Haƙƙoƙin Ma'aikata a cikin Masana'antar Tattara Nama ta Amurk

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Wikidata.svgHaƙƙoƙin Ma'aikata a cikin Masana'antar Tattara Nama ta Amurk

Haƙƙoƙin ma'aikata a cikin masana'antar tattara nama ta Amurka ana tsara su ne ta Hukumar Kula da Ma'aikata ta Ƙasa (NLRB), wacce ke tsara ƙungiyar .[ana buƙatar hujja] Tsaro da Lafiya ta Ma'aikata tana tsara yanayin aminci da lafiyar da ya dace ga ma'aikata a cikin masana'antar tattara nama ta Amurka.[1][2] A cewar masana masana'antar tattara nama ta Amurka, duk da ka'idojin tarayya ta hanyar OSHA da sa ido kan masana'antu, ma'aikata a masana'antar samar da nama ba su da ƙarancin hukuma da ƙarancin kariya. [1] Ma'aikata a cikin masana'antu suna yin ayyuka masu wuyar gaske a cikin yanayi masu haɗari, kuma suna cikin haɗari mai mahimmanci don cutar da jiki da ta hankali. [1] [2] Baya ga yawan raunin da ake samu, ma'aikata na cikin haɗarin rasa ayyukansu lokacin da suka ji rauni ko don ƙoƙarin tsarawa da yin ciniki tare. [2] Yawancin bincike na masana'antar sun gano ma'aikatan baƙi - "yawan kaso na yawan ma'aikata a cikin masana'antar" [2] - musamman a cikin haɗarin rashin samun cikakkiyar kariya ta haƙƙin aikinsu. [1] [2]

Halayen masana'antar samar da nama ta Amurka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin masana'antar samar da nama, an ayyana "cin nama" a matsayin "dukkan samar da kayan nama ciki har da sarrafa dabbobi." Wannan ya haɗa da samar da naman sa, naman alade, kaji, da kifi. [1] Iyakar masana'antar samar da nama ta Amurka tana da girma; tana yanka da sarrafa dabbobi sama da biliyan 10 a kowace shekara.

Gawar shanu a wurin yanka

Tun daga 2004, kamfanoni huɗu suna sarrafa masana'antar samar da nama ta Amurka da gaske. Rushewa, kamfanoni sun gudanar da 81% na samar da naman sa, 59% na samar da naman alade da 50% na kasuwar kaji.[1] A cikin masana'antar kiwon kaji, Tyson da Perdue suna sarrafa kowane mataki na samar da kaji, daga kiwon kajin zuwa jigilar nama zuwa shagunan kayan abinci.[1][3][4][3]

Da alama adadin dabbobin da aka yanka a masana'antar noman nama na karuwa. A cikin shekara ta 2010, an yanka kusan dabbobin kasa biliyan 10.2 da kuma kiwon su don abinci a Amurka. A cewar rahoton da Farm Animal Rights Movement, bisa bayanai daga Ma'aikatar Aikin Gona ta Amurka (USDA), waɗannan lambobi sun nuna karuwar 1.7% daga bayanan shekara ta 2009. [5] An sami karuwar 0.9% a yawan jama'ar Amurka tsakanin shekara ta 2009 da shekara ta 2010, "ma'ana dabbobi [yanka] kowane mutum ya karu kadan" [5] da 0.8%.

Kididdigar alƙaluma na Meatpacker[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yayin da aikin noma na Amurka ya dogara da ma'aikatan ƙaura a ƙarnin da ya gabata, dubban baƙi, galibi daga Mexico, Guatemala, da El Salvador, yanzu suna tafiya arewa don yin aiki a wuraren yanka da masana'antar sarrafa nama. A cewar wani bincike a cikin Drake Journal of Agricultural Law, "mafi yawan ma'aikatan da suke yin nama matalauta ne, da yawa baƙi ne da ke gwagwarmayar rayuwa, kuma yawancin yanzu suna aiki a yankunan karkara." A cikin shekara ta 1998, Ma'aikatar Shige da Fice da Bayar da Halittu ta ƙiyasta cewa kusan kashi ɗaya bisa huɗu na ma'aikatan tattara nama a Nebraska da Iowa baƙi ne ba bisa ƙa'ida ba. [6] USDA ta buga irin waɗannan lambobi, tana ƙididdige adadin ma'aikatan sarrafa nama na Hispanic sun tashi daga ƙasa da 10% a cikin 1980 zuwa kusan 30% a cikin shekara ta 2000. Rashin haƙƙin ma’aikatan da ba su da takardun aiki ya sa jama’a ba za su iya ganin su ba. [1] Bugu da kari, bin hukuncin Kotun Koli na 2002 a Hoffman Plastic Compounds, Inc. v. Hukumar Kula da Kwadago ta Kasa[1]

Adadin ma'aikatan gidan yanka yakan yi yawa sosai. Ɗaya daga cikin kamfani, ConAgra Red Meat, ya ba da rahoton adadin canjin shekara 100% a cikin 1990s.[7][6] Irin wannan yawan canjin kuɗi yana sa ya zama da wahala ga ma'aikata su haɗu kuma, saboda haka, mafi sauƙi ga masana'antu don sarrafa ma'aikatanta. [6]

Ofishin Kididdiga na Ma’aikata ya bayar da rahoton cewa, a shekarar 2000, mutane 148,100 ne suka yi aikin hada-hadar nama kuma sama da 250,000 sun yi aikin sarrafa kaji. Duk da bunkasuwar masana'antar noman nama, albashin ma'aikatan gidan yanka yana raguwa cikin sauri. A tarihi dai albashin ma'aikatan gidan yanka ya fi matsakaicin albashin masana'anta. Wannan yanayin ya koma baya a cikin 1983 lokacin da albashin ma'aikata ya faɗi ƙasa da matsakaicin albashin masana'anta. A shekara ta 2002, albashin mayankan ya kai kashi 24% kasa da matsakaicin albashin masana'antu. A cewar Ofishin Kididdiga na Ma'aikata, a cikin 2006, matsakaicin albashin ma'aikatan gidan yanka shine $10.43 a kowace awa wanda ke fitowa zuwa $21,690 a shekara.

Haƙƙoƙin ma'aikata a masana'antu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Mahallin tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Gundumar nama ta Chicago: Ƙungiyar Kasuwancin Kasuwanci a shekara ta 1947

A cikin ƙarni na 19, gefen kudu na Chicago ya zama babban gidan mahauta na Amurka. Don gujewa biyan ƙarin albashi ga ƙwararrun ma'aikata, manyan wuraren yanka a Chicago sun kafa tsarin layin taro; tsarin samar da yawa ya kawar da buƙatar ƙwararrun ma'aikata. [7]

Asalin mayankan sun kasance bakin haure na Irish, Jamusanci, da asalin Scandinavia. A cikin mahauta, sun yi aiki a cikin mawuyacin yanayi. Ba wai kawai an buƙaci su yanka da kuma wargaza dabbobi masu yawan gaske a kowace rana ba, amma suna fuskantar rashin kyawun yanayi, gami da ɗigon gurɓataccen ruwa, sharar ruwa da najasa a saman benaye, da rashin haske, dakunan sanyi. [7] Dukansu raunuka da rashin lafiya sun zama ruwan dare tsakanin ma'aikata. [7] Bugu da kari, yawancin ma'aikata suna zama a cikin unguwannin marasa galihu da ke kusa da mayankan. [7]

A farkon shekara ta 1880, ma'aikata sun yi ƙoƙarin tsarawa, suna kira don ƙarin albashi da ingantaccen yanayin aiki. Dangane da mayar da martani, masu gidan yanka sun yi amfani da bambance-bambancen kabilanci don kula da su: "sun dauki 'yan sanda masu rauni, Serbs, Croatians, Slovaks, da sauran 'yan gudun hijira na Kudancin da Gabashin Turai a matsayin ma'aikata." [7] Lokacin da ma'aikatan farar fata suka sami damar shiryawa tare da shiga yajin aikin a 1894, masu gidajen yanka a maimakon haka sun fara daukar ma'aikatan Amurkawa 'yan Afirka don karya yajin aikin. [7]

Upton Sinclair 's polemical novel 1906 The Jungle ya bayyana zargin cin zarafi na masana'antar samar da nama, kuma ya kasance wani abu a cikin zartar da Dokar Abinci da Magunguna ta Tsabta (1906) da Dokar Kula da Nama ta Tarayya (1906). Koyaya, wakilan Ofishin Masana'antar Dabbobi ta Tarayya sun ba wa Majalisa rahoto cewa littafin Sinclair bai yi daidai ba ta wasu bayanai dalla-dalla, "da gangan yaudara ne da karya", sannan kuma ya tsunduma cikin "karkatar gaskiya da gangan". [8] Jama'ar Amurka "ba su mai da hankali sosai ga ... yanayin aiki na cin zarafi da kulawa" wani lokaci ana fuskantar ma'aikata. [2] Ya ɗauki babban haɗin kai ta sabuwar Majalisar Ƙungiyoyin Masana'antu (CIO) da aka kafa da kuma tasirin Dokar Harkokin Ma'aikata ta Ƙasa (1935) don inganta yanayin aiki ga ma'aikatan gidan yanka. [2]

Daga shekarun 1930 zuwa shekara ta 1970, an inganta albashi da yanayin ma'aikatan dakon nama. A cewar wani rahoto na Human Rights Watch, "manyan kwangilolin da suka shafi masana'antu sun haɓaka albashi da matakan tsaro." [2] Koyaya, ma'auni sun fara raguwa a cikin shekara ta 1980s yayin da kamfanoni suka fara ƙaura zuwa yankunan karkara kuma wasu kamfanoni sun zama "masu ƙarfi na masana'antu." [2] Iowa Beef Processors (IBP) musamman ya canza tsarin samar da nama ta yadda, a kowane mataki, ma'aikata suna da rashin tunani, maimaita motsi don kammala "a cikin abin da masana'antu ke kira tsarin rarraba-layi." [2] IBP da kamfanoni masu zaman kansu sun kara saurin layin da rage albashi. [2]

Ko da kamfanoni sun zaɓi ba za su ƙaura ba, kamfanoni da yawa suna rufe tsire-tsire su kawai, sun bar ma'aikatansu da suka kafa da tsare-tsaren su tafi, kuma sun sake buɗewa tare da ma'aikatan da ba na tarayya ba, masu hijira. Masu ɗaukan ma'aikata sun yi tsayayya da yunƙurin da ma'aikatan suka yi na haɗa kai a cikin tsire-tsire da aka ƙaura ko aka sake buɗewa; tarihin kwanan nan na rufewar tsire-tsire ya ba wa ma'aikata barazana ga ingantaccen tabbaci. [2] Rahoton Human Rights Watch kan yanayin nama da kaji ya tabbatar da cewa "yayin da karni na ashirin ya koma na ashirin da daya, [2]

Yanayin aiki na masana'antu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yanayin wurin aiki sun sanya tara nama aiki mai haɗari sosai. Matsakaicin motsi yana sanya damuwa mai tsanani akan hannayen ma'aikata, wuyan hannu, hannaye, kafadu da baya. [2] Bugu da ƙari, layukan tarwatsa suna tafiya da sauri sosai; [2] [6] a cewar dan jarida mai bincike Eric Schlosser, "daya daga cikin manyan abubuwan da ke tabbatar da raunin raunin da ya faru a gidan yanka a yau shine saurin layin rarraba." [6]

Da sauri layi yana motsawa, mafi wahalar da ma'aikaci ya ci gaba kuma yana haɓaka damar rauni. Don daidaita saurin layukan tarwatsawa a yau, tsoffin tsire-tsire masu tattara nama a Chicago za su sarrafa kimanin shanu guda 50 a sa'a guda. Sabbin tsire-tsire a cikin shekara ta 1980s zasu sarrafa kimanin shanu 175 a sa'a guda. [6] A yau, a cikin 2018s, wasu tsire-tsire suna sarrafa shanu guda 400 a cikin awa ɗaya. [6] Ba wai kawai layukan tarwatsawa suna tafiya cikin sauri ba, har ma ma'aikata sun ba da rahoton matsin lamba daga masu kula da su don ci gaba da tafiya a kan layin. A cewar kungiyar kare haƙƙin bil'adama ta Human Rights Watch, ka'idojin tarayya na saurin rarraba layin yana la'akari da abubuwa biyu kawai: guje wa lalata nama da kaji, da kuma hana amfanin shuka. [2]

A cikin littafinsa Fast Food Nation, Schlosser kuma ya tabbatar da cewa an matsa wa ma'aikata don kada su ba da rahoton raunin da ya faru. Saboda alawus na manajoji da masu aikin hajji ana danganta su da yawan raunin da ake samu a shukar su, masu kula da mahauta ba su da kwarin gwiwa don ba da rahoton abubuwan da suka faru. [6]

Ma'aikaci da Shanu a wurin yanka

Sauran haɗarin da ke tattare da rauni na zuwa daga wuraren da ma'aikata ke yanke naman da nau'ikan ayyukan da suke yi. Tazarar da ke tsakanin ma'aikata, da kuma tsayin layin tarwatsawa da saman aikin, iri ɗaya ne - duk da bambance-bambancen nau'ikan jikin ma'aikaci. [2] Ga wasu ma'aikata, wannan yana tilasta musu yin ƙarin ƙoƙari don kammala aikin da aka ba su kuma yana haifar da ƙarin haɗarin rauni. [2] Bugu da ƙari, duk da haɓaka injina ta atomatik a cikin mahauta, yawancin ayyukan sun haɗa da ɗaga nauyi, kora, da juya dabbobi, sassan dabbobi, ko kayan aiki. [2]

Ko da yake an ba wa ma’aikatan yanka kayan kariya, yanayin da ba makawa na wuraren aikin na nufin ma’aikata suna fuskantar “jini, maiko, najasar dabbobi, ingesta (abinci daga tsarin narkewar dabbar), da sauran lahani daga dabbobin da suke yanka.”

2020 COVID-19 annoba[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Dubi Tasirin cutar ta COVID-19 akan masana'antar nama a Amurka .

Amsar masana'antu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ƙungiyoyi masu goyon bayan masana'antu, irin su Cibiyar Harkokin Nama ta Amirka (AMI), sun nuna cewa yawan raunin da ma'aikata ke samu a wuraren sarrafa nama ya ragu a cikin 'yan shekarun nan. A cewar wani labarin na 2005 a cikin The New York Times, "masana'antar [nama] ta kuma tabbatar da cewa kamfanonin tattara kaya ba su keta dokokin da ke ba ma'aikata damar haɗin gwiwa ba kuma ba su kula da ma'aikata da tsanani saboda matsayin su na shige da fice." Labarin ya ambato Patrick Boyle - shugaban Cibiyar Nama ta Amurka - yayi watsi da rahoton Human Rights Watch na 2005 da cewa "cike da karya da da'awar da ba ta da tushe." [9]

Wakilan kamfanonin sarrafa kayayyakin sun kuma mayar da martani kan zargin take hakkin ma'aikata. Wani mai magana da yawun Tyson Foods ya ce, "mun ji takaicin sakamakon da rahoton [Human Rights Watch] ya yi na yaudara, amma ba mamaki idan aka yi la'akari da dangantakar da marubucin ya yi da kungiyoyin kwadago." [9] Mataimakin shugaban Smithfield, Dennis Treacy, shima ya soki rahoton, yana mai zarginsa da bayar da rahoto kan cin zarafi daga shekaru goma da suka gabata maimakon yanayin kwanan nan da kuma dacewa. [9]

Lokacin da aka tambaye shi game da saurin sarrafa kaji a shukar su, jami'in Tyson Foods ya gaya wa Human Rights Watch cewa saurin layinsu ya dace da dokokin tarayya. A cewar jami'ai, "gudun layin ya bambanta dangane da nau'in samfurin," kuma USDA ce ke tsara shi. [2] Yayin da ma'auni na tarihi ya kasance a hankali, ya karu tare da sarrafa kansa wanda jami'an Tyson suka ce yana haifar da "ƙananan aikin hannu." [2]

Tasiri ga ma'aikata[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Masana'antar samar da nama na ɗaukar dubban ma'aikata masu ƙarancin albashi waɗanda ke cikin haɗarin fuskantar haɗarin jiki da na tunani.

Na zahiri[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bukatar nama mai mahimmanci ya sanya kaso mai yawa ga ma'aikatan gidan yanka. Aikin yana da wuyar jiki kuma yana da wahala, bisa ga maimaita motsi. Ma'aikatan tattara nama na iya buƙatar yanke kowane daƙiƙa biyu zuwa uku: wannan yana fitowa zuwa kusan yanke dubu goma a cikin awanni takwas. [1] [4] Baya ga yin aiki da wukake, ma'aikatan da ke yin nama sukan yi ta ɗagawa akai-akai da motsa abubuwa masu nauyi yayin motsi kuma suna fuskantar injuna masu haɗari. [1] Wani ma'aikaci a Excel (rashin nama na Cargill Meat Solutions ) ya ba da rahoton ɗaga buhunan nama mai nauyin kilo arba'in a kowane daƙiƙa uku, [1] yayin da wasu asusun daga ma'aikatan nama ke nuna cewa wasu ayyukan da suka haɗa da jujjuya duk wani hog. [2] Wani manajan shuka na yankan alade ya ci gaba da yin rikodi yayin gwajin aikin ma'aikata na rashin adalci yana mai cewa, "akwai nauyi mai yawa da kuma maimaita aiki." [2] Sakamakon haka, bisa ga bayanan da Drake Journal of Agricultural Law ya buga, kusan 25% na ma'aikatan da ke yin nama sun ji rauni ko kuma suna rashin lafiya kowace shekara. [1] [4] Bayanan raunin da aka samu a wurin aiki a Iowa ya nuna matsakaicin raunin 9.8 kowace shekara a kowane rukuni na ɗaruruwan ma'aikata na cikakken lokaci; akwai matsakaicin rauni ko cututtuka 51 a cikin ɗari ma'aikatan tattara nama kowace shekara. [1] [4] .

Yayin da nau'ikan raunin da ya faru sun bambanta, lacerations sun fi yawa. Ma'aikata sukan yi bazata ko dai kansu ko kuma abokan aikin da ke kusa. [6] Sauran matsalolin kiwon lafiya na yau da kullun sun haɗa da ma'aikata masu tasowa na tendonitis, cututtuka masu tarawa, ramin carpal, matsalolin baya da kafada, da "matsalar yatsa" - yanayin da yatsa ya daskare a wuri mai lanƙwasa. [6] Bugu da kari, wukake maras kyau ko sawa suna sanya ƙarin matsin lamba akan tendons, gidajen abinci, da jijiyoyi. [6]

Wani "haɗari na gama gari da tushen rauni" shine jigon benaye na tsire-tsire masu samar da nama. Wani ma'aikacin kiwon lafiya wanda ke hidimar ma'aikatan masana'antar kiwon kaji a Arewa maso yammacin Arkansas ya shaida wa Human Rights Watch." [2]

Ilimin halin dan Adam[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Mayanka na yau da kullun suna tafiya cikin sauri. Ana samar da kayan aiki da sauri kuma baya bada lokaci don tabbatar da dabbobin ba su sha wahala ba. [4] A cewar wani bincike na 2008 a cikin Jarida na Georgetown a kan Dokar Talauci da Manufofin, dabbobi masu raɗaɗi da ta'addanci suna shiga cikin lokutan su na ƙarshe suna haifar da "yanayin aiki wanda ya dace da matsalolin tunani." [4] Wani binciken da Rachel McNair (2002) ya yi ya nuna cewa ma'aikatan gidan yanka na iya zama masu saurin kamuwa da damuwa mai raɗaɗi da raɗaɗi, kuma halin da suke ciki ya cancanci yin nazari sosai. [4] Perpetration-induced traumatic stress (PITS) wani nau'i ne na rashin lafiya na damuwa (PTSD) wanda lalacewa ta hanyar tunani ya taso "daga yanayin da zai zama mai ban tsoro idan wani ya kasance wanda aka azabtar, amma yanayin da mutum ya kasance mai shiga tsakani." . [4] [4]

Dangane da binciken shekara ta 2008 a cikin Jarida na Georgetown akan Doka da Manufofin Talauci, akwai isassun shaidun anecdotal na ma'aikatan gidan yanka da ke nuna alamun PITS. Na farko, binciken ya tabbatar da cin zarafi wanda shine halayen PITS ya zama ruwan dare tsakanin ma'aikatan gidan yanka. Na biyu, ya ba da rahoton rahotannin da ma'aikatan suka ba da labarin mafarki mai ban tsoro game da aikin yanka. "Virgil Butler, ma'aikacin mayanka na dogon lokaci." [4]

Kariyar siyasa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Matsayin haƙƙin ɗan adam[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Jami'in USDA yana duba samar da naman alade

Akwai kariyar haƙƙin ɗan adam da yawa na ƙasa da ƙasa don wurin aiki. Yarjejeniya ta Duniya ta 'Yancin Dan Adam da Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ' Yarjejeniyar Kasa da Kasa akan Hakkokin Tattalin Arziki, Zamantakewa da Al'adu duka sun yi kira ga adalci da aminci yanayin aiki. A cikin shekara ta 1981, Kungiyar Kwadago ta Duniya (ILO) ta rubuta Yarjejeniyar Tsaro da Lafiya ta Ma'aikata mai lamba 155, wacce ke kira ga manufofin kasa waɗanda ke rage haɗarin yanayin aiki. [2] Sauran bangarorin ka'idojin aminci na wurin aiki na ILO suna kiyaye ka'idodin diyya na ma'aikata idan aka samu rauni; ILO ta yi kira ga kariyar doka da ka'idoji waɗanda ke ba da cikakkiyar kulawar likita da gyarawa ga ma'aikatan nakasassu ko suka ji rauni yayin da suke kan aiki, da kuma biyan diyya na lokacin da aka kashe saboda raunin da aka samu a wurin aiki. [2]

A cewar wani binciken da Human Rights Watch ta yi, "ka'idar kare haƙƙin bil'adama don kare lafiyar wuraren aiki da cibiyoyin kiwon lafiya a kan ka'idar cewa ma'aikata suna da hakkin yin aiki a cikin yanayin da ya dace ba tare da tsinkaya ba, hanawa, haɗari mai tsanani." Duk da yake irin waɗannan ƙa'idodin ba sa buƙatar ƙasashe su kawar da duk wani haɗari - babba ko ƙanana - ma'aikata suna da 'yancin sanin cewa idan sun je aiki kuma suka kammala ayyukansu, "za su iya barin wurin aiki a ƙarshen rana. tare da rayuwa da gaɓoɓinsa. " [2]

Tambarin hukumar OSHA

Dokokin kare wuraren aiki na Amurka gaba ɗaya sun dace da ƙa'idodin ƙwadago na duniya. Dokar Tsaro da Kiwon Lafiyar Ma'aikata ta shekara ta 1970 ta kafa Hukumar Tsaro da Lafiya ta Ma'aikata (OSHA), wata hukuma ce ta Ma'aikatar Ma'aikata ta Amurka wacce ta tsara da kuma ba da izini ga ƙa'idodin ƙasa don amincin wurin aiki. [2] Dokar ta ba OSHA iko masu mahimmanci da yawa ciki har da ikon bincika wuraren aiki don rashin bin doka, zartar da hukunci don cin zarafi na aminci, da cire haɗari ko lafiya. [2] Lokacin yanke hukunci, hukumar tana da hankali sosai: OSHA tana la'akari da abubuwa da yawa waɗanda suka haɗa da biyayyar mai aiki a baya tare da ƙa'idodin aminci, girman, imani mai kyau, da tsananin cin zarafi. [2] Ma'auni na OSHA sun shafi duk ma'aikata, sun haɗa da waɗanda ba su da takardun shaida ko ba ƴan ƙasa ba. [2]

An sami ƙarin martanin majalisa na baya-bayan nan game da damuwar masu neman aiki. A cikin shekara ta 2000, tsohon Gwamnan Nebraska Michael Johanns (wanda daga baya ya zama Sakataren Aikin Noma na Amurka) ya ba da " Bill of Rights Ma'aikatan Masana'antar Meatpacking na Nebraska ," wanda ya amince da haƙƙin ma'aikaci don tsarawa, aiki a cikin yanayi mai aminci da samun damar fa'idodin jihohi da tarayya. [10] A cikin 2001, Majalisa ta soke wasu ka'idodin ergonomics na OSHA waɗanda gwamnatin Clinton ta amince da su. Shugaba Bush ya rattaba hannu kan sokewar. [10]

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

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Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 Worrall, Michael S. "Meatpacking Safety: Is OSHA Enforcement Adequate?" (PDF). Drake Journal of Agricultural Law. 9. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
  2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 2.17 2.18 2.19 2.20 2.21 2.22 2.23 2.24 2.25 2.26 2.27 2.28 2.29 2.30 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Blood, Sweat and Fear
  3. 3.0 3.1 Walker, Polly; Lawrence, Robert S. (2013). "American Meat: A Threat to Your Health and the Environment". Yale Journal of Health Policy, Law, and Ethics. 4 (1). Retrieved 10 March 2015.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 Dillard, Jennifer (Summer 2008). "Slaughterhouse Nightmares: Psychological Harm Suffered by Slaughterhouse Employees and the Possibility of Redress through Legal Reform". Georgetown Journal on Poverty Law and Policy. 15 (391).
  5. 5.0 5.1 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Farm USA.org
  6. 6.00 6.01 6.02 6.03 6.04 6.05 6.06 6.07 6.08 6.09 6.10 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Fast Food Nation
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 Nibert, David (2014). "Chapter 1: Animals, Immigrants, and Profits: Slaughterhouses and the Political Economy of Oppression". In Sorenson, John (ed.). Critical Animal Studies: Thinking the Unthinkable. Canadian Scholars' Press Inc. pp. 3–17.
  8. Hearings Before the Committee on Agriculture... on the So-called "Beveridge Amendment" to the Agricultural Appropriation Bill, U.S. Congress, House, Committee on Agriculture, 1906, pp. 346–50, 59th Congress, 1st Session.
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named :1
  10. 10.0 10.1 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named :0