Gurbacewar Iska

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Gurbacewar iska daga bututun fitar da hayaƙi na kamfanoni.
2016 mai nuna alamar iska - launuka masu haske suna da ƙananan ingancin iska kuma don haka mafi girman gurɓataccen iska.

Gurɓacewar iska ita ce gurɓatar iska ta dalilin kasancewar wasu abubuwa a cikin yanayi masu illa ga lafiyar ɗan Adam da sauran halittu masu rai, ko haifar da illa ga yanayi ko kayan aiki. Akwai nau'ikan gurɓataccen iska da yawa, irin su iskar gas (ciki har da ammonia, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrous oxides, methane, carbon dioxide da chlorofluorocarbons ), ɓarna (duka ƙwayoyin halitta da inorganic), da ƙwayoyin halitta Gurbacewar iska na iya haifar da cututtuka, cututtuka, har ma da mutuwa ga mutane; Hakanan zai iya haifar da lahani ga wasu rayayyun halittu kamar dabbobi da amfanin gona na abinci, kuma yana iya lalata yanayin yanayi (misali, sauyin yanayi, lalatawar ozone ko gurɓacewar muhalli) ko muhallin da aka gina (misali, ruwan acid ). Duka ayyukan ɗan adam da hanyoyin yanayi na iya haifar da gurɓataccen iska.

Gurɓacewar iska babbar matsala ce ga wasu cututtukan da ke da alaƙa da gurɓatar yanayi, gami da cututtukan numfashi, cututtukan zuciya, COPD, bugun jini da kansar huhu. [1] Shaidu masu girma suna nuna cewa ana iya danganta bayyanar da gurɓataccen iska tare da rage ƙimar IQ, rashin fahimta,[2] ƙara haɗarin cututtukan hauka kamar baƙin ciki da cutar da lafiyar mahaifa . Sakamakon lafiyar ɗan adam na rashin ingancin iska yana da nisa, amma galibi yana shafar tsarin numfashi na jiki da kuma tsarin jijiyoyin jini. Halin daidaikun mutane game da gurɓataccen iska ya dogara ne da nau'in gurɓataccen iska da mutum ya fallasa shi, gwargwadon bayyanarsa, da yanayin lafiyar mutum da ƙwayoyin halitta. Gurɓacewar iska a waje kaɗai tana haifar da mutuwar mutane miliyan 2.1 zuwa miliyan 4.21 a duk shekara, wanda hakan ya sa ta zama daya daga cikin manyan masu bayar da gudunmawa ga mutuwar dan Adam. [1] Gabaɗaya, gurɓataccen iska yana haifar da mutuwar kusan mutane miliyan 7 a duk duniya a kowace shekara, ko kuma asarar tsawon rayuwa na duniya (LLE) na shekaru 2.9, kuma shine babban haɗarin lafiyar muhalli guda ɗaya a duniya.[3] An jera gurbacewar iska a cikin gida da rashin kyawun iska na birni a matsayin biyu daga cikin mafi munin matsalolin gurɓacewar muhalli a duniya a cikin rahoton wuraren gurɓataccen gurɓataccen gurɓataccen yanayi na 2008 Cibiyar Blacksmith.[4][1][5][6] Iyalin rikicin gurbatar yanayi yana da yawa: 90% na al'ummar duniya suna shakar iska mai datti zuwa wani mataki. Ko da yake sakamakon kiwon lafiya yana da yawa, yadda ake magance matsalar sau da yawa yana da haɗari.[7]


An ƙiyasta hasarar kayan aiki da ƙasƙantar rayuwar rayuwa da gurɓataccen iska ke haifarwa don kashe tattalin arzikin duniya dala tiriliyan 5 a kowace shekara amma, tare da tasirin kiwon lafiya da mace-mace, wani waje ne ga tsarin tattalin arziki na zamani kuma galibi ayyukan ɗan adam, ko da yake a wasu lokuta ana daidaita su da kuma kula da su.[8][9] Akwai fasahohi da dabaru daban-daban na sarrafa gurbatar yanayi don rage gurɓacewar iska.[10] Don rage tasirin gurɓacewar iska, an aiwatar da dokokin ƙasa da ƙasa da na ƙasa don daidaita gurɓacewar iska. Dokokin cikin gida, inda aka aiwatar da su da kyau, sun haifar da ingantaccen ingantaccen kiwon lafiyar jama'a.[11] A matakin kasa da kasa, wasu daga cikin wadannan yunƙurin sun sami nasara - alal misali yarjejeniyar Montreal ta yi nasara wajen rage fitar da sinadarai masu cutar da ozone mai cutarwa ko yarjejeniyar Helsinki ta 1985 wadda ta rage fitar da iskar sulfur, yayin da wasu yunƙurin da ya zuwa yanzu ba su samu nasara ba wajen aiwatarwa. kamar matakin ƙasa da ƙasa kan sauyin yanayi.[12][13]

Tushen gurbatar iska[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Tushen Anthropogenic (wanda ɗan adam ya yi).[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Jirgin sama shine babban tushen gurɓataccen iska.
Sarrafa kona filin waje na Statesboro, Jojiya, a cikin shirye-shiryen dashen bazara
Ana yin Bandar kifi a mutum da yake a tantagarya a ƙasar Ghana, 2018

Waɗannan galibi suna da alaƙa da ƙona man fetur.

  • Maɓuɓɓugar tushe sun haɗa da:
    • tarin hayaki na man burbushin mai da tashoshin samar da wutar lantarki (duba misali tasirin muhalli na masana'antar kwal ).
    • Ƙona halittun gargajiya kamar itace, sharar amfanin gona da taki. (A kasashe masu tasowa da matalauta, konewar dabi'ar halitta ta gargajiya ita ce babbar hanyar gurɓacewar iska.[14][15] Hakanan shine babban tushen gurɓataccen gurɓataccen gurɓataccen ruwa a yawancin yankuna da suka ci gaba da suka haɗa da UK & New South Wales.[16][17] Abubuwan gurɓatanta sun haɗa da PAHs.[18])
    • masana'antu (masana'antu) 
      • Wani bincike da aka gudanar a shekara ta 2014 ya gano cewa a kasar Sin kayan aiki-, injina-, da na'urori da sassan masana'antu da gine-gine sun ba da gudummawar fiye da kashi 50% na gurbacewar iska
    • ƙonawar sharar gida (masu ƙonewa da kuma buɗaɗɗen gobarar sharar da ba a sarrafa ba, wanda ya kai kusan kashi huɗu na sharar ƙasa mai ƙarfi)
    • tanda da sauran nau'ikan na'urorin dumama mai ƙonewa
  • Hanyoyin wayar hannu sun haɗa da motocin motsa jiki, jiragen ƙasa (musamman ma'aikatan dizal da DMUs), jiragen ruwa da jiragen sama.
  • Gudanar da ayyukan ƙonawa a cikin aikin noma da sarrafa gandun daji. Sarrafa ko wajabta ƙonewa wata dabara ce da ake amfani da ita a wasu lokuta wajen sarrafa gandun daji, noma, maido da ciyayi ko rage iskar gas. Wuta wani yanki ne na dabi'a na gandun daji da yanayin ciyayi kuma wutar da aka sarrafa na iya zama kayan aiki ga gandun daji. Sarrafa konewa yana motsa wasu bishiyoyin daji masu kyawawa, don haka sabunta dajin.

Hakanan akwai tushe daga matakai ban da ƙonewar:[19]

  • Fuskoki daga fenti, feshin gashi, varnish, feshin aerosol da sauran kaushi. Waɗannan suna iya zama masu mahimmanci; An kiyasta fitar da hayaki daga waɗannan maɓuɓɓuka zai kai kusan rabin gurɓataccen gurɓataccen yanayi a cikin rafin Los Angeles a cikin 2010s.[20][21]
  • Zubar da shara a cikin wuraren da ake zubar da ƙasa, wanda ke haifar da methane. Methane yana da ƙonewa sosai kuma yana iya haifar da gauraye masu fashewa da iska. Methane kuma mai asphyxiant ne kuma yana iya kawar da iskar oxygen a cikin sarari da ke kewaye. Asphyxia ko shaƙewa na iya haifarwa idan an rage yawan iskar oxygen zuwa ƙasa da 19.5% ta hanyar ƙaura.[22]
  • Albarkatun soja, kamar makaman nukiliya, iskar gas mai guba, yaƙin ƙwayoyin cuta da roka .
  • Fitowar noma tana ba da gudummawa sosai ga gurɓacewar iska
    • Ƙasar noma da aka taki na iya zama babban tushen nitrogen oxides.

Hanyoyin halitta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Guguwar ƙura ta tunkari Stratford, Texas
  • Kurar da aka samo daga tushen halitta, yawanci manyan wurare na ƙasa da ƙananan ciyayi ko ciyayi
  • Methane, wanda ake fitar da shi ta hanyar narkewar abinci da dabbobi, misali shanu
  • Radon gas daga lalatawar rediyo a cikin ɓawon burodin duniya. Radon mara launi ne, mara wari, mai faruwa a zahiri, iskar iskar gas mai ƙara kuzari wacce ke samuwa daga ruɓar radium. Ana ɗauka a matsayin haɗari ga lafiya. Radon gas daga tushen halitta yana iya taruwa a cikin gine-gine, musamman a wuraren da aka killace kamar gidan ƙasa kuma shi ne na biyu mafi yawan cutar kansar huhu, bayan shan taba sigari.[23]
  • Hayaki da carbon monoxide daga gobarar daji. A cikin lokutan gobarar daji mai aiki, hayaƙi daga konewar biomass ba tare da kulawa ba zai iya zama kusan kashi 75% na duk gurɓacewar iska ta hanyar maida hankali.[24]
  • Tsire-tsire, a wasu yankuna, suna fitar da adadi mai yawa na mahaɗan ƙwayoyin halitta masu canzawa (VOCs) a cikin kwanaki masu zafi. Waɗannan VOCs suna amsawa tare da gurɓataccen ɗan adam na farko - musamman, NO x, SO 2, da mahaɗan carbon mahaɗan anthropogenic - don haifar da hazo na yanayi na ƙazanta na biyu.[25] Black danko, poplar, itacen oak da willow wasu misalan ciyayi ne waɗanda zasu iya samar da ɗimbin VOCs. Samar da VOC daga waɗannan nau'ikan yana haifar da matakan ozone har sau takwas sama da nau'in bishiyar da ba ta da tasiri.10f.

[26]

  • Ayyukan volcanic, wanda ke samar da sulfur, chlorine, da ash particulates

Abubuwan da ke fitarwa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Iskar Beijing a cikin 2005 bayan ruwan sama (hagu) da rana mai hayaƙi (dama)

Abubuwan da ke fitar da iska ana ba da rahoton ƙimar waɗanda ke ƙoƙarin danganta adadin gurɓataccen gurɓataccen iska da aka saki zuwa iska tare da ayyukan da ke da alaƙa da sakin wannan gurɓataccen. Waɗannan abubuwan yawanci ana bayyana su azaman nauyin gurɓataccen abu da aka raba da nauyin raka'a, girma, nisa, ko tsawon lokacin aikin da ke fitar da gurɓataccen abu (misali, kilogiram na barbashi da ke fitarwa kowace tan na kwal da aka ƙone). Irin waɗannan abubuwan suna sauƙaƙe kimanta fitar da hayaki daga wurare daban-daban na gurɓataccen iska. A mafi yawan lokuta, waɗannan abubuwan kawai matsakaicin duk bayanan da ake samu na inganci karɓuwa ne, kuma gabaɗaya ana ɗaukar su wakilcin matsakaicin dogon lokaci.

Akwai mahadi guda 12 a cikin jerin gurɓatattun ƙwayoyin cuta masu ɗorewa . Dioxins da furans guda biyu ne daga cikinsu kuma da gangan aka samar da su ta hanyar konewar kwayoyin halitta, kamar bude kona robobi. Wadannan mahadi kuma masu rushewar endocrine ne kuma suna iya canza ƙwayoyin halittar dan adam.

sarrafa e-sharar gida a Agbogbloshie, Ghana ta yin amfani da buɗe kona na'urorin lantarki don samun damar karafa masu mahimmanci kamar tagulla. Bude kona robobi ya zama ruwan dare a sassa da dama na duniya ba tare da iya sarrafa su ba. Musamman ma ba tare da kariyar da ta dace ba, karafa masu nauyi da sauran gurɓatattun abubuwa na iya shiga cikin ƙasa, kuma su haifar da gurɓataccen ruwa da gurɓataccen iska.

Hukumar Kare Muhalli ta Amurka ta wallafa tarin abubuwan da ke fitar da gurbataccen iska don masana'antu iri-iri.[27] Ƙasar Ingila, Ostiraliya, Kanada da sauran ƙasashe da yawa sun buga irin wannan tarin, da kuma Hukumar Kula da Muhalli ta Turai.[28][29][30][31]

Masu gurɓatawa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Zane mai tsari, haddasawa da tasirin gurɓataccen iska: (1) tasirin greenhouse, (2) gurɓataccen gurɓataccen abu, (3) ƙãra hasken UV, (4) ruwan sama na acid, (5) haɓaka matakin ƙasa-matakin ozone, (6) matakan haɓaka. na nitrogen oxides

Gurɓataccen iska wani abu ne a cikin iska wanda zai iya yin illa ga mutane da kuma yanayin muhalli.[32] Abun zai iya zama tsayayyen barbashi, ɗigon ruwa, ko gas. Mai gurɓataccen abu na iya zama na asali ko na mutum. An rarraba abubuwan gurɓatawa a matsayin firamare ko sakandare. Ana haifar da gurɓatattun abubuwa ta hanyar matakai kamar toka daga fashewar aman wuta. Sauran misalan sun haɗa da iskar carbon monoxide daga sharar abin hawa ko sulfur dioxide da aka saki daga masana'antu. Ba a fitar da gurɓatattun abubuwa kai tsaye.[33] Maimakon haka, suna tasowa a cikin iska lokacin da gurɓataccen abu na farko ya amsa ko kuma yayi hulɗa. Ozone matakin ƙasa babban misali ne na gurɓataccen gurɓataccen abu. Wasu gurɓatattun abubuwa na iya zama na firamare da na sakandare: dukansu suna fitar da su kai tsaye kuma sun samo asali ne daga wasu gurɓatattun abubuwa na farko.[34]

Abubuwan gurɓata yanayi da ayyukan ɗan adam ke fitarwa sun haɗa da:[35]

  • Carbon dioxide (CO): Saboda rawar da yake takawa a matsayin iskar gas an bayyana shi a matsayin "manyan gurɓataccen yanayi" da "mafi munin gurɓataccen yanayi".[36] Carbon dioxide wani abu ne na halitta na yanayi, mai mahimmanci ga rayuwar shuka kuma tsarin numfashi na ɗan adam ya ba shi. Wannan tambaya na ƙamus yana da tasiri mai amfani, misali don tantance ko ana ɗaukar Dokar Tsabtace Tsabtace ta Amurka don daidaita fitar da CO.[37] CO a halin yanzu yana samar da kusan sassa 410 a kowace miliyan (ppm) na yanayin duniya, idan aka kwatanta da kusan 280 ppm a zamanin masana'antu, da biliyoyin metric ton na CO ana fitarwa kowace shekara ta hanyar kona man fetur.[38] CO ƙaruwa a cikin yanayi na duniya yana da sauri.[39]
  • Sulfur oxides (SO x ): musamman sulfur dioxide, wani sinadari mai hade da dabara SO 2 . Ana samar da SO 2 ta hanyar volcanoes kuma a cikin hanyoyin masana'antu daban-daban. Kwal da man fetur sukan ƙunshi mahadi na sulfur, kuma konewar su yana haifar da sulfur dioxide. Ƙarin oxidation na SO 2, yawanci a gaban mai kara kuzari kamar NO 2, yana samar da H 2 SO 4, don haka ruwan acid ya samo asali. Wannan yana daya daga cikin abubuwan da ke haifar da damuwa game da tasirin muhalli na amfani da waɗannan man fetur a matsayin tushen wutar lantarki.
  • Nitrogen oxides (NO x ): Nitrogen oxides, musamman nitrogen dioxide, ana fitar da su daga konewar zafin jiki, kuma ana samun su a lokacin tsawa ta hanyar fitar da wutar lantarki. Ana iya ganin su a matsayin kulba mai launin ruwan kasa a sama ko kuma guguwar iskar birane. Nitrogen dioxide fili ne na sinadarai tare da dabara NO 2 . Yana daya daga cikin abubuwan da ake kira ogen oxides. Ɗaya daga cikin fitattun gurbatacciyar iska, wannan iskar gas mai guba mai ja-launin ruwan kasa tana da siffa mai kaifi, wari mai cizo.
  • Carbon monoxide (CO): CO mara launi ne, mara wari, iskar gas mai guba. Samfurin konewar man fetur ne kamar iskar gas, gawayi ko itace. Shaye-shaye na abin hawa yana ba da gudummawa ga yawancin carbon monoxide da aka bari a cikin yanayi. Yana haifar da nau'in hayaƙi a cikin iska wanda aka danganta da cututtukan huhu da yawa da rushewar yanayi da dabbobi.
  • Mahalli masu canzawa (VOC): VOCs sanannen gurɓataccen iska ne a waje. An rarraba su azaman methane (CH 4 ) ko wadanda ba methane (NMVOCs). Methane iskar gas ce mai inganci wanda ke ba da gudummawa ga haɓaka ɗumamar yanayi . Sauran VOCs na hydrocarbon suma suna da mahimmancin iskar gas saboda rawar da suke takawa wajen samar da ozone da tsawaita rayuwar methane a cikin yanayi . Wannan tasirin ya bambanta dangane da ingancin iska na gida. The aromatic NMVOCs benzene, toluene da xylene ana zargin carcinogens kuma zai iya haifar da cutar sankarar bargo tare da tsawaita bayyanar. 1,3-butadiene wani fili ne mai haɗari wanda ke hade da amfani da masana'antu.
  • Matsaloli / barbashi, a madadin ana magana da su azaman ɓarna (PM), ɓangarorin yanayi, ko lallausan barbashi, ƙananan ɓarɓashi ne na ƙarfi ko ruwa da aka dakatar a cikin iskar gas. Sabanin haka, aerosol yana nufin hadadden barbashi da iskar gas. Wasu barbashi na faruwa ta dabi'a, sun samo asali daga dutsen mai aman wuta, guguwar kura, gobarar daji da ciyawa, ciyayi masu rai, da feshin ruwa. Ayyukan ɗan adam, kamar kona burbushin mai a cikin motoci, tashoshin wutar lantarki da hanyoyin masana'antu iri-iri suma suna haifar da iskar iska. Matsakaicin a duniya, aerosols anthropogenic - waɗanda ayyukan ɗan adam suka yi - a halin yanzu yana da kusan 10% na yanayin mu. Ƙara matakan ƙananan barbashi a cikin iska suna da alaƙa da haɗarin lafiya kamar cututtukan zuciya, canza aikin huhu da ciwon huhu. Barriculates suna da alaƙa da cututtukan numfashi kuma suna iya zama cutarwa musamman ga waɗanda ke fama da yanayi kamar asma .
  • Masu ɗorewa masu ɗorewa masu ɗorewa waɗanda ke da alaƙa da ɓangarorin lafiya na iska suna da alaƙa da cututtukan zuciya.
  • Karafa masu guba, irin su gubar da mercury, musamman mahaɗan su.
  • Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs): Mai cutarwa ga Layer na ozone ; Fitowa daga samfuran da aka hana amfani da su a halin yanzu. Wadannan iskar gas ne da ake fitarwa daga na'urorin sanyaya iska, firji, feshin iska, da dai sauransu. Lokacin da aka saki cikin iska, CFCs suna tashi zuwa stratosphere . Anan sukan haɗu da wasu iskar gas kuma suna lalata layin ozone. Wannan yana ba da damar haskoki UV masu cutarwa su isa saman duniya. Wannan na iya haifar da ciwon daji na fata, cututtukan ido kuma yana iya haifar da lalacewa ga tsire-tsire.
  • Ammoniya : Ana fitar da shi ta hanyar sharar gona. Ammoniya wani fili ne tare da dabarar NH 3 . Yawanci ana cin karo dashi azaman iskar gas mai ƙamshi mai ƙamshi. Ammoniya tana ba da gudummawa sosai ga buƙatun sinadirai na halittun ƙasa ta hanyar yin hidima a matsayin mafari ga kayan abinci da taki. Ammoniya, ko dai kai tsaye ko a kaikaice, shi ma tubalin ginin harhada magunguna da yawa. Ko da yake a cikin amfani mai yawa, ammoniya yana da haɗari kuma yana da haɗari. A cikin yanayi, ammonia yana amsawa tare da oxides na nitrogen da sulfur don samar da kwayoyin halitta na biyu.
  • Odors : Irin su daga sharar gida, najasa, da hanyoyin masana'antu.
  • Abubuwan gurɓataccen rediyo : Abubuwan fashewar makaman nukiliya, abubuwan nukiliya, abubuwan fashewar yaƙi, da hanyoyin halitta kamar lalatawar radon .

Abubuwan gurɓatawa na biyu sun haɗa da:

  • Abubuwan da aka ƙirƙira daga gurɓataccen gas na farko da mahaɗi a cikin smog na photochemical. Smog wani nau'in gurbataccen iska ne. Classic smog yana haifar da babban adadin gawayi mai ƙonewa a cikin yanki, wanda ke haifar da cakuda hayaki da sulfur dioxide. Hayaki na zamani ba yakan fito daga gawayi sai dai daga hayakin ababen hawa da masana'antu wanda hasken ultraviolet daga rana ke yin aiki da shi a cikin sararin samaniya don samar da gurɓataccen gurɓataccen abu wanda kuma ya haɗa da hayaƙin farko don haifar da hayaƙin photochemical.
  • Ozone matakin ƙasa (O 3 ): Ozone yana samuwa daga NO x da VOCs. Yana da maɓalli mai mahimmanci na troposphere. Hakanan muhimmin abu ne na wasu yankuna na stratosphere wanda aka fi sani da Layer ozone. Halayen hoto da sinadarai da suka haɗa da shi suna fitar da yawancin hanyoyin sinadarai da ke faruwa a cikin yanayi da rana da dare. A mafi yawan adadin da ayyukan ɗan adam ke kawowa (mafi yawan ƙonewar man fetur), gurɓatacce ne kuma wani yanki ne na hayaki.
  • Peroxyacetyl nitrate (C 2 H 3 NO 5 ): irin wannan da aka samu daga NO x da VOCs.

Ƙananan gurɓataccen iska sun haɗa da:

  • Babban adadin ƙananan gurɓataccen iska mai haɗari . Wasu daga cikin waɗannan ana kayyade su a cikin Amurka ƙarƙashin Dokar Tsabtace Tsabtace iska da kuma cikin Turai ƙarƙashin Tsarin Tsarin Sama.
  • Daban-daban iri-iri masu gurɓata yanayi masu tsayi, waɗanda zasu iya haɗawa da ɓarna

Abubuwan gurɓataccen ƙwayoyin halitta (POPs) sune mahaɗi na halitta waɗanda ke da juriya ga lalata muhalli ta hanyar sinadarai, nazarin halittu, da matakan hoto. Saboda haka, an lura da su dagewa a cikin muhalli, don samun damar yin tafiya mai nisa, bioaccumulate a cikin jikin mutum da na dabba, biomagnify a cikin sarƙar abinci, da kuma yin tasiri mai mahimmanci ga lafiyar ɗan adam da muhalli.Template:Category tree all

Bayyana[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kusan kashi 30 cikin 100 na mutanen Turai da ke zaune a birane suna fuskantar matakan gurɓataccen iska wanda ya wuce ƙa'idodin ingancin iska na EU. Kusan kashi 98% na mutanen Turai da ke zaune a birane suna fuskantar matakan gurɓacewar iska da ake ganin suna cutar da lafiya ta hanyar ƙa'idodin Hukumar Lafiya ta Duniya.

Haɗarin gurɓataccen iska aiki ne na haɗarin gurɓataccen iska da kuma fallasa wannan gurɓataccen abu. Ana iya bayyana bayyanar gurɓatacciyar iska ga mutum ɗaya, ga wasu ƙungiyoyi (misali unguwanni ko yaran da ke zaune a cikin ƙasa), ko ga jama'a gabaɗaya. Misali,[40] mutum na iya yin lissafin bayyanar da gurɓataccen iska mai haɗari don yanki na yanki, wanda ya haɗa da ƙananan mahalli daban-daban da ƙungiyoyin shekaru. Ana iya ƙididdige wannan azaman bayyanar numfashi. Wannan zai ba da lissafin bayyanar yau da kullun a wurare daban-daban (misali maɓalli daban-daban na cikin gida da wuraren waje). Bayyanar yana buƙatar haɗa da shekaru daban-daban da sauran ƙungiyoyin alƙaluma, musamman jarirai, yara, mata masu juna biyu, da sauran ƙananan jama'a.[41]]]


Bayyanawa ga gurɓataccen iska dole ne ya haɗa yawan abubuwan gurɓataccen iska dangane da lokacin da aka kashe a kowane wuri da kuma ƙimar inhalation daban-daban ga kowane rukuni na kowane takamaiman lokacin da ƙungiyar ke cikin saiti kuma tana yin ayyuka na musamman (wasa, wasa, dafa abinci, karatu, aiki, ba da lokacin zirga-zirga, da sauransu).[42] Misali, yawan iskar numfashin karamin yaro zai yi kasa da na manya. Yaron da ke motsa jiki mai ƙarfi zai sami mafi girman adadin numfashi fiye da yaro ɗaya a cikin aikin zaman kansa. Bayyanar yau da kullun, don haka, yana buƙatar nuna lokacin da aka kashe a cikin kowane ƙaramin mahalli da kuma nau'in ayyukan cikin waɗannan saitunan. Matsakaicin gurɓataccen iska a cikin kowane saitin microactivity/microenvironmental an taƙaita don nuna fallasa.[40] Ga wasu gurɓatattun abubuwa kamar baƙar carbon carbon, abubuwan da ke da alaƙa da zirga-zirga na iya mamaye jimillar fallasa duk da ɗan gajeren lokacin fallasa tun lokacin babban taro ya zo daidai da kusanci ga manyan tituna ko shiga cikin zirga-zirga (motoci).[43] Babban yanki na jimlar bayyanar yau da kullun yana faruwa azaman gajeriyar kololuwa na babban taro, amma har yanzu ba a san yadda za a ayyana kololuwa da tantance mita da tasirin lafiyar su ba.[44]

A cikin 2021, WHO ta rage rabin shawarar da aka ba da shawarar ta ga ƙananan ɓarɓashi daga ƙonewar kasusuwa. Sabuwar iyaka don nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) yana da 75% ƙasa.

ingancin iska na cikin gida[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Rabon mace-mace daga gurbacewar iska a cikin gida
Kula da ingancin iska, New Delhi, India

Rashin samun iska a cikin gida yana maida hankali kan gurɓacewar iska inda mutane sukan shafe mafi yawan lokutansu. Radon (Rn) gas, carcinogen, yana fitowa daga duniya a wasu wurare kuma ya maƙale a cikin gidaje. Kayan gini da suka hada da kafet da plywood suna fitar da iskar formaldehyde (H 2 CO). Fenti da kaushi suna ba da mahaɗar ƙwayoyin halitta masu canzawa (VOCs) yayin da suke bushewa. Fentin gubar na iya lalacewa zuwa ƙura kuma a shaka. Ana gabatar da gurɓacewar iska da gangan tare da yin amfani da na'urori na iska, turare, da sauran abubuwa masu ƙamshi. Wutar itace da aka sarrafa a cikin murhu da murhu na iya ƙara yawan hayaƙi mai cutarwa a cikin iska, ciki da waje.[45][46] Ana iya haifar da asarar gurɓacewar gida ta hanyar amfani da magungunan kashe qwari da sauran abubuwan feshin sinadarai a cikin gida ba tare da samun iskar da ya dace ba.

Guba monoxide da mace-mace galibi ana yin su ne ta hanyar iskar gas da bututun hayaƙi, ko kuma ta hanyar kona gawayi a cikin gida ko a cikin keɓe, kamar tanti.[47] Guba na carbon monoxide na yau da kullun na iya haifarwa ko da ta rashin ingantaccen fitilun matukin jirgi . An gina tarkuna a cikin dukkan bututun cikin gida don kiyaye iskar gas da hydrogen sulfide, daga ciki. Tufafi yana fitar da tetrachlorethylene, ko wasu busassun ruwan tsaftacewa, na tsawon kwanaki bayan bushewa .

Ko da yake a yanzu an hana amfani da shi a ƙasashe da yawa, yawan amfani da asbestos a cikin masana'antu da na gida a baya ya bar wani abu mai hatsarin gaske a cikin yankuna da yawa. Asbestosis wani yanayi ne na kumburi na yau da kullun wanda ke shafar nama na huhu . Yana faruwa bayan dogon lokaci, ɗaukar nauyi ga asbestos daga kayan da ke ɗauke da asbestos a cikin sifofi. Masu fama da ciwon huhu mai tsanani ( ƙunƙarar numfashi) kuma suna cikin ƙarin haɗari game da nau'ikan kansar huhu daban-daban. Kamar yadda ba koyaushe ake ƙarfafa bayani ba a cikin wallafe-wallafen da ba na fasaha ba, ya kamata a kula don bambanta tsakanin nau'o'in cututtuka da dama. A cewar Hukumar Lafiya ta Duniya (WHO), [48] ana iya bayyana waɗannan a matsayin cututtukan asbestosis, ciwon huhu, da kuma mesothelioma na peritoneal (gaba ɗaya nau'in ciwon daji da ba kasafai ba, lokacin da ya fi yaɗuwa kusan koyaushe ana danganta shi da tsayin daka ga asbestos).

Hakanan ana samun tushen halittu na gurɓacewar iska a cikin gida, kamar yadda iskar gas da iska ke fitarwa. Dabbobin gida suna samar da dander, mutane suna samar da ƙura daga flakes na fata na minti kaɗan da bazuwar gashi, ƙurar ƙura a cikin gado, kafet da kayan daki suna samar da enzymes da ɗigon fecal mai girman micrometer, mazauna suna fitar da methane, ƙirar ƙira akan bango kuma suna haifar da mycotoxins da spores, tsarin kwandishan na iya. cutar Legionnaires' cuta da mold, da tsire-tsire na cikin gida, ƙasa da lambunan kewaye na iya haifar da pollen, ƙura, da mold. A cikin gida, rashin zazzagewar iska yana ba wa waɗannan gurɓataccen iska damar tarawa fiye da yadda zasu faru a yanayi.

Tasirin lafiya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ko da a matakan ƙasa da waɗanda hukumomin Amurka ke la'akari da aminci, fallasa zuwa sassa uku na gurɓataccen iska, ƙaƙƙarfan ƙwayoyin cuta, nitrogen dioxide da ozone, yana da alaƙa da cututtukan zuciya da na numfashi. [49] A cikin 2020, gurɓataccen yanayi (ciki har da gurɓataccen iska) ya kasance wani abu na ba da gudummawa ga ɗaya cikin mutuwar takwas a Turai, kuma ya kasance babban haɗari ga cututtukan da ke da alaƙa da gurɓatawa ciki har da cututtukan zuciya, bugun jini da kansar huhu . Illar lafiyar da gurbatar iska ke haifarwa na iya haɗawa da wahalar numfashi, hushi, tari, asma da kuma tabarbarewar yanayin numfashi da na zuciya. Waɗannan illolin na iya haifar da ƙara yawan amfani da magani, ƙarin ziyarar likita ko sashen gaggawa, ƙarin shigar asibiti da mutuwa da wuri. Illar lafiyar ɗan adam na rashin ingancin iskar yana da nisa, amma galibi yana shafar tsarin numfashi na jiki da kuma tsarin jijiyoyin jini. Halin daidaikun mutane game da gurɓataccen iska ya dogara da nau'in gurɓataccen gurɓataccen iska da mutum ya fallasa shi, gwargwadon bayyanarsa, da yanayin lafiyar mutum da kuma kwayoyin halittarsa. Mafi yawan tushen gurɓacewar iska sun haɗa da ɓarbashi, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, da sulfur dioxide. Yara ƴan ƙasa da shekaru biyar da ke zaune a kasashe masu tasowa su ne suka fi fuskantar matsalar yawan mace-macen da ake dangantawa da gurbatar iska a cikin gida da waje.

Mutuwa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

How-many-people-die-from-air-pollution-1-1.png
Rabon mutuwar daga gurɓacewar iska a waje, OWID

Hukumar lafiya ta duniya ta yi kiyasin a shekara ta 2014 cewa a duk shekara gurɓacewar iska na janyo mutuwar mutane miliyan 7 da wuri. Nazarin da aka buga a cikin Maris 2019 ya nuna cewa adadin na iya zama kusan miliyan 8.8. Abubuwan da ke haifar da mutuwa sun haɗa da shanyewar jiki, cututtukan zuciya, COPD, ciwon huhu, da cututtukan huhu. [1]

An yi ƙiyasin gurɓacewar iska iska a cikin birni tana haifar da mutuwar mutane miliyan 1.3 a duk duniya a kowace shekara. Yara suna cikin haɗari musamman saboda rashin balaga na sassan sassan numfashinsu. A cikin 2015, gurɓataccen iska a waje, mafi yawa ta PM 2.5, an kiyasta zai haifar da 3.3 (95% CI 1.61-4.81) mutuwar da ba a kai ba a kowace shekara a duniya, yawanci a Asiya. A cikin 2021, WHO ta ba da rahoton cewa an ƙiyasta gurɓacewar iska a waje zai haifar da mutuwar mutane miliyan 4.2 a duk duniya a cikin 2016. Wani bincike na 2020 ya nuna cewa asarar ma'anar rayuwa ta duniya (LLE) daga gurɓataccen iska a cikin 2015 ya kasance shekaru 2.9, wanda ya zarce, alal misali, shekaru 0.3 daga duk nau'ikan tashin hankali kai tsaye, kodayake babban yanki na LLE ba zai yuwu ba. Bugu da ƙari, al'ummomin da suka fi dacewa da tsufa suna da ƙarancin gurɓataccen yanayi, yana nuna alaƙa tsakanin matakan gurɓataccen iska da kuma tsawon rai .

Ta yanki[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Indiya da China ne suka fi yawan mace-mace sakamakon Gurɓacewar iska. [50] Indiya kuma tana da yawan mace-mace daga asma fiye da kowace al'umma a cewar Hukumar Lafiya ta Duniya . A cikin watan Disambar 2013 an yi kiyasin gurbacewar iska na kashe mutane 500,000 a kasar Sin a kowace shekara. [51] Akwai kyakkyawar alaƙa tsakanin mace-mace masu alaƙa da ciwon huhu da gurɓacewar iska daga hayaƙin abin hawa.

An ƙiyasta mutuwar Turai da ba ta kai ba a kowace shekara sakamakon gurɓacewar iska a 430,000 zuwa 800,000. Muhimmin abin da ke haddasa wannan mace-mace shi ne nitrogen dioxide da sauran nitrogen oxides (NOx) da motocin titi ke fitarwa. [52] A cikin wata takardar shawarwari ta 2015 gwamnatin Burtaniya ta bayyana cewa nitrogen dioxide ne ke da alhakin mutuwar mutane 23,500 da ba a kai ba a Burtaniya a shekara. A duk faɗin Tarayyar Turai, an kiyasta gurɓacewar iska zai rage tsawon rayuwa da kusan watanni tara.

Jagorori[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Hukumar EPA ta Amurka ta yi ƙiyasin cewa iyakance matakin matakin ozone zuwa kashi 65 a kowace biliyan (ppb), zai kawar da mutuwar mutane 1,700 zuwa 5,100 a duk faɗin ƙasar a shekarar 2020 idan aka kwatanta da 75. ppb misali. Hukumar ta yi hasashen karin ma'aunin kariya zai kuma hana karin kamuwa da cutar asma guda 26,000, da kuma fiye da miliyan guda na rashin aiki ko makaranta. Bayan wannan kimantawa, EPA ta yi aiki don kare lafiyar jama'a ta hanyar rage ma'aunin ingancin iska na ƙasa (NAAQS) don matakin ozone na ƙasa zuwa 70. ppb. Wani sabon binciken tattalin arziki game da tasirin kiwon lafiya da haɗin kai na gurɓataccen iska a cikin Los Angeles Basin da San Joaquin Valley na Kudancin California ya nuna cewa fiye da mutane 3,800 suna mutuwa da wuri (kimanin shekaru 14 kafin al'ada) kowace shekara saboda matakan gurɓataccen iska ya saba wa tarayya. ma'auni. Adadin mace-macen da ba a kai ba na shekara-shekara ya fi na mace-macen da ke da alaƙa da taho mu gama da mota a wuri ɗaya, wanda matsakaicin ƙasa da 2,000 a kowace shekara. Wani bincike na 2021 ya gano cewa gurɓataccen iska a waje yana da alaƙa da haɓakar mace-mace "ko da a ƙananan matakan gurɓata ƙasa da ƙa'idodin Turai da Arewacin Amurka na yanzu da ƙimar jagororin WHO" jim kaɗan kafin WHO ta daidaita ƙa'idodinta.

Manyan dalilai[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kwatanta tushen sawun ƙafa da alaƙar ƙazanta mai iyaka tsakanin ƙasashen G20 don adadin PM 2.5 da ke da alaƙa da mutuwar da wuri.

Babban abin da ke haifar da shi shine gurɓataccen iska da konewar mai ke haifarwa - galibi samarwa da amfani da motoci, samar da wutar lantarki da dumama. Wani bincike yi ya yi kiyasin cewa akwai mace-mace miliyan 4.5 na shekara-shekara a duk duniya saboda gurɓataccen gurɓataccen iska da tashoshi masu fitar da wutar lantarki da hayakin mota ke fitarwa.

Shaye- shayen dizal (DE) babban mai ba da gudummawa ne ga gurɓacewar iska daga ƙonewa. A cikin gwaje-gwajen gwaji da yawa na ɗan adam, ta yin amfani da ingantaccen saitin ɗaki mai ɗaukar hoto, DE an danganta shi da rashin ƙarfi na jijiyoyin jini da haɓakar thrombus.

Wani bincike ya kammala da cewa gurɓacewar iska ta PM 2.5 ta hanyar ciniki cikin 'yanci na zamani da amfani da kasashe 19 na G20 na haifar da mutuwar mutane miliyan biyu a duk shekara, yana mai nuna cewa matsakaicin yawan rayuwa na kusan mutane ~ 28 a cikin waɗannan ƙasashe yana haifar da aƙalla mutuwa ɗaya da wuri (matsakaici). shekaru ~ 67) yayin da ƙasashe masu tasowa "ba za a iya tsammanin" aiwatarwa ko iya aiwatar da matakan da za su iya magance matsalolin ba tare da goyon bayan waje ko ƙoƙarin haɗin gwiwar duniya ba.

Hanyoyi na farko[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Hukumar ta WHO ta kiyasta cewa a cikin 2016, ~ 58% na mutuwar da ba a kai ba na gurɓacewar iska a waje sun kasance saboda cututtukan zuciya na ischemic da bugun jini. Hanyoyin da ke haɗa gurɓataccen iska zuwa ƙarar mace-mace na zuciya da jijiyoyin jini ba su da tabbas, amma mai yiwuwa sun haɗa da kumburin huhu da na tsari.

Mutuwar shekara ta zamani[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Wani bincike da masana kimiyya na jami'o'in Burtaniya da Amurka suka yi wanda ke amfani da samfurin ƙudurin sararin samaniya da sabunta aikin mayar da martani a cikin 2021 an tabbatar da cewa mutane miliyan 10.4 sun mutu a duniya a cikin 2012 da miliyan 8.7 a cikin 2018 - ko a fifth  - sun kasance ne saboda gurɓacewar iska da konewar man fetur ke haifarwa, wanda ya fi girma fiye da ƙiyasin da aka yi a baya kuma tare da rarrabuwar mace-mace.

A cewar hukumar ta WHO gurɓacewar iska ta yi sanadiyar mutuwar mutum 1 cikin 8 a duniya.

Cutar cututtukan zuciya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Wani nazari na 2007 na shaida ya gano cewa, bayyanar gurɓataccen iska na yanayi shine haɗarin haɗari da ke da alaƙa da ƙaruwar yawan mace-mace daga abubuwan da ke faruwa na zuciya da jijiyoyin jini (jeri: 12% zuwa 14% a kowace 10). µg/m 3 ƙaruwa).  

Haka kuma gurɓacewar iska na fitowa a matsayin wani abu mai hatsarin kamuwa da shanyewar jiki, musamman a ƙasashe masu tasowa inda yawan gurɓacewar yanayi ya fi yawa. Wani bincike da aka yi a shekara ta 2007 ya gano cewa a cikin mata, gurɓatacciyar iska ba ta da alaƙa da zubar jini amma tare da bugun jini. An kuma gano gurɓacewar iska yana da alaƙa da haɓakar haɓakawa da mace-mace daga bugun jini a cikin binciken ƙungiyar a cikin 2011. An yi imanin ƙungiyoyin suna haifar da haɗari kuma ana iya yin tasiri ta hanyar vasoconstriction, ƙananan kumburi da atherosclerosis . Hakanan an ba da shawarar wasu hanyoyin kamar rashin daidaituwar tsarin juyayi.

Cutar huhu[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Bincike ya nuna ƙarar haɗarin haɓakar asma da cututtukan cututtukan huhu na yau da kullun (COPD) daga haɓakar iska mai alaƙa da zirga-zirga. Bugu da ƙari, an haɗa gurɓataccen iska tare da ƙara yawan asibiti da mace-mace daga asma da COPD. COPD ya haɗa da cututtuka irin su mashako na kullum da kuma emphysema .

Wani binciken da aka gudanar a cikin 1960-1961 bayan Babban Smog na 1952 idan aka kwatanta da 293 mazauna London tare da mazaunan 477 na Gloucester, Peterborough, da Norwich, garuruwa uku masu ƙarancin rahoton mutuwa daga mashako na kullum. Dukkan batutuwan sun kasance direbobin manyan motocin gidan waya maza masu shekaru 40 zuwa 59. Idan aka kwatanta da batutuwa daga garuruwan da ke nesa, batutuwan Landan sun nuna alamun alamun numfashi masu tsanani (ciki har da tari, phlegm, da dyspnea), rage aikin huhu ( FEV <sub id="mwAvg">1</sub> da ƙimar kwarara mafi girma), da haɓaka samar da sputum da kumburi. Bambance-bambancen sun fi fitowa fili ga batutuwa masu shekaru 50 zuwa 59. Binciken ya sarrafa shekaru da halaye na shan taba, don haka ya kammala cewa gurɓataccen iska shine mafi mahimmancin dalilin da aka lura da bambance-bambance. [53] Ƙarin bincike ya nuna cewa gurɓataccen iska daga zirga-zirga yana rage haɓaka aikin huhu a cikin yara kuma aikin huhu yana iya lalacewa ta hanyar gurɓataccen iska ko da a ƙananan yawa.

An yi imani da cewa da yawa kamar cystic fibrosis, ta wurin zama a cikin mafi yawan yanayi na birane, haɗarin kiwon lafiya mai tsanani ya bayyana. Bincike ya nuna cewa a cikin birane mutane suna fama da matsalar kumburin ciki, da rage yawan aikin huhu, da kuma yawan gano kansu na mashako da kuma emphysema.

Ciwon daji (Ciwon daji na huhu)[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Rashin kariya ga gurɓataccen iska na PM2.5 na iya zama daidai da shan sigari da yawa kowace rana, mai yuwuwar ƙara haɗarin cutar kansa, wanda galibi sakamakon abubuwan muhalli ne.

Binciken shaida game da ko bayyanar gurɓataccen iska yana da haɗari ga ciwon daji a cikin 2007 ya sami cikakkun bayanai don ƙaddamar da cewa dogon lokaci mai tsawo zuwa PM2.5 (kyakkyawan ɓangarorin) yana ƙara yawan haɗarin mace-mace marasa haɗari da 6% a kowace shekara. 10 microg/m 3 karuwa. Bayyanawa ga PM2.5 kuma yana da alaƙa da haɓakar haɗarin mace-mace daga ciwon huhu na huhu (kewayon: 15% zuwa 21% ta 10 microg/m 3 karuwa) da kuma yawan mace-mace na zuciya da jijiyoyin jini (kewayi: 12% zuwa 14% ta 10 microg/ m 3 karuwa). Binciken ya ci gaba da lura cewa zama kusa da cunkoson ababen hawa da alama yana da alaƙa da haɓakar haɗarin waɗannan sakamako guda uku - ƙaruwa a cikin mutuwar ciwon daji na huhu, mutuwar zuciya da jijiyoyin jini, da mutuwar gaba ɗaya ba tare da hatsari ba. Masu bitar sun kuma sami shaida mai nuna cewa fallasa zuwa PM2.5 yana da alaƙa da alaƙa da mace-mace daga cututtukan zuciya na jijiyoyin jini da kuma bayyanar da SO 2 yana ƙaruwa da mace-mace daga cutar kansar huhu, amma bayanan bai isa ba don samar da tabbataccen sakamako. Wani bincike ya nuna cewa mafi girman matakin aiki yana ƙara raguwar ɓangarori na aerosol a cikin huhu na ɗan adam kuma ya ba da shawarar guje wa ayyuka masu nauyi kamar gudu a sararin samaniya a wuraren ƙazanta.[54]

A cikin 2011, babban binciken cututtukan cututtukan Danish ya sami ƙarin haɗarin cutar kansar huhu ga mutanen da ke rayuwa a cikin wuraren da ke da babban adadin nitrogen oxide. A cikin wannan binciken, ƙungiyar ta kasance mafi girma ga masu shan taba fiye da masu shan taba.[55] Wani ƙarin binciken Danish, kuma a cikin 2011, ya kuma lura da alamun yiwuwar ƙungiyoyi tsakanin gurɓataccen iska da sauran nau'ikan ciwon daji, gami da kansar mahaifa da kansar kwakwalwa.[56]

Ciwon ƙoda[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A cikin 2021, nazarin mazauna Taiwan 163,197 a tsawon lokacin 2001-2016 an ƙiyast cewa kowane 5 μg / m 3 raguwa a cikin yanayin yanayi na PM2.5 yana da alaƙa da 25% rage haɗarin ci gaban cututtukan koda.[57]

Yara[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A cikin Amurka, duk da nassi na Dokar Tsabtace Tsabtace a 1970, a cikin 2002 aƙalla Amurkawa miliyan 146 suna zaune a wuraren da ba a kai ga cimma ba - yankunan da yawan gurɓataccen iska ya wuce matsayin tarayya.[58] Waɗannan gurɓatattun masu haɗari an san su da ƙa'idodin ƙazantattun abubuwa, kuma sun haɗa da ozone, particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, da gubar. Ana ɗaukar matakan kariya don tabbatar da lafiyar yara a birane irin su New Delhi, Indiya, inda motocin bas a yanzu ke amfani da iskar gas ɗin da aka matsa don taimakawa wajen kawar da hayakin "miyan fis".[59] Wani bincike da aka gudanar kwanan nan a Turai ya gano cewa kamuwa da sinadarin ultrafine na iya kara hawan jini ga yara.[60] A cewar rahoton na WHO a shekarar 2018, gurɓacewar iska na janyo guba ga miliyoyin yara ƴan ƙasa da shekaru 15, wanda ya yi sanadiyar mutuwar yara kusan dubu ɗari shida a duk shekara.[61]

Bayyanar haihuwa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An danganta bayyanar da gurɓataccen iska daga haihuwa zuwa ga cututtuka iri-iri a cikin yara. Misali, fallasa zuwa ga polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) yana da alaƙa da raguwar maki IQ da alamun damuwa.[62] Hakanan za su iya haifar da lahani ga lafiyar mahaifa waɗanda galibi ke mutuwa a ƙasashe masu tasowa. Wani bincike na 2014 ya gano cewa PAHs na iya taka rawa a cikin ci gaban rashin kulawa da hankali na yara (ADHD).[63] Masu bincike sun kuma fara nemo shaidun gurɓacewar iska a matsayin abin da ke da haɗari ga cutar rashin lafiyar Autism (ASD). A Los Angeles, yaran da ke zaune a yankunan da ke da yawan gurɓacewar iska da ke da alaƙa da zirga-zirgar ababen hawa sun fi yiwuwa a gano su da Autism tsakanin shekaru 3-5. Haɗin kai tsakanin gurɓataccen iska da cututtukan haɓakar neurodevelopment a cikin yara ana tsammanin suna da alaƙa da lalatawar epigenetic na ƙwayoyin ƙwayoyin cuta na farko, amfrayo, da tayin yayin wani lokaci mai mahimmanci. Wasu PAHs ana ɗaukar su masu rushewar endocrine kuma suna narkewa. Lokacin da suka taso a cikin adipose nama, ana iya canja su zuwa cikin mahaifa.

Jarirai[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An haɗu da matakan gurɓataccen yanayi tare da haihuwa kafin haihuwa da ƙarancin nauyin haihuwa . Wani bincike na 2014 na WHO a duk duniya game da lafiyar mata da haihuwa ya sami haɗin gwiwar ƙididdiga tsakanin ƙananan nauyin haihuwa (LBW) da kuma ƙara yawan bayyanar da PM 2.5. Mata a yankuna masu girma fiye da matsakaicin matakan PM 2.5 suna da ƙididdiga mafi girman rashin daidaituwa na ciki wanda ya haifar da ƙarancin haihuwa ko da lokacin da aka daidaita don masu canji na ƙasa.[64] Ana tsammanin tasirin zai kasance daga kumburi mai haɓakawa da haɓaka damuwa na oxidative .

Wani bincike da Jami'ar York ta gudanar ya gano cewa a cikin 2010 bayyanar PM 2.5 yana da alaƙa sosai da kashi 18% na haihuwa kafin haihuwa a duniya, wanda ya kai kimanin miliyan 2.7 na haihuwa. Kasashen da suka fi fuskantar gurbacewar iskar da ke da alaka da haihuwa kafin haihuwa sun kasance a Kudu da Gabashin Asiya, Gabas ta Tsakiya, Arewacin Afirka, da Yammacin Saharar Afirka.[65]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

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