Kewaye da Urushalima (636-637)

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Kewaye da Urushalima (636-637)
Al aqsa moschee 2.jpg
siege
bangare naMuslim conquest of Syria Gyara
wuriJerusalem Gyara
coordinate location31°47′0″N 35°13′0″E, 31°47′0″N 35°13′0″E Gyara
start dateNuwamba, 636 Gyara
end datega Afirilu, 637 Gyara

Yankin Kudus wani yanki ne na rikicin soja wanda ya faru a shekara ta 637 tsakanin Masarautar Byzantine da kuma Rashidun Caliphate . An fara ne lokacin da rundunar Rashidun, karkashin umarnin Abu Ubaidah, suka kewaye Kudus a watan Nuwamba na 636. Bayan wata shida, sarki Sophronius ya yarda ya mika wuya, bisa sharadin cewa ya miƙa wuya ga Halifa. A watan Afrilun shekara ta 637, Halifa Umar yayi tafiya zuwa Jerusalem da kansa don karɓar ƙaddamar da garin. Nan fa sarki ya mika masa.

Nasarar da Musulmai suka yiwa garin ta tabbatar da ikon kasashen larabawa a kan Falasdinu, wanda ba za a sake yin barazanar ba har sai Jihadi na farko a karshen karni na 11.

Bango[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kudus muhimmiyar birni ce a lardin Byzantine na Palaestina Prima. Shekaru 23 kafin mamayar musulmai, a shekara ta 614, ta fada hannun mayakan Sassanid a karkashin Shahrbaraz a lokacin yakin na Byzanantus-Sasaniya na karshe. Farisawa sun washe garin, kuma an ce sun kashe kirista 90,000. A matsayin bangare na satar abubuwa, an lalata Ikilisiyar Holy Sepulcher kuma an kama Ikiliziyar Gaskiya kuma a kai shi Ctesiphon a matsayin tsarkakakken kayan taimako. Daga baya sarki Heraclius ya sake gicciyewa zuwa Urushalima bayan nasarar karshe da ya yi akan Farisa a cikin 628. An yi imanin cewa Yahudawan, wadanda aka tsananta a kasarsu ta Roman-karkashin ikonsu, sun taimaka wa Farisawa.

Bayan mutuwar Muhammadu a shekara ta 632, shugabancin musulmai ya yiwa Halifa Abubakar sakamakon wasu kamfen na da aka sani da yakin Ridda. Da zarar an sami ikon mallakar Abu Bakr a kan Arabia, sai ya fara yakin mamaye a gabas ta hanyar mamaye Iraki, sannan Iardin daular Sassanid na Farisa: yayin da yake yamma, sojojinsa sun mamaye daular Byzantine.

A shekara ta 634, Abubakar ya mutu kuma Umar ya gaje shi, wanda ya ci gaba da nasa nasarorin yaki. A watan Mayun shekara ta 636, sarki Heraclius ya fara babban balaguro don dawo da yankin da aka rasa, amma sojojinsa sun sha kaye a bainar yaki a yakin Yarmouk a watan Agusta 636. Bayan haka, Abu Ubaidah, babban kwamandan musuluci na rundunar Rashidun a Siriya, ya yi wani taron yaki a farkon Oktoba 636 don tattauna shirin nan gaba. Ra'ayoyi game da manufofin sun bambanta tsakanin birnin Kaisar da ke bakin teku da Urushalima. Abu Ubaidah ya ga mahimmancin wadannan biranen, wadanda suka saba wa duk kokarin musulmai a lokacin da aka kama. Ya kasa yanke hukunci a kan lamarin, ya rubuta wa Halifa Umar umarni. A cikin amsar sa, kalifa ya umurce su da kama mutumin. Don haka, Abu Ubaidah ya bi zuwa Kudus daga Jabiyah, tare da Khalid dan al-Walid da mai tsaron gidan sa suka jagoranci gaba. Musulmai sun isa Kudus a kusa da farkon watan Nuwamba, kuma kurkukun Byzantine ya koma birni mai garu.

Kewaye[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Urushalima da aka da-ƙarfafa bayan Heraclius sake shi daga Farisa. Bayan cin nasarar Byzantine a Yarmouk, Sophronius, Babban sarki na Kudus, ya gyara kariyar sa. Musulmai ya zuwa yanzu ba su yi yunƙurin wani siege na birnin. Koyaya, tun daga 634, sojojin Saracen suna da damar yin barazanar duk hanyoyin shiga birni. Kodayake ba a kewaye da shi ba, ya kasance cikin yanayin kasancewar tun lokacin da musulmai suka kama makabartar makwabtan Pella da Bosra . Bayan Yaƙin Yarmouk, garin ya ragu daga sauran ƙasar Siriya, kuma yana yiwuwa ana shirin kai harin da ya zama kamar ba makawa. Lokacin da sojojin musulmai suka isa Yariko, Sophronius ya tattara duk tsarkakakkun kayan tarihi wanda ya hada da Cross na Gaskiya, kuma ya tona asirin zuwa ga gaci, don a kai su Konstantinoful. Sojojin musulmin sun kewaye birni wani lokaci a cikin Nuwamba 636. Maimakon kashe-kashen da aka yi wa garin, sun yanke shawara su ci gaba da kai hare-hare har zuwa lokacin da sojoji suka gaza wadatar kayayyaki kuma ana iya tattaunawa kan batun mika wuya na jini.

Kodayake ba a rubuta cikakken bayani game da kewaye ba, ya zama kamar marasa jini. Garkuwa na Byzantine ba zai iya tsammanin wani taimako daga tsarin kaskantar da kai na Heraclius ba. Bayan an kewaye shi watanni hudu, Sophronius ya yi alkawarin mika garin da biyan jizya (haraji), in da alkalin ya zo Urushalima ya sanya hannu kan yarjejeniyar kuma ya karbi mika wuya. An ce lokacin da musulmai suka san kalmomin Sophronius, Shurahbil dan Hasana, daya daga cikin kwamandojin musulmai, ya ba da shawarar cewa maimakon jiran kalman zai zo daga Madina, sai a aika da Khalid dan Walid a matsayin kalifa, kamar yadda ya kasance yana kama da kamannin Umar. Mahakar ba ta yi aiki ba. Watakila, Khalid ya shahara sosai a Siriya, ko watakila akwai Larabawa Kirista a cikin garin wadanda suka ziyarci Madinah Kuma sun ga Umar da Khalid, suna tuna bambance-bambancen. Saboda haka, Babban sarki na Kudus ya ki sasantawa. Lokacin da Khalid ya ba da labarin gazawar wannan manufa, Abu Ubaidah ya rubuta wa Khalifa Umar bayanin halin da ake ciki, kuma ya gayyace shi ya zo Kudus don karban mika wuya na garin.

Mai mika wuya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

The Church of the Holy Sepulchre, where Sophronius invited Caliph Umar to offer salat.
Ginin yau na Cocin Holy Sepulcher, inda Sophronius ya gayyaci Halifa Umar don yin bautar .

A farkon Afrilun shekara ta 637, Umar ya isa Falasdinu ya fara zuwa Jabiya, inda Abu Ubaidah, Khalid, da Yazid suka yi maraba da shi, wadanda suka yi tafiya tare da mai rakiya don su tarbe shi. An bar Amr a matsayin kwamandan sojojin da ke kewaye da sojojin Musulmi.

Bayan Umar ya isa Kudus, an kirkiro wata yarjejeniya da aka sani da Alkawarin Umariyya. Ya kaddamar da garin tare da ba da tabbaci na civilan kasa da na yancin Addini ga Kiristoci a musayar jizya. Khalifa Umar. Amr, Abd al-Rahman dan 'Awf da Muawiya ne suka sanya hannu a madadin musulmai. A karshen Afrilu 637, Urushalima bisa hukuma aka mika wa kalifa. A karo na farko, bayan kusan shekaru 500 na mulkin zalunci, an sake baiwa Yahudawa izinin zama da bautar Urushalima.

Ya zo a cikin littattafan tarihin Muslim, cewa a lokacin addu'o'in Zuhr, Sophronius ya gayyaci Umar don yin addu'a a cikin Ikklisiyar da aka sake gina Holy Sepulcher. Umar ya ki, yana tsoron kar karba gayyatar na iya yin lahani ga matsayin cocin a matsayin wurin bautar Kirista, kuma musulmai na iya karya yarjejeniyar kuma su mai da cocin zuwa masallaci. Bayan ya zauna na kwana goma a Urushalima, kalifa ya dawo Madina.

Bayan[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Image of Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem
Dome na Dutse, wanda Umayyawa Halifa Abd al-Malik ya gina a cikin 691.

Bin umarnin Kalifa, Yazid ya tafi Kaisariya, kuma ya sake kwanciyar hankali zuwa tashar jiragen ruwa. Amr da Shurahbil sun yi tafiya don kammala mamayar Falasdinu, aikin da aka kammala a karshen shekara. Ba za a iya daukar Kaisar ba har 640, lokacin da a karshe, sai masu gadi suka mika wuya ga Muawiyah I, sannan wani gwamnan Siriya. Tare da sojoji 17,000. Abu Ubaidah da Khalid sun tashi daga Urushalima don cinye dukkan Arewacin Siriya. Wannan ya kare da cin nasara da Antakiya a karshen 637. A shekara ta 639, musulmai suka mamaye Misira suka kuma ci nasara.

Lokacin zamansa a Urushalima, Sophronius ya jagorance shi zuwa wurare masu tsarki daban-daban, gami da Dutsen Haikali. Ganin talaucin inda Masallacin ya taba tsayawa, Umar ya ba da umarnin a tsabtace yankin kashin da tarkace kafin a gina masallaci na katako a wurin. Labarin farko na irin wannan tsari an ba shi ne daga bishop na Gallic Arculf, wanda ya ziyarci Urushalima a tsakanin 679 da 682, kuma ya ba da bayanin gidan addu'ar da zai iya daukar nasu bautar har 3,000, ginin katako da katako a kan rufin barna na gaba.

Fiye da rabin karni bayan nasarar Kudus, a cikin 691, Umayyad Khalifa Abd al-Malik ya ba da izinin gina Dome na Dutse a saman babban dakin gadaje a Dutsen. Masanin tarihi na karni na 10 al-Maqdisi ya rubuta cewa Abd al-Malik ya gina wurin ibadar ne don yin gasa tare da manyan cocin Kirista na birnin. Duk abin da niyya, ana ganin kyakkyawar girma da sikelin dakin ibada kamar yadda suka taimaka sosai wajen karfafa hadin kan Urushalima zuwa ga farkon Musulmin nan.

A cikin shekaru 400 masu zuwa, martabar garin ta ragu yayin da ikon Saracen a yankin suka hadu don iko. Kudus ta kasance karkashin mulkin musulmai har sai da 'Yan Salibiyya suka kwace ta a shekarar 1099 a lokacin Yakin Ciki na farko.

Hadith[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An yi imani da Sunni a Islama cewa Muhammadu ya annabta cin birnin Kudus a cikin ingantattun ingantattun hadisai a wurare daban-daban na Islama, ciki har da wata ruwayar da aka ambata cikin Sahih al-Bukhari a Kitab Al Jizyah Wa'l Mawaada'ah (Littafin Jizya da Adana).

Aka ruwaito daga Auf dan Malik: Na tafi wurin Annabi a lokacin balaguro na Tabuk yayin da yake zaune a bakin alfarwa. Ya ce, "Lissafa alamomi shida da ke nuna kusancin Karshen Zamani: mutuwata, nasara ta Urushalima, annoba ce da za ta same ku (na kashe ku da yawan adadi) kamar annoba da ke damun tumaki..."

Abu Ubaidah ya kasance karkashin mamayar Kudus a lokacin farkon musulinci tare da Annoba na Emmaus. Annobar ta shahara a kafofin musulmai saboda mutuwar manyan sahabban Muhammadu.

Bayanin Kula[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

a: An ce musulmai sun rasa maza 4,000 a yakin Yarmouk sun yi wata biyu kacal kafin a kewaye.


b: Masana tarihin musulinci sun banbanta cikin shekarar da aka kewaye; yayin da Tabari ya ce ya kasance 636, al-Baladhuri ya sanya ranar mika wuya a cikin 638 (Futuh II.XI ko shafi 139; shafi 214 a fassarar Hitti). Agha I. Akram ya yi imanin cewa 636-637 ne ya zama kwanan wata.