duniya, cinikin tsakanin rufe gibin amfanin gona da rage gurɓacewar iskar iskar gas ba shi da yawa ko babu.[11]

Phosphorus[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ana samun gurbacewar sinadarin phosphorus ne ta hanyar yawan amfani da takin zamani da taki, musamman idan aka haxa shi da zaizayar qasa.[12] A cikin Tarayyar Turai, an kiyasta cewa za mu iya rasa fiye da ton 100,000 na Phosphorus ga ruwa da tafkuna saboda zaizayar ruwa.[13] Hakanan ana fitar da sinadarin Phosphorus ta kamfanonin sarrafa najasa na birni da wasu masana'antu.

Tushen tushe[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Maɓuɓɓugan batu kai tsaye suna da alaƙa da tasiri ɗaya. A cikin maɓuɓɓugar maɓuɓɓugar ruwa, sharar abinci tana tafiya kai tsaye daga tushe zuwa ruwa. Tushen maki suna da sauƙin daidaitawa.[14]

Madogaran marasa ma'ana[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

It has been shown that nitrogen transport is correlated with various indices of human activity in watersheds,<m[15]

[16][17] Ploughing in agriculture and development are among activities that contribute most to nutrient loading.

Riƙe ƙasa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Abubuwan gina jiki daga ayyukan ɗan adam suna taruwa a cikin ƙasa kuma su kasance a wurin har tsawon shekaru. [18] An nuna cewa adadin phosphorus da aka rasa a cikin ruwan saman yana ƙaruwa daidai da adadin phosphorus a cikin ƙasa. Don haka yawancin abubuwan da ke lodawa a cikin ƙasa a ƙarshe suna yin hanyar zuwa ruwa. Nitrogen, haka ma, yana da lokacin juyawa na shekarun da suka gabata.

Gudun ruwa zuwa saman ruwa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Abubuwan gina jiki daga ayyukan ɗan adam kan yi tafiya daga ƙasa zuwa ko dai ƙasa ko ruwan ƙasa. Ana cire Nitrogen musamman ta hanyar magudanar ruwa, bututun najasa, da sauran nau'ikan zubar da ruwa . Asarar abinci mai gina jiki a cikin zubar da ruwa da leach sau da yawa ana danganta su da aikin noma . Noma na zamani yakan haɗa da amfani da kayan abinci mai gina jiki akan gonaki don haɓaka samarwa. Duk da haka, manoma akai-akai suna amfani da abinci mai gina jiki fiye da yadda amfanin gona ke buƙata, wanda ke haifar da gurɓataccen gurɓataccen gurɓataccen ruwa da ke gudana a cikin ruwa ko ƙasa.[19] ko makiyaya. Dokokin da ke da nufin rage fitar da sinadarai daga aikin noma yawanci ba su da ƙarfi fiye da waɗanda aka sanya a kan masana'antar kula da najasa da sauran masu gurɓata ma'ana. Ya kamata kuma a lura cewa tafkunan da ke cikin dazuzzukan dazuzzuka suma suna ƙarƙashin tasirin kwararar ruwa.[20] Guduwar ruwa na iya wanke ma'adinan nitrogen da phosphorus daga detritus kuma a sakamakon haka samar da jikunan ruwa zuwa jinkirin, eutrophication na halitta.[21]

Jigilar yanayi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ana fitar da Nitrogen a cikin iska saboda ammoniya volatilization da kuma samar da nitrous oxide. Konewar burbushin mai babban mai ba da gudummawa ne ta hanyar ɗan adam ga gurbatar yanayi na nitrogen. Nitrogen na yanayi yana isa ƙasa ta hanyoyi biyu daban-daban, na farko shine jika kamar ruwan sama ko dusar ƙanƙara, na biyu kuma bushewar bushewa wanda shine barbashi da iskar gas da ake samu a cikin iska.[22] Zubar da yanayi (misali, a cikin nau'in ruwan sama na acid ) kuma na iya yin tasiri a cikin abubuwan gina jiki a cikin ruwa,[23] musamman a yankuna masu yawan masana'antu.

Tasiri[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Tasirin muhalli da tattalin arziki[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An taƙaita yawan abubuwan gina jiki kamar yadda mai yuwuwar haifar da:

  • Yawan girma na algae ( cutarwa algal blooms ); da asarar halittu;[24]
  • Canje-canjen gidan yanar gizon abinci, ƙarancin haske;
  • wuce haddi kwayoyin carbon (eutrophication); narkar da iskar oxygen ( hypoxia muhalli ); samar da guba;[25]

Gurɓatar abinci mai gina jiki na iya samun tasirin tattalin arziƙi saboda karuwar farashin maganin ruwa, asarar kamun kifi na kasuwanci da asarar kifi, asarar kamun kifi na nishaɗi, da rage samun kuɗin shiga yawon buɗe ido.

Tasirin lafiya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Tasirin lafiyar ɗan adam sun haɗa da wuce haddi na nitrate a cikin ruwan sha ( blue baby syndrome ) da kuma kayyakin ƙwayoyin cuta a cikin ruwan sha. Yin iyo a cikin ruwa wanda bala'i mai cutarwa ya shafa na iya haifar da raƙuman fata da matsalolin numfashi.[26]

Rage fitar da gurbataccen abinci mai gina jiki[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ciniki na gina jiki[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ciniki na gina jiki nau'in ciniki ne na ingancin ruwa, kayan aiki na tushen kasuwa da ake amfani dashi don inganta ko kula da ingancin ruwa. Manufar kasuwancin ingancin ruwa ya dogara ne akan gaskiyar cewa maɓuɓɓugar gurɓataccen ruwa a cikin magudanar ruwa na iya fuskantar farashi daban-daban don sarrafa gurɓataccen abu ɗaya. Kasuwancin ingancin ruwa ya haɗa da musayar rangwamen ƙima na ragi na gurɓataccen gurɓataccen ruwa daga tushe masu ƙarancin kuɗi na kula da gurɓataccen gurɓataccen ruwa ga waɗanda ke da tsadar sarrafa gurbatar yanayi, kuma ƙa'idodin iri ɗaya sun shafi cinikin ingancin ruwa na gina jiki. Ƙa'idar da ke ƙunshe da ita ita ce " mai biyan kuɗi mai gurbata muhalli ", yawanci ana danganta shi da ƙa'idodin tsari don shiga cikin shirin ciniki.[27]

Rahoton Forest Trends na 2013 ya taƙaita shirye-shiryen ciniki na ingancin ruwa kuma ya samo manyan nau'ikan masu ba da tallafi guda uku: masu cin gajiyar kariyar ruwa, masu gurɓata ruwa suna biyan tasirin su da "masu biyan kuɗi na jama'a" waɗanda ba za su amfana kai tsaye ba, amma suna ba da kuɗin rage gurɓataccen ƙima a madadin gwamnati ko NGO.[25] Tun daga 2013, masu biyan kuɗi na jama'a kamar gwamnatoci da ƙungiyoyin sa-kai ne suka fara biyan kuɗi da yawa. :11

Rarraba tushen gina jiki[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ana amfani da rabon tushen abubuwan gina jiki don ƙididdige nauyin kayan abinci daga sassa daban-daban da ke shiga cikin ruwa, bayan raguwa ko jiyya. Noma yawanci shine tushen tushen nitrogen a cikin ruwa a Turai, yayin da a yawancin gidaje gidaje da masana'antu sukan kasance masu ba da gudummawar phosphorus. Inda ingancin ruwa ya yi tasiri ta hanyar abubuwan gina jiki masu yawa, samfuran rarraba tushen kaya na iya tallafawa daidaitaccen tsarin sarrafa albarkatun ruwa ta hanyar gano hanyoyin gurɓataccen ruwa. Akwai hanyoyi guda biyu masu fa'ida don ɗaukar kayan ƙira, (i) hanyoyin da suka dace da ɗaukar nauyi waɗanda asalin rabon bisa ga bayanan sa ido a cikin rafi[28] da (ii) hanyoyin da suka dace da tushen inda adadin yaɗuwa, ko gurɓataccen tushen tushe[29][30] ana ƙididdige fitar da hayaki ta hanyar amfani da ƙira yawanci bisa ƙididdige ƙididdiga na fitarwa daga magudanar ruwa masu irin wannan halaye.[31][32] Misali, Model Load Load (SLAM) yana ɗaukar hanyar ta ƙarshe, yana ƙididdige gudummawar dangi na tushen nitrogen da phosphorus zuwa saman ruwa a cikin magudanan ruwa na Irish ba tare da bayanan sa ido a cikin rafi ba ta hanyar haɗa bayanai kan fitarwar batu (ruwa na birni, masana'antu da sauransu). Tsarin tanki na septic), hanyoyin watsawa (kiwo, ciyayi, gandun daji, da sauransu), da bayanan kama, gami da halayen hydrogeological.[33]

Misalai na ƙasa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Amurka[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Gurbacewar tushen noma (NPS) ita ce mafi girman tushen rashin ingancin ruwa a duk faɗin Amurka, bisa binciken hukumomin muhalli na jihohi.[34]:10Gurbacewar NPS baya ƙarƙashin izinin fitarwa a ƙarƙashin Dokar Tsabtace Ruwa ta Tarayya (CWA).[35] EPA da jihohi sun yi amfani da tallafi, haɗin gwiwa da ayyukan zanga-zanga don ƙirƙirar abubuwan ƙarfafawa ga manoma don daidaita ayyukansu da rage kwararar ruwa.

Ci gaban manufofin gina jiki[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Abubuwan buƙatu na asali don jihohi don haɓaka ƙa'idodin abinci mai gina jiki da ma'auni an wajabta su a cikin Dokar Ruwa mai Tsafta ta 1972. Aiwatar da wannan shirin ingancin ruwa ya kasance babban ƙalubale na kimiyya, fasaha da albarkatun ƙasa ga EPA da jahohi, kuma ana ci gaba da bunƙasa har cikin ƙarni na 21st.

EPA ta buga ka'idar kula da ruwan sha a cikin 1978 don fara magance matsalar gurɓacewar nitrogen ta ƙasa, wacce ta ƙaru shekaru da yawa. A cikin 1998, hukumar ta buga Dabarun Gina Jiki na ƙasa tare da mai da hankali kan haɓaka ka'idodin abinci mai gina jiki.[36] [37]

Tsakanin 2000 da 2010 EPA ta buga ma'auni na sinadarai na matakin tarayya don koguna/rafuka, tafkuna/tafkunan ruwa, guraben ruwa da wuraren dausayi; da jagora mai alaƙa. "Ecoregional" ma'auni na gina jiki don 14 ecoregions a duk faɗin Amurka an haɗa su a cikin waɗannan wallafe-wallafe. Yayin da jihohi za su iya yin amfani da ka'idojin EPA da aka buga kai tsaye, a yawancin lokuta jihohi suna buƙatar gyara ma'auni don yin la'akari da takamaiman yanayi. A cikin 2004, EPA ta bayyana tsammaninta na ma'auni na ƙididdigewa (saɓanin ƙayyadaddun ƙayyadaddun ƙayyadaddun ƙididdiga) don jimlar nitrogen (TN), jimillar phosphorus (TP), chlorophyll a (chl-a), da tsabta, kuma ta kafa "an yarda da juna. bisa tsare-tsare" don ci gaban ka'idojin jiha. A shekara ta 2007, hukumar ta bayyana cewa ci gaban da aka samu a jihohin kan bunkasa ka'idojin gina jiki bai yi daidai ba. EPA ta sake nanata tsammaninta na ma'auni kuma ta yi alƙawarin goyon bayanta ga ƙoƙarin jiha na haɓaka ƙa'idodinsu.

Bayan EPA ta gabatar da NPDES na tushen ruwa wanda ke ba da izini a cikin 2007, sha'awar kawar da abinci mai gina jiki da cimma iyakokin yanki na Matsakaicin Matsakaicin Load (TMDL) na yanki ya haifar da haɓaka dabarun ciniki na abinci.[38]

A cikin 2008 EPA ta buga rahoton ci gaba kan ƙoƙarin jihar don haɓaka ƙa'idodin abinci mai gina jiki. Yawancin jihohi ba su samar da ma'auni na gina jiki na lambobi don koguna da koguna ba; tafkuna da tafkuna; dausayi da estuaries (ga waɗancan jihohin da ke da estuaries).[39] A cikin wannan shekarar, EPA ta kuma kafa Ƙungiyar Ƙwararrun Jiha da EPA, don sa ido da kimanta ci gaban rage gurɓataccen abinci.[40] A cikin 2009 NTIG ta ba da rahoto, "Kira na gaggawa don Aiki," yana nuna damuwa cewa ingancin ruwa ya ci gaba da tabarbarewa a duk faɗin ƙasar saboda karuwar gurɓataccen abinci mai gina jiki, tare da ba da shawarar haɓaka ƙa'idodin abinci mai gina jiki ta jihohi.[41] [42]

A cikin 2011 EPA ta sake nanata bukatar jihohi su ci gaba da inganta ka'idojin abinci mai gina jiki, lura da cewa cin zarafin ruwan sha na nitrates ya ninka cikin shekaru takwas, cewa rabin dukkan kogunan kasar suna da matsakaici zuwa matsakaicin matakan nitrogen da phosphorus, kuma furannin algal masu cutarwa suna karuwa.[43] Hukumar ta fitar da wani tsari ga jihohi don bunkasa abubuwan da suka fi dacewa da kuma matakin magudanar ruwa don rage abubuwan gina jiki.

Izinin fitarwa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Yawancin masu fitar da tushen tushe a cikin Amurka, kodayake ba lallai ba ne mafi girman tushen abubuwan gina jiki a cikin magudanan ruwa nasu, ana buƙatar su bi ƙayyadaddun ƙayyadaddun abubuwan gina jiki a cikin izininsu, waɗanda ake bayarwa ta Tsarin Kawar da Kayayyakin Kayayyakin Kayayyakin Kayayyaki (NPDES), bisa ga CWA.[44][45]

Wasu manyan tsire-tsire masu kula da najasa na birni, irin su Blue Plains Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant a Washington, DC sun shigar da tsarin kawar da sinadirai (BNR) don biyan buƙatun tsari.[46] Sauran gundumomi sun yi gyare-gyare ga ayyukan aiki na tsarin jiyya na biyu na yanzu don sarrafa abubuwan gina jiki.[47]

Izinin NPDES kuma ana sarrafa fitar da kaya daga manyan wuraren kiwon dabbobi (CAFO). Ruwan ruwa daga filayen gonaki, babban tushen sinadirai a cikin magudanan ruwa da yawa,[48] an keɓe shi da gurɓatarwar NPS kuma ba a tsara shi ta izinin NPDES.

Farashin TMDL[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Jimlar Matsakaicin Load na yau da kullun (TMDL) shiri ne na tsari wanda ke tsara iyakar adadin gurɓataccen abu (ciki har da abubuwan gina jiki) wanda jikin ruwa zai iya karɓa yayin da yake cika ka'idojin ingancin ruwa na CWA. Musamman, Sashe na 303 na Dokar yana buƙatar kowace jiha ta samar da rahoton TMDL ga kowane jikin ruwa wanda gurɓatacce ya lalace. Rahoton TMDL ya gano matakan gurɓata yanayi da dabaru don cimma burin rage gurɓataccen gurɓatawa. EPA ta siffanta TMDLs a matsayin kafa "kasafin kuɗi mai ƙazanta" tare da kasafi ga kowane tushen gurɓataccen abu.[49]

Ga yawancin ruwayen bakin teku, babban al'amarin gurɓataccen abu shine wuce gona da iri na gina jiki, wanda kuma ake kira haɓakar abinci mai gina jiki.[50]

A TMDL na iya rubuta ƙaramin matakin narkar da iskar oxygen (DO) da ake samu a jikin ruwa, wanda ke da alaƙa kai tsaye da matakan gina jiki. ( Duba Hypoxia na Ruwa . TMDLs da ke magance gurɓatar abinci mai gina jiki babban sashi ne na Dabarun Gina Jiki na Ƙasar Amurka.[51] TMDLs suna gano duk tushen ma'ana da gurɓataccen tushen tushen da ba a kai ba a cikin magudanar ruwa. Don aiwatar da TMDLs tare da maɓuɓɓugan ma'ana, an haɗa rabon kayan sharar gida a cikin izinin NPDES ɗin su.[52] Fitowar NPS gabaɗaya suna cikin yanayin yarda da son rai.[53]

EPA ta buga wani TMDL don Chesapeake Bay a cikin 2010, yana magana da nitrogen, phosphorus da gurɓataccen gurɓataccen ruwa ga duk magudanar ruwa, wanda ya rufe yanki mai 64,000 square miles (170,000 km2) . Wannan tsari na tsari ya ƙunshi duka ƙauyen da ƙauyukan sa-mafi girma, mafi hadaddun takaddun TMDL da EPA ta bayar har zuwa yau.

A cikin Long Island Sound, tsarin ci gaba na TMDL ya ba Ma'aikatar Makamashi da Kariyar Muhalli ta Connecticut da Ma'aikatar Kula da Muhalli ta Jihar New York damar shigar da 58.5 bisa dari na rage yawan nitrogen a cikin tsarin tsari da doka.

Nassoshi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Walters, Arlene, ed. (2016). Nutrient Pollution From Agricultural Production: Overview, Management and a Study of Chesapeake Bay. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers. ISBN 978-1-63485-188-6.
  2. "Reactive Nitrogen in the United States: An Analysis of Inputs, Flows, Consequences, and Management Options, A Report of the Science Advisory Board" (PDF). Washington, DC: US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). EPA-SAB-11-013. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 19, 2013.
  3. Seo Seongwon; Aramaki Toshiya; Hwang Yongwoo; Hanaki Keisuke (2004-01-01). "Environmental Impact of Solid Waste Treatment Methods in Korea". Journal of Environmental Engineering. 130 (1): 81–89. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9372(2004)130:1(81).
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  7. Carpenter, S. R.; Caraco, N. F.; Correll, D. L.; Howarth, R. W.; Sharpley, A. N.; Smith, V. H. (August 1998). "Nonpoint Pollution of Surface Waters with Phosphorus and Nitrogen". Ecological Applications. 8 (3): 559. doi:10.2307/2641247. hdl:1813/60811. JSTOR 2641247.
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