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Ruwan Turbidity

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Ruwan Turbidity
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na quality (en) Fassara da physical quantity (en) Fassara
Has contributing factor (en) Fassara rock flour (en) Fassara
Recommended unit of measurement (en) Fassara Nephelometric Turbidity Unit (en) Fassara

Jagimari dai Shine hailacin wani ruwa da ke haifar da adadi mai yawa na ɓangarorin ɗaiɗaikun waɗanda gaba ɗaya ba sa iya gani da ido tsirara, kama da hayaƙi a cikin iska . Auna turbidity shine mabuɗin gwajin ingancin ruwa .

Ruwan na iya ƙunsar tsayayyen al'amari wanda ya ƙunshi barbashi masu girma dabam-dabam. Yayin da wasu kayan da aka dakatar za su yi girma sosai kuma suna da nauyi sosai don daidaitawa da sauri zuwa kasan idan an bar samfurin ruwa don tsayawa ( Daskararrun ), ƙananan ƙwayoyin za su daidaita kawai a hankali ko a'a idan samfurin ya kasance. A kai a kai agitated ko barbashi ne colloidal . Waɗannan ƙananan ƙananan ƙwayoyin cuta suna sa ruwan ya zama turbid.

Hakanan ana amfani da turbidity (ko haze) ga daskararrun daskararru kamar gilashi ko filastik. A cikin samar da filastik, ana ayyana haze azaman adadin haske wanda ke karkatar da sama da kimanin 2.5° daga hanyar haske mai shigowa.

Turbidity a cikin budadden ruwa na iya haifar da girma na phytoplankton . Ayyukan ɗan adam da ke damun ƙasa, kamar irin su gine-gine, hakar ma'adinai da noma, na iya haifar da matakan daskararru masu yawa da ke shiga cikin ruwa a lokacin da aka yi ruwan sama saboda guguwar ruwa . Wuraren da ke fama da matsalar zaizayar banki da kuma yankunan da ke cikin birane su ma suna ba da ɗimbin turɓaya ga ruwan da ke kusa da su, Ta hanyar gurɓacewar ruwan guguwa daga shimfidar shimfida kamar tituna, gadoji, wuraren ajiye motoci da Kuma filayen jirgin sama. [1] Wasu masana'antu irin su fasa dutse, hakar ma'adinai da dawo da gawayi na iya haifar da matsanancin turbidity daga barbashi na dutsen colloidal.

A cikin ruwan sha, mafi girman matakin turbidity, mafi girman haɗarin cewa mutane na iya haifar da cututtukan gastrointestinal . [2] Wannan yana da matsala musamman ga mutanen da ba su da rigakafi, saboda gurɓata kamar ƙwayoyin cuta ko ƙwayoyin cuta na iya haɗawa da daskararrun da aka dakatar. Daskararrun da aka dakatar suna tsoma baki tare da lalata ruwa tare da chlorine saboda barbashi suna aiki azaman garkuwa ga ƙwayoyin cuta da ƙwayoyin cuta. Hakazalika, daskararru da aka dakatar na iya kare ƙwayoyin cuta daga haifuwar ultraviolet (UV) .

A cikin ruwa kamar tafkuna, koguna da tafkunan ruwa, ƙoramu, matakan turbidity masu yawa na iya rage adadin hasken da ke kaiwa ƙananan zurfin, wanda zai iya hana ci gaban tsare-tsare na cikin ruwa da ke cikin ruwa kuma saboda haka yana shafar nau'in da suka dogara da su, kamar kifi da kifi . Matsakaicin turbidity kuma na iya rinjayar ikon gills na kifin don ɗaukar iskar oxygen narkar da. Ana yin wannan al'amari akai-akai a ko'ina cikin Chesapeake Bay a gabashin Amurka. [3]

Ga yankuna da yawa na mangrove, ana buƙatar turbidity mai girma don tallafawa wasu nau'ikan, kamar kare kifin yara daga mafarauta. Ga mafi yawan mangroves tare da gabashin gabar tekun Ostiraliya, musamman Moreton Bay, ana buƙatar matakan turbidity masu girma kamar kimanin 600 Nephelometric Turbidity Units (NTU) don ingantaccen yanayin yanayin yanayin .

Ruwan raƙuman turbid wanda ruwan sama mai ƙarfi ya haifar.

Naúrar ma'aunin da aka fi amfani da shi don turbidity shine Formazin Turbidity Unit (FTU). ISO tana nufin raka'o'inta a matsayin FNU (Formazin Nephelometric Units). ISO 7027 yana ba da hanyar ingancin ruwa don ƙayyadaddun turbidity.

Ana amfani da shi don ƙayyade ƙaddamar da ƙwayoyin da aka dakatar da su a cikin samfurin ruwa ta hanyar auna hasken abin da ya faru a cikin kusurwoyi madaidaici daga samfurin. Hasken da aka watsar yana kama da photodiode, wanda ke samar da siginar lantarki wanda aka canza zuwa turbidity. An haɓaka kayan aikin buɗe tushen tushen bin hanyar ISO Har 7027 don auna turbidity da dogaro ta amfani da microcontroller Arduino da LEDs masu tsada. [4]

Akwai hanyoyi masu amfani da yawa na duba ingancin ruwa, mafi kai tsaye shine wasu ma'auni na attenuation (wato, raguwar ƙarfi) na haske yayin da yake wucewa ta hanyar samfurin ruwa. Hanyar da aka yi amfani da ita ta hanyar Jackson Candle (raka'a: Jackson Turbidity Unit ko JTU ) shi ne ainihin ma'auni na tsawon ginshiƙi na ruwa da ake bukata don rufewa gaba daya harshen wutan da aka gani ta cikinsa. Yawan ruwan da ake buƙata (tsawon ginshiƙin ruwa), mafi ƙaranci ruwa. Tabbas ruwa kadai yana haifar da raguwa, kuma duk wani abu da aka narkar da shi a cikin ruwan da ke samar da launi zai iya rage tsawon wasu tsayin daka. Na'urorin zamani ba sa amfani da kyandir, amma wannan hanya na attenuation na haska hasken ta hanyar ginshiƙi na ruwa yakamata a daidaita shi kuma a ba da rahoto a cikin JTUs. [5]

Ƙaunar barbashi don watsar da hasken haske da aka mayar da hankali a kansu yanzu ana ɗaukar ma'auni mafi ma'ana na turbidity a cikin ruwa. Turbidity da aka auna ta wannan hanya yana amfani da kayan aiki da ake kira nephelometer tare da na'urar ganowa da aka saita zuwa gefen katako. Ƙarin haske yana kaiwa mai ganowa idan akwai ƙananan ƙwayoyin cuta da yawa suna watsar da katakon tushe fiye da idan akwai kaɗan. Raka'a na turbidity daga wani calibrated nephelometer ana kiransa Nephelometric Turbidity Units ( NTU ). Har zuwa wani lokaci, yawan hasken da ke nunawa ga adadin barbashi ya dogara da kaddarorin ɓangarorin kamar siffarsu, launi, da kwatancensu. Saboda wannan dalili (kuma dalilin da cewa barbashi masu nauyi suna daidaitawa da sauri kuma ba sa taimakawa ga karatun turbidity), dangantaka tsakanin turbidity da jimlar daskararrun da aka dakatar (TSS) yana da ɗan sabon abu ga kowane wuri ko halin da ake ciki.

Ana iya auna turbidity a cikin tafkuna, tafkunan ruwa, tashoshi, da kuma teku ta amfani da samfarin faifan Secchi . Ana saukar da wannan baƙar fata da fari a cikin ruwa har sai an daina ganinsa; zurfin (zurfin Secchi) an rubuta shi azaman ma'auni na gaskiyar ruwa (wanda ke da alaƙa da turbidity). Disk na Secchi yana da fa'idodi na haɗa turbidity akan zurfin (inda madaidaicin yadudduka ke nan), kasancewa mai sauri da sauƙin amfani, kuma mara tsada. Zai iya ba da alamar alamar zurfin yankin euphotic tare da kusan kashi 3 na zurfin Secchi, duk da haka ba za a iya amfani da wannan a cikin ruwa mai zurfi ba inda har yanzu ana iya ganin faifai a kasa.

Ƙarin na'ura, wanda zai iya taimakawa wajen auna turbidity a cikin ruwa marar zurfi shine bututun turbidity. Tushen turbidity yana tara ruwa a cikin bututu mai daraja wanda ke ba da damar tantance turbidity dangane da faifan bambanci a cikin kasan sa, yana kama da faifan Secchi.

Turbidity a cikin iska, wanda ke haifar da raguwar hasken rana sannan, ana amfani da shi azaman ma'auni na gurɓatawa. Don yin samfuri da ƙaddamar da hasken wuta, an gabatar da sigogi masu yawa na turbidity, ciki har da Linke turbidity factor (T L ). [6]

Matsayi da hanyoyin gwaji

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Turbidimeters da aka yi amfani da su a wurin tsabtace ruwa don auna turbidity (a cikin NTU) na danyen ruwa da ruwa mai tsabta bayan tacewa.

Matsayin ruwan sha

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Gwamnatoci sun gindaya sharuɗɗa a kan halaltaccen turbidity na ruwan sha. A cikin Amurka, tsarin da ke amfani da hanyoyin tacewa na al'ada ko kai tsaye ba dole ba ne ya kasance yana da turbidity sama da 1.0 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU) a tashar shuka kuma duk samfurori don turbidity dole ne su kasance ƙasa da ko daidai da 0.3 NTU don akalla Kashi 95 bisa dari. na samfurori a kowane wata. Tsarin da ke amfani da tacewa banda na al'ada ko tacewa kai tsaye dole ne su bi iyakokin jihohi, wanda dole ne ya haɗa da turbidity ba tare da wuce 5 NTU ba. Yawancin abubuwan amfani da ruwan sha suna ƙoƙarin cimma matakan da bai kai 0.1 NTU ba. [7] Ka'idodin Turai don turbidity sun bayyana cewa dole ne ya kasance bai wuce 4 NTU ba. [8]

Matsayin ruwa na yanayi

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Hukumar Kare Muhalli ta Amurka (EPA) ta buga ka'idojin ingancin ruwa don turbidity. [9] Waɗannan sharuɗɗan kimantawar kimiyya ne na tasirin turbidity, waɗanda jihohi ke amfani da su don haɓaka ƙa'idodin ingancin ruwa ga jikunan ruwa. (Jihohi kuma na iya buga nasu sharuɗɗan. ) Wasu jihohi sun ƙaddamar da ƙa'idodin ingancin ruwa don turbidity, gami da:

  • Louisiana . 25, 50 ko 150 NTU, ko bangon baya da kashi 10, ya danganta da jikin ruwa. [10]
  • Vermont . 10 NTU ko 25 NTU, dangane da rarraba jikin ruwa.
  • Washington . 5 NTU a kan bango (lokacin da baya ya kai 50 NTU ko ƙasa da haka), ko kashi 10 ya karu idan bayanan ya wuce 50 NTU. [11]

Hanyoyin nazari

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Hanyoyin gwaji da aka buga don turbidity sun haɗa da:

  • TS EN ISO 7027 Ingancin Ruwa: Tabbatar da Turbidity [12]
  • US EPA Hanyar No. 180.1, "Turbidity" [13]
  • "Hanyoyin Daidaitawa," A'a. 2130B.

Turbidity yawanci ana bi da su ta amfani da tsarin daidaitawa ko kuma tacewa. Ya danganta da aikace-aikacen, za a saka magungunan sinadarai a cikin magudanar ruwa don ƙara tasirin daidaitawa ko aikin tacewa. Maganin ruwan sha da shuke-shuken ruwa na birni sukan cire turɓaya tare da haɗakar tacewa yashi, tankunan tankuna, da masu bayyanawa.

Maganin ruwa a cikin wurin ko kuma yin allurai kai tsaye don magance tabarbarewar ya zama ruwan dare a lokacin da ruwan da abin ya shafa suka tarwatse (wato akwai jikunan ruwa da yawa da aka baje a wani yanki na yanki, kamar kananan tafkunan ruwan sha), lokacin da matsalar ba ta daidaita. (watau lokacin da akwai turbaya a cikin ruwa kawai a lokacin damina da kuma bayan lokacin damina) ko kuma lokacin da ake buƙatar bayani mai sauƙi. A cikin wurin jiyya na turbidity ya haɗa da ƙari na reagent, gabaɗaya flocculant, a ko'ina an bazu a saman jikin ruwa. Shiyasa Daga nan sai garken ya zauna a kasan ruwan inda suke zama ko kuma a cire su idan ruwan ya zube. Ana amfani da wannan hanyar da yawa a ma'adinan kwal da wuraren lodin kwal inda tafkunan tattara ruwan guguwa ke da matsalolin yanayi na yanayi tare da turɓaya. Kamfanoni da yawa suna ba da tsarin kula da šaukuwa don kula da ruwa a cikin wurin ko kuma yin alluran reagents kai tsaye.

Akwai adadin reagents na sinadarai da ke samuwa don magance turbidity. Reagents da suke samuwa don zalunta turbidity sun hada da aluminum sulfate ko alum (Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 · nH 2 O), ferric chloride (FeCl 3 ), gypsum (CaSO 4 · 2H 2 O), poly- aluminum chloride, dogon sarkar. polymers na tushen acrylamide da yawancin reagents na mallakar mallaka. [14] Dole ne a yi la'akari da sinadarai na ruwa a hankali lokacin da ake amfani da sinadarai kamar yadda wasu reagents, kamar alum, za su canza pH na ruwa da yanayin su.

Hakanan dole ne a yi la'akari da tsarin sakawa yayin amfani da reagents kamar yadda flocs na iya karyewa ta hanyar hadawa da yawa.

Duba wasu abubuwan

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  • McFarland standards - tunani don nazarin ƙwayoyin cuta
  • Kayan gani na teku
  • Diske Secchi
  • Transparency and translucency –
  • ingancin ruwa.
  1. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Washington, D.C. "National Management Measures to Control Nonpoint Source Pollution from Urban Areas." Chapters 7 and 8. Document No. EPA 841-B-05-004. November 2005.
  2. A.G. Mann, C.C. Tam, C.D. Higgins, & L.C. Lodrigues. (2007). The association between drinking water turbidity and gastrointestinal illness: a systematic review. BMC Public Health. 7(256): 1 - 7
  3. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Annapolis, Maryland. "Decline of Submerged Plants in Chesapeake Bay." Archived 2017-10-08 at the Wayback Machine
  4. Bas Wijnen, G. C. Anzalone and Joshua M. Pearce, Open-source mobile water quality testing platform. Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development, 4(3) pp. 532–537 (2014). doi:10.2166/washdev.2014.137, open access preprint
  5. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named fondriest
  6. Kasten, F. The linke turbidity factor based on improved values of the integral Rayleigh optical thickness. Solar Energy 56:3, 269 (1996) doi:10.1016/0038-092X(95)00114-7.
  7. EPA. Washington, District of Columbia. "Drinking Water Contaminants." 2009-09-11.
  8. http://dwi.defra.gov.uk/consumers/advice-leaflets/standards.pdf
  9. EPA. Washington, District of Columbia. "Quality Criteria for Water." (Commonly known as the "Gold Book.") 1986. Document No. EPA-440/5-86-001.
  10. Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality. Baton Rouge, Louisiana."Surface Water Quality Standards." Louisiana Administrative Code (LAC). Title 33, Part IX, Chapter 11. August 6, 2007.
  11. Washington Department of Ecology. Olympia, Washington."Water Quality Standards for Surface Waters of the State of Washington." Washington Administrative Code (WAC). Chapter 173-201A. November 18, 1997.
  12. International Organization for Standardization. Geneva, Switzerland. "ISO 7027-1:2016 Water quality – Determination of turbidity – Part 1: Quantitative Methods." 2016 and "ISO 7027-2:2019 Water quality – Determination of turbidity – Part 2: Semi-quantitative methods for the assessment of transparency of waters." 2019.
  13. EPA. Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory. Cincinnati, Ohio. "Method 180.1: Determination of Turbidity by Nephelometry; Revision 2.0." August 1993.
  14. Earth Systems, Clear Solutions newsletter - Focus on Turbidity 2003.

Hanyoyin haɗi na waje

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