Kwararar ruwa

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Gudun gudu yana gudana cikin magudanar ruwa

Rushewar saman (wanda kuma aka sani da kwararar ƙasa ) shine kwararar ruwa da ke faruwa a saman ƙasa lokacin da yawan ruwan sama, ruwan narkewa, ko wasu hanyoyin, ba zai iya shiga cikin ƙasa cikin sauri ba. Wannan na iya faruwa ne lokacin da ƙasa ta cika da ruwa gwargwadon ƙarfinta, kuma ruwan sama ya zo da sauri fiye da yadda ƙasa za ta iya sha . Sau da yawa zubar ruwan saman yana faruwa ne saboda. wuraren da ba su da kyau (kamar rufin da pavement ) ba sa barin ruwa ya jiƙa cikin ƙasa. Bugu da ƙari, zubar da ruwa na iya faruwa ko dai ta hanyar tsarin halitta ko na mutum. Zubar da ruwan sama babban sashi ne na zagayowar ruwa . Ita ce wakili na farko na zaizayar ƙasa ta ruwa . [1] [2] Yankin ƙasar da ke samar da magudanar ruwa wanda ke malalawa zuwa wuri guda ana kiransa magudanar ruwa .

Guduwar da ke faruwa a saman ƙasa kafin isa tashar na iya zama tushen gurɓatawar da ba ta dace ba, Dan haka kuma saboda tana iya ɗaukar gurɓataccen gurɓataccen abu da mutum ya yi ko kuma nau'ikan gurɓataccen yanayi (kamar ganyaye mai ruɓe). Abubuwan da mutum ya kera a cikin ruwa sun haɗa da man fetur, magungunan kashe qwari, takin zamani da sauransu.

Baya ga haifar da zaizayar ruwa da Kuma gurbacewar ruwa, kwararar ruwa a cikin birane shine babban dalilin ambaliya a birane, wanda zai iya haifar da lalacewar dukiya, da daskarewa da gyale a cikin ginshiki, da ambaliyar ruwa.

Tsari[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ruwan ruwa daga gefen tsauni bayan ƙasa ta cika

Ana bayyana kwararar ruwan saman a matsayin hazo (ruwan sama, dusar ƙanƙara, guguwa, ko ƙanƙara ) wanda ke kaiwa ga kogin ƙasa ba tare da ya taɓa wucewa ƙasa da ƙasa ba. [3] Ya bambanta da zubar da ruwa kai tsaye, wanda ke kaiwa ga kogunan saman kasa nan da nan bayan ruwan sama ko narkewar dusar ƙanƙara kuma ya keɓance kwararar ruwan da ke haifar da narkar da dusar ƙanƙara ko glaciers. [3]

Dusar ƙanƙara suna narke ne kawai a wuraren sanyi da ya isa ya zama na dindindin. Yawanci dusar ƙanƙara tana narkewa a cikin bazara kuma glacier yana narkewa a lokacin rani, yana haifar da maxima maxima a cikin kogunan da suka shafa. Ƙayyadaddun adadin narkar da dusar ƙanƙara ko dusar ƙanƙara shine yanayin zafin iska da tsawon lokacin hasken rana. A yankuna masu tsayin tsaunuka, Kuma ƙoramu kan tashi a cikin ranakun rana kuma suna faɗowa kan gajimare saboda irin wannan dalili.

A wuraren da babu dusar ƙanƙara, ruwan sama zai fito daga ruwan sama. Duk da haka, ba duk ruwan sama ba ne zai haifar da zubar da ruwa saboda adanawa daga ƙasa na iya ɗaukar ruwan sama mai haske. A kan daɗaɗɗen ƙasa na ƙasar Ostiraliya da Kudancin Afirka, tushen furotin tare da manyan hanyoyin sadarwar tushen gashin su na iya ɗaukar ruwan sama mai yawa don hana kwararar ruwa ko da a lokacin yawan ruwan sama. A cikin waɗannan yankuna, har ma a kan ƙasan yumbu mai fashe ƙasa da ƙasa, ana buƙatar yawan ruwan sama da yuwuwar ƙanƙara don haifar da zubar da ruwa daga sama, wanda ke haifar da gyare-gyare na musamman zuwa magudanan ruwa masu canzawa (yawanci ephemeral).

Kutsawa wuce gona da iri[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Stormwater management using trees (animation)

Hakan na faruwa ne a lokacin da yawan ruwan sama a saman sama ya zarce adadin da ruwa ke iya kutsawa cikin kasa, kuma an riga an cika duk wani ajiyar bakin ciki. Wannan kuma ana kiransa Hortonian overland flow (bayan Robert E. Horton ), ko kwararar ƙasa mara kyau. Wannan ya fi faruwa a wasu yankunan da ba su da ɓarke da ɓarke, inda ruwan sama ya yi yawa kuma ana rage ƙarfin shigar ƙasa saboda rufe saman ƙasa, ko kuma a cikin biranen da shingen shinge na hana ruwa shiga.

Lokacin da ƙasa ta cika kuma aka cika ajiyar baƙin ciki, kuma ruwan sama ya ci gaba da faɗuwa, ruwan sama zai haifar da zubar da jini nan da nan. Matsayin damshin ƙasa na farko shine abu ɗaya da ke shafar lokaci har sai ƙasa ta cika. Wannan guguwar ana kiranta saturation wuce gona da iri, cikakkar kwararar kan kasa, ko ruwan Dunne.

Danshin kasa na gaba[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ƙasa tana riƙe da ɗanɗano kaɗan bayan ruwan sama . Wannan saura danshin ruwa yana rinjayar iyawar shigar ƙasa. Sannan A yayin taron ruwan sama na gaba, ƙarfin shigar da ƙasa zai sa ƙasa ta cika da ƙima daban-daban. Mafi girman matakin danshin ƙasa na farko, da sauri ƙasa ta zama cikakke. Da zarar ƙasa ta cika, zubar ruwa yana faruwa. Don haka, zubar da ruwa yana taka muhimmiyar rawa wajen sarrafa danshi na ƙasa bayan guguwa mai matsakaici da ƙarancin ƙarfi.

Komawar da ke ƙarƙashin ƙasa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bayan ruwa ya kutsa cikin ƙasa a kan wani yanki mai hawa sama na tudu, ruwan zai iya gudana a kaikaice ta cikin ƙasa, kuma ya fitar (fitowa daga cikin ƙasa) kusa da tashar. Wannan shi ake kira kwararar dawowar karkashin kasa ko kuma kwarara .

Yayin da yake gudana, za'a iya rage yawan zubar da ruwa ta hanyoyi da yawa: karamin sashi na iya ƙafewa ; Ana iya adana ruwa na ɗan lokaci a cikin ɓacin rai na microtopographic; kuma wani yanki nasa yana iya kutsawa yayin da yake gudana a kan kasa. Duk sauran ruwan saman da ya rage daga ƙarshe yana gudana zuwa cikin ruwa mai karɓa kamar kogi, tafki, bakin ruwa ko teku .

Tasirin dan Adam[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Wankewar hazo ya gurɓata cikin kogunan gida
Ruwan saman birni ya kwarara

Urbanization yana ƙara zubar da ruwa ta hanyar samar da ƙarin wuraren da ba su da kyau kamar shinge da gine-gine waɗanda ba sa ƙyale ruwa ya gangara ta cikin ƙasa zuwa maɓuɓɓugar ruwa . A maimakon haka sai a tilasta shi kai tsaye cikin rafuka ko magudanar ruwa na guguwa, inda zaizayar kasa da siltation na iya zama manyan matsaloli, ko da ambaliya ba. Kuma Yawan zubar da ruwa yana rage yawan ruwan da ke karkashin kasa, ta yadda za a rage yawan ruwan da ake fama da shi da kuma kara tsananta fari, musamman ga manoman noma da sauran wadanda suka dogara da rijiyoyin ruwa .

Lokacin da gurɓataccen ɗan adam ya narke ko dakatar da shi a cikin ruwa mai gudu, tasirin ɗan adam yana faɗaɗa don haifar da gurɓataccen ruwa . Wannan gurɓataccen nauyi na iya isa ga ruwa daban-daban kamar rafuka, koguna, tafkuna, tudu da kuma tekuna tare da sakamakon sauye-sauyen sinadarai na ruwa ga waɗannan tsarin ruwa da abubuwan da ke da alaƙa da su.

Wani rahoto na shekarata 2008 na Majalisar Binciken Ƙasa ta Amurka ya gano ruwan guguwar birni a matsayin babban tushen matsalolin ingancin ruwa a cikin Amurka [4]

Yayin da mutane ke ci gaba da canza yanayin yanayi ta hanyar haɓakar iskar gas zuwa sararin samaniya, ana sa ran yanayin hazo zai canza yayin da ƙarfin sararin samaniya na tururin ruwa ke ƙaruwa. Wannan zai haifar da sakamako kai tsaye akan adadin zubar da ruwa.

Sakamakon zubar da ruwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yazawa da kuma sakawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Zubar da ruwan sama na iya haifar da zazzagewar saman duniya; Za'a iya ajiye kayan da ya lalace nesa da nisa. Akwai manyan nau'ikan zaizayar ƙasa guda huɗu: zaizayar ƙasa, zaizayar ƙasa, zaizayar ƙasa da zaizayar gully . Yazawar ruwan sama shine sakamakon karo na inji na ɗigon ruwan sama tare da saman ƙasa: barbashi ƙasa waɗanda tasirin ya wargaza sannan su motsa tare da zubar da ruwa. Rushewar takarda shine jigilar ruwa ta kan ƙasa ta ruwa ba tare da ƙayyadaddun tashoshi ba. Ƙunƙarar saman ƙasa yana iya haifar da zubar da ruwa ya tattara cikin kunkuntar hanyoyin ɓuɓɓuga: kamar yadda waɗannan ƙayyadaddun ƙayyadaddun tashoshi suna da ƙayyadaddun ƙayyadaddun tashoshi waɗanda aka kafa da suna rills . Waɗannan tashoshi na iya zama ƙanana kamar faɗin santimita ɗaya ko girma kamar mita da yawa. Idan zubar da ruwa ya ci gaba da toka kuma ya kara girma, za su iya girma a karshe su zama gullies . Yazawar guly na iya jigilar abubuwa da yawa da suka lalace Duk a cikin kankanin lokaci wato a ƙurataccen lokaci

Lalacewar ƙasa ta hanyar ruwa akan ƙasar noma da ake noma sosai.
An ƙarfafa shingen Willow tare da abubuwan ban sha'awa don iyakancewar gudu, arewacin Faransa.

Rage yawan amfanin gona yakan haifar da zaizayar ƙasa, kuma ana nazarin waɗannan tasirin a fagen kiyaye ƙasa . Barbashin ƙasa da ke ɗauke da ruwa ya bambanta da girman daga kimanin .001 millimeter zuwa kimanin milimita 1.0 a diamita. Manyan ɓangarorin suna daidaita kan ɗan gajeren nisa na sufuri, yayin da ƙananan ƙwayoyin za a iya ɗaukar su ta nisa mai nisa an dakatar da su a cikin ginshiƙi na ruwa . Rushewar ƙasa maras nauyi wanda ke ɗauke da ƙananan ɓangarorin yana haifar da turɓaya kuma yana rage watsa haske, wanda ke rushe yanayin yanayin ruwa .

Duk sassan ƙasashe sun zama marasa amfani ta hanyar zaizayar ƙasa. A kan babban tudun ƙasar Madagaska, kusan kashi goma na ƙasar ƙasar, kusan dukkan faɗin ƙasar ba ta da ciyayi, tare da ɓangarorin gully mai ƙazantawa yawanci fiye da zurfin mita 50 da faɗin kilomita ɗaya. Juyawa noma tsarin noma ne wanda wani lokaci yakan haɗa hanyar yanke yankan rago da ƙonawa a wasu yankuna na duniya. Zaizayar kasa yana haifar da asarar ƙasa mai albarka kuma yana rage yawan amfanin gonarta da Kuma ingancin amfanin gona.

Noman masana'antu na zamani wani babban abin da ke haifar da zaizayar kasa. Fiye da kashi uku na Masara Belt ta Amurka gaba ɗaya ta yi asarar samanta . Sauya ayyukan noma zai rage zaizayar ƙasa daga filayen noma na Amurka da fiye da kusan kashi 70 cikin ɗari.

Tasirin muhalli[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Muhimman batutuwan muhalli masu alaƙa da kwararar ruwa sune tasirin ruwa, ruwan ƙasa da ƙasa ta hanyar jigilar gurɓataccen ruwa zuwa waɗannan tsarin. A ƙarshe waɗannan sakamakon suna fassara zuwa haɗarin lafiyar ɗan adam, rikicewar yanayin muhalli da tasirin kyawawan abubuwa ga albarkatun ruwa. Wasu daga cikin gurɓatattun abubuwan da ke haifar da babban tasiri ga ruwan saman da ke tasowa daga zubar da ruwa sune abubuwan da ake amfani da su na man fetur, maganin ciyawa da takin mai magani. An yi nazari kan yawan adadin kuzari ta hanyar fitar da magungunan kashe qwari da sauran gurɓatattun abubuwa tun daga shekarata 1960, kuma farkon tuntuɓar magungunan kashe qwari da ruwa an san yana haɓaka phytotoxicity . [5] A cikin yanayin ruwan saman, tasirin yana fassara zuwa gurɓataccen ruwa, tun da koguna da koguna sun sami zubar da ruwa mai ɗauke da sinadarai daban-daban ko laka. Lokacin da aka yi amfani da ruwan sama a matsayin samar da ruwan sha, za a iya lalata su game da haɗarin lafiya da ƙayatattun ruwan sha (wato, wari, launi da tasirin turbidity ). gurɓataccen ruwan saman ƙasa yana haɗarin canza tsarin rayuwa na nau'in ruwan da suke ɗaukar nauyi; Dukkanin waɗannan sauye-sauye na iya haifar da mutuwa, kamar kifin kisa, ko canza ma'auni na yawan jama'a. Sai Dai Sauran takamaiman tasirin su ne kan dabbar dabbar dabba, haifuwa, kwai da yuwuwar tsutsa, tsirar yara da yawan amfanin shuka. Wasu bincike sun nuna kwararar magungunan kashe qwari, irin su DDT, na Kuma iya canza jinsin nau'in kifi ta hanyar dabi'a, wanda ke canza namiji zuwa kifin mace. [6]

Rushewar ruwa da ke faruwa a cikin dazuzzuka na iya samar da tafkuna masu tarin yawa na ma'adinai na nitrogen da phosphorus wanda ke haifar da eutrophiation . Ruwan da ke gudana a cikin gandun daji na coniferous shima yana wadatar da acid humic kuma yana iya haifar da ƙasƙantar da jikin ruwa [7] Bugu da ƙari, tsayin tsayi da tsibiran matasa a cikin wurare masu zafi da na wurare masu zafi na iya fuskantar ƙimar zaizayar ƙasa kuma suna ba da gudummawar manyan abubuwan jan hankali ga tekun bakin teku. . Irin wannan ƙasa da aka samu ta hanyar sinadarai na sinadarai, carbon, da gurɓatawa na iya yin tasiri mai yawa akan zagayowar nazarin halittu na Duk duniya da yanayin ruwa da na bakin teku. [8]

Dangane da ruwan karkashin kasa, babban lamarin shi ne gurbatar ruwan sha, idan an shafe magudanar ruwa don amfanin dan Adam. Game da gurɓacewar ƙasa, ruwan da ke gudana zai iya samun mahimman hanyoyi guda biyu na damuwa. Na farko, ruwa mai gudu zai iya fitar da gurɓataccen ƙasa kuma ya ɗauke su a matsayin gurɓataccen ruwa zuwa matsugunan ruwa masu mahimmanci. Na biyu, zubar da ruwa na iya sanya gurɓataccen abu a kan ƙasa mai tsabta, haifar da lafiya ko sakamakon muhalli.

Batun noma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Sauran abubuwan da suka shafi aikin gona sun haɗa da jigilar sinadarai na noma (nitrates, phosphates, magungunan kashe qwari, maganin ciyawa, da sauran makamantan su) ta hanyar zubar da ruwa. Wannan sakamakon yana faruwa ne lokacin da amfani da sinadarai ya wuce kima ko rashin lokacin da ya dace dangane da hazo mai yawa. Sakamakon gurɓataccen ruwan da ya biyo baya yana wakiltar ba wai kawai ɓarna na sinadarai na noma ba ne, har ma da barazanar muhalli ga yanayin ƙasa. Yawancin lokaci ana amfani da bambaro don kare ƙasa daga zaizawar ƙasa da ci gaban ciyawa. Koyaya, girbi waɗannan amfanin gona na iya haifar da haɓakar zaizayar ƙasa.

Batun Tattalin Arziki.[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ruwan gonaki

Gudun gudu na saman yana haifar da babban adadin tasirin tattalin arziki. Pine bambaro hanyoyi ne masu tasiri masu tsada don mu'amala da gushewar ƙasa. Bugu da ƙari, za a iya sake amfani da runfunan da ke ƙasa ta hanyar haɓakar giwaye. A ƙasar Najeriya ana daukar ciyawa ta giwa hanya ce ta tattalin arziki wacce za a iya rage gudu da zaizayar kasa. Har ila yau, kasar Sin ta samu gagarumin tasiri daga kwararar ruwa zuwa ga mafi yawan amfanin gonakinsu na tattalin arziki kamar kayan lambu. Don haka, an san sun aiwatar da tsarin da ke rage asarar abubuwan gina jiki (nitrogen da phosphorus) a cikin ƙasa.

Ambaliyar ruwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ambaliyar ruwa tana faruwa ne lokacin da magudanar ruwa ta kasa isar da adadin ruwan da ke gudana a ƙasa. Mitar abin da wannan ke faruwa ana bayyana shi ta lokacin dawowa . Ambaliyar ruwa wani tsari ne na dabi'a, wanda ke kula da tsarin halittu da tsari, amma kuma ana iya canza shi ta hanyar sauye-sauyen amfani da ƙasa kamar injiniyan kogi. Ambaliyar ruwa na iya zama da amfani ga al'umma ko kuma ta yi barna. Noma da ke gefen kogin Nilu sun yi amfani da ambaliyar ruwa na yanayi wanda ke tanadin abubuwan gina jiki masu amfani ga amfanin gona. Duk da haka, yayin da adadi da lalurar ƙauyuka ke ƙaruwa, ambaliya na ƙara zama haɗari na halitta. A cikin birane, kwararar ruwa daga saman ƙasa shine farkon abin da ke haifar da ambaliya na birane, wanda aka sani da maimaitawa da kuma tasiri mai tsada ga al'ummomi. [9] Mummunan illar da ke tattare da asarar rayuka, hasarar dukiya, gurbacewar ruwan sha, haka Kuma asarar amfanin gona, da tarwatsa jama'a da rashin matsuguni na wucin gadi. Ambaliyar ruwa na daga cikin bala'o'in da suka fi yin barna. An kuma san yin amfani da ƙarin ban ruwa a matsayin wata muhimmiyar hanya wadda amfanin gona irin su masara za su iya riƙe takin nitrogen a cikin ƙasa, wanda ke haifar da haɓaka samar da ruwan amfanin gona.

Ragewa da magani[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Runoff rike tafkunan (Uplands unguwa na North Bend, Washington )

Rage illolin da ke haifar da zubar da jini na iya ɗaukar nau'i da yawa:

  • Irƙirar haɓaka amfani da ƙasa da nufin rage abubuwan da ba su da kyau a cikin birane
  • Gudanar da zaizayar ƙasa ga gonaki da wuraren gine- gine
  • Kula da ambaliyar ruwa da shirye-shiryen sake fasalin, kamar kayan aikin kore
  • Amfani da sinadarai da sarrafa sarrafawa a cikin aikin gona, kiyaye shimfidar wuri, amfani da masana'antu, da sauransu.

Land use controls. Many world regulatory agencies have encouraged research on methods of minimizing total surface runoff by avoiding unnecessary hardscape.[10] Many municipalities have produced guidelines and codes (zoning and related ordinances) for land developers that encourage minimum width sidewalks, use of pavers set in earth for driveways and walkways and other design techniques to allow maximum water infiltration in urban settings. An example of a local program specifying design requirements, construction practices and maintenance requirements for buildings and properties is in Santa Monica, California.[11] Template:Further

Kula da zaizayar kasa ya bayyana tun zamanin da lokacin da manoma suka fahimci mahimmancin noman kwane-kwane don kare albarkatun ƙasa. Tun daga shekarata 1950 waɗannan hanyoyin noma sun ƙara haɓaka. A cikin shekarun 1960 wasu gwamnatocin jahohi da na kananan hukumomi sun fara mai da hankali kan kokarinsu wajen rage kwararar gine-gine ta hanyar bukatar magina su aiwatar da matakan hana zaizayar kasa da nakasa ( ESCs ). Wannan ya haɗa da irin waɗannan fasahohin kamar: yin amfani da bas ɗin bambaro da shinge don rage gudu a kan gangara, shigar da shinge na silt, gina shirye-shirye na watanni waɗanda ba su da ƙarancin ruwan sama da raguwa da tsawon wuraren da aka fallasa. Lardin Montgomery, Maryland ta aiwatar da shirin kula da tsatsauran ra'ayi na karamar hukuma a cikin shekarar 1965, kuma wannan ya biyo bayan shirin a duk faɗin jihar Maryland a cikin shekarata 1970.

Shirye-shiryen shawo kan ambaliyar ruwa tun farkon rabin farkon karni na ashirin ya zama mai ƙima a cikin hasashen kololuwar tsarin kogi . An samar da dabarun ci gaba don rage kololuwar ruwa da kuma rage saurin tashoshi. Wasu fasahohin da aka saba amfani da su sune: samar da riƙon tafkuna (wanda ake kira dakunan ajiyar ruwa ko daidaita tafkuna ) don hana kololuwar kogi, yin amfani da na'urorin watsa makamashi a cikin tashoshi don rage saurin magudanan ruwa da sarrafa amfani da ƙasa don rage kwararar ruwa.

Amfani da sinadarai da kulawa. Bayan aiwatar da dokar kiyaye albarkatu da dawo da albarkatun Amurka (RCRA) a cikin shekarata 1976, daga baya kuma Dokar Ingancin Ruwa ta 1987, jihohi da biranen sun ƙara yin taka tsan-tsan wajen sarrafa ƙunshe da adanar sinadarai masu guba, don haka hana fitar da zubewa. Hanyoyin da aka saba amfani da su sune: buƙatu don ninki biyu na tankunan ajiya na ƙarƙashin ƙasa, rajistar amfani da kayan haɗari, raguwar adadin magungunan kashe qwari da aka yarda da shi da ƙarin tsauraran ƙa'idodin takin zamani da ciyawa a cikin kiyaye shimfidar wuri. A yawancin masana'antu, ana buƙatar gyaran sharar gida, don rage gudu daga gurɓataccen ruwa zuwa magudanar ruwa ko ruwan sama.

Dokar Tsabtace Ruwa ta Amurka (CWA) ta buƙaci ƙananan hukumomi a cikin birane (kamar yadda Ofishin Kidayar Jama'a ta ayyana) su sami izinin fitar da ruwan sama don tsarin magudanar ruwa. [12] [13] Mahimmanci wannan yana nufin cewa yankin dole ne ya yi aiki da shirin kula da ruwan guguwa don duk kwararar ruwan sama da ke shiga tsarin magudanar ruwa na daban na birni (" MS4 "). Dokokin EPA da na jihohi da wallafe-wallafen da ke da alaƙa sun zayyana abubuwan asali guda shida waɗanda kowane shiri na gida ya ƙunshi:

  • Ilimin jama'a (sanar da mutane, gidaje, kasuwanci game da hanyoyin gujewa gurɓacewar ruwa)
  • Shiga jama'a (tallafawa jama'a shiga cikin aiwatar da shirye-shiryen gida)
  • Gano fitar da ba bisa ka'ida ba & kawarwa (cire magudanar ruwa ko wasu hanyoyin haɗin ruwan da ba na guguwa ba zuwa MS4 )
  • Gudanar da zubar da ruwa na wurin gini (watau zaizayar ƙasa da sarrafa laka)
  • Bayan gini (watau dindindin) sarrafa ruwan guguwa
  • Rigakafin gurɓatawa (misali ingantattun sarrafa sinadarai, gami da sarrafa man fetur da mai, takin zamani, magungunan kashe qwari da injinan titi ) da matakan “kyakkyawan kula da gida” (misali kula da tsarin).

Sauran masu mallakar kadarori waɗanda ke gudanar da tsarin magudanar ruwa mai kama da gundumomi, kamar tsarin babbar hanyar jiha, jami'o'i, sansanonin soja da gidajen yari, suma suna ƙarƙashin buƙatun izinin na MS4.

Aunawa da ƙirar lissafi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ana nazarin runoff ta amfani da ƙirar lissafi a haɗe tare da hanyoyi daban-daban na samfurin ingancin ruwa . Ana iya yin ma'auni ta amfani da ci gaba da sarrafa kayan aikin bincike na ingancin ruwa mai sarrafa kansa wanda aka yi niyya akan gurɓatattun abubuwa kamar ƙayyadaddun sinadarai na Organic ko inorganic, pH, turbidity da dai sauransu ko aka yi niyya akan alamomi na biyu kamar narkar da iskar oxygen . Hakanan za'a iya yin ma'auni a cikin tsari ta hanyar cire samfurin ruwa guda ɗaya da gudanar da kowane adadin sinadarai ko gwaje-gwaje na zahiri akan wannan samfurin.

A cikin shekarata 1950s ko kuma samfuran jigilar ruwa na farko sun bayyana don ƙididdige yawan zubar da ruwa, musamman don hasashen ambaliyar ruwa. Tun daga farkon shekarun 1970s an ƙirƙira samfuran kwamfuta don nazarin jigilar kwararar ruwa da ke ɗauke da gurɓataccen ruwa, waɗanda ke yin la'akari da adadin narkar da sinadarai daban-daban, kutsawa cikin ƙasa da babban nauyin gurɓataccen ruwa da aka kai ga ruwa . Ɗaya daga cikin samfuran farko da ke magance rushewar sinadarai a cikin guguwa da kuma abin hawa an haɓaka shi a farkon 1970s ƙarƙashin kwangilar Hukumar Kare Muhalli ta Amurka (EPA). [14] Wannan ƙirar kwamfuta ta samar da ginshiƙi na yawancin binciken ragewa wanda ya haifar da dabarun amfani da ƙasa da sarrafa sinadarai.

Ƙwarai, masu aikin ruwa na guguwa sun fahimci buƙatar ƙirar Monte Carlo don daidaita tsarin tafiyar da ruwa saboda bambance-bambancen yanayi a cikin sauye-sauye masu yawa waɗanda ke shafar inganci da yawan zubar da ruwa. Amfanin nazarin Monte Carlo ba shine don rage rashin tabbas a cikin kididdigar shigarwa ba, amma don wakiltar haɗuwa daban-daban na masu canji waɗanda ke ƙayyade haɗarin balaguron ingancin ruwa. Ɗaya daga cikin misalan irin wannan nau'in samfurin ruwan guguwa shine stochastic empirical loading da dilution model ( SELDM ) [15] [16] shine samfurin ingancin ruwan hadari . An ƙirƙira SELDM don canza haɗaɗɗun bayanan kimiyya zuwa bayanai masu ma'ana game da haɗarin mummunan tasirin kwararar ruwa a kan karɓar ruwa, yuwuwar buƙatar matakan ragewa, da yuwuwar tasirin irin waɗannan matakan gudanarwa don rage waɗannan haɗarin. SELDM yana ba da hanya don kimanta bayanai cikin sauri waɗanda ke da wahala ko kuma ba za a iya samu ba saboda yana ƙirƙira ma'amala tsakanin masu canjin yanayi (tare da rabe-raben yuwuwar mabambanta) wanda ke haifar da yawan ƙima waɗanda ke wakiltar yiwuwar sakamako na dogon lokaci daga matakan gudu da kuma Na yuwuwar tasirin matakan raguwa daban-daban. Har ila yau, SELDM yana ba da hanyoyin yin bincike mai zurfi cikin hanzari don tantance tasirin zato daban-daban game da haɗarin balaguron ingancin ruwa.

Other computer models have been developed (such as the DSSAM Model) that allow surface runoff to be tracked through a river course as reactive water pollutants. In this case the surface runoff may be considered to be a line source of water pollution to the receiving waters.

Duba wasu abubuwan[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Agricultural wastewater –
  • Agricultural nutrient runoff
  • Catchwater
  • Ambaliyar ruwa
  • Flood forecasting
  • Hydrological model
  • Nationwide Urban Runoff Program Bincike na Amurka
  • Nonpoint source pollution –
  • Rain garden
  • Runoff curve number
  • Runoff model (reservoir)
  • Soil conservation –
  • Soil contamination –
  • Stochastic_empirical_loading_and_dilution_model
  • Stormwater –
  • Trophic state index –
  • Urban flooding –
  • Water pollution –

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Ronnie Wilson, The Horton Papers (1933)
  2. Keith Beven, Robert E. Horton's perceptual model of infiltration processes, Hydrological Processes, Wiley Intersciences DOI 10:1002 hyp 5740 (2004)
  3. 3.0 3.1 Jackson 1997.
  4. United States. National Research Council. Washington, DC. "Urban Stormwater Management in the United States." October 15, 2008. pp. 18-20.
  5. W.F. Spencer, Distribution of Pesticides between Soil, Water and Air, International symposium on Pesticides in the Soil, February 25–27, 1970, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan
  6. Science News. "DDT treatment turns male fish into mothers." 2000-02-05. (By subscription only.)
  7. Klimaszyk Piotr, Rzymski Piotr "Surface Runoff as a Factor Determining Trophic State of Midforest Lake" Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 2011, 20(5), 1203-1210
  8. Renee K. Takesue,Curt D. Storlazzi. Sources and dispersal of land-based runoff from small Hawaiian drainages to a coral reef: Insights from geochemical signatures. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science Journal. 2/13/17
  9. Center for Neighborhood Technology, Chicago IL “The Prevalence and Cost of Urban Flooding.” May 2013
  10. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). "Impervious Cover." Ecosystems Research Division, Athens, GA. 2009-02-24. Archived Mayu 9, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  11. "City of Santa Monica Urban Runoff Management Program" (PDF). Santa Monica, CA: City of Santa Monica Environmental & Public Works Management. 2001. Brochure.
  12. United States. Code of Federal Regulations, 40 CFR 122.26
  13. EPA. Washington, D.C. "Stormwater Discharges From Municipal Separate Storm Sewer Systems (MS4s)." 2009-03-11.
  14. C.M. Hogan, Leda Patmore, Gary Latshaw, Harry Seidman et al. Computer modeling of pesticide transport in soil for five instrumented watersheds, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Southeast Water laboratory, Athens, Ga. by ESL Inc., Sunnyvale, California (1973)
  15. Granato, G.E., 2013, Stochastic empirical loading and dilution model (SELDM) version 1.0.0: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods, book 4, chap. C3, 112 p. http://pubs.usgs.gov/tm/04/c03/
  16. Granato, G.E., 2014, SELDM: Stochastic Empirical Loading and Dilution Model version 1.0.3 Software support page available at https://doi.org/10.5066/F7TT4P3G

Hanyoyin haɗi na waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]