Kogin Tigris

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Kogin Tigris
Tigris 2015.jpg
General information
Tsawo 1,850 km
Labarin ƙasa
Geographic coordinate system (en) Fassara 38°30′12″N 39°30′21″E / 38.5032°N 39.5058°E / 38.5032; 39.5058
Kasa Irak, Siriya da Turkiyya
Hydrography (en) Fassara
Tributary (en) Fassara
Watershed area (en) Fassara 375,000 km²
Tabkuna Lake Hazar (en) Fassara
River source (en) Fassara Lake Hazar (en) Fassara
River mouth (en) Fassara Shatt al-Arab (en) Fassara
Mosul, a bankin Tigris, 1861

Taigiris ( /t aɪ ɡ r ɪ s / ) shine na biyu mai girma koguna cewa ayyana Mesofotamiya, da sauran kasancewa Yufiretis . Kogin yana gudana kudu daga tsaunukan tsaunukan Armeniya ta cikin hamadar Siriya da Larabawa, kuma ya fantsama zuwa Tekun Fasha .

Geography[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tigris shine 1,750 Tsawon kilomita, yana tashi a tsaunukan Taurus na gabashin Turkiyya kimanin 25 kilomita kudu maso gabas da birnin Elazig da kuma kusan 30 km daga magudanar ruwan Furat. Sai kogin yana gudana har 400 kilomita ta kudu maso gabashin Turkiyya kafin ya zama wani yanki na iyakar Siriya da Turkiyya . Wannan nau'i na 44 km ne kawai yanki na kogin da yake a Siriya. [1] Wasu daga cikin wadatarta sune Garzan, Anbarçayi, Batman, da Babban da Ƙananan Zab .

Kusa da haɗuwa da Euphrates, Tigris ya rabu zuwa tashoshi da yawa. Na farko, rassan Shatt al-Hayy na wucin gadi, don shiga cikin Furat kusa da Nasiriya . Na biyu, Shatt al-Muminah da Majar al-Kabir reshen don ciyar da tsakiyar Marshes . Daga baya, wasu tashoshi biyu na rarrabawa sun rabu ( Al-Musharrah da Al-Kahla ), don ciyar da Marshes Hawizeh . Babban tashar yana ci gaba zuwa kudu kuma yana haɗuwa da Al-Kassarah, wanda ke zubar da Marshes Hawizeh. A ƙarshe, Tigris ya haɗu da Furat kusa da al-Qurnah don kafa Shatt-al-Arab . A cewar Pliny da wasu ’yan tarihi na dā, Euphrates asalinsa yana da hanyar shiga teku dabam da na Tigris. [2]

Baghdad, babban birnin ƙasar Iraki, yana kan gabar Tigris. Birnin Basra mai tashar jiragen ruwa yana mashigin Shatt al-Arab. A zamanin da, da yawa daga cikin manyan biranen Mesofotamiya sun tsaya a kan Tigris ko kuma kusa da Tigris, suna ɗibar ruwa daga gare ta don ba da shayarwa ga wayewar Sumeriyawa . Manyan garuruwan da ke gefen Tigris sun haɗa da Nineba, Ctesiphon, da Seleucia, yayin da Tigris ke ba da ruwa a birnin Lagash ta wata magudanar ruwa da aka haƙa a shekara ta 2900 BC.

Kewayawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tigris ta kasance hanya mai mahimmanci ta sufuri a cikin ƙasa mai yawan hamada. Tasoshin jiragen ruwa marasa zurfi na iya zuwa Bagadaza, amma ana buƙatar raƙuman ruwa don hawa sama zuwa Mosul .

Janar Francis Rawdon Chesney ya jera jiragen ruwa guda biyu a kan kasar Siriya a shekara ta 1836 don gano yiwuwar hanyar tudu da kogi zuwa Indiya. Wani jirgin ruwa mai suna Tigris, ya rushe a cikin guguwar da ta nutse kuma ta kashe ashirin. Chesney ya tabbatar da kogin na iya tafiya zuwa sana'a mai ƙarfi. A shekara ta 1855, wani ayarin rafts dauke antiquities daga Victor Place ta balaguro zuwa Khorsabad, Rawlinson 's zuwa Kuyunjik da Fresnel ' s zuwa Babila aka sunk ta gida ta kabilu kusa Al-Qurnah . [3] [4] Daga baya, Euphrates da Tigris Steam Navigation Company aka kafa a shekara ta 1861 da Lynch Brothers ciniki kamfanin, wanda yana da biyu steamers a sabis. A shekara ta 1908 masu hawa goma sun kasance a kan kogin. Masu yawon bude ido sun hau jiragen ruwan tururi don shiga cikin gida saboda wannan shine farkon shekarun yawon shakatawa na kayan tarihi, kuma wuraren Ur da Ctesiphon sun zama sananne ga matafiya na Turai.

A yakin duniya na farko, a lokacin da Birtaniyya ta mamaye Mesopotamiya na Ottoman, an yi amfani da mashinan ruwa na Indiya da na Kogin Thames don samar da sojojin Janar Charles Townsend, a cikin Siege na Kut da Fall of Baghdad (1917) . Tigris Flotilla sun hada da jiragen ruwa Clio, Espiegle, Lawrence, Odin, tug Comet, makamai masu linzami Lewis Pelly, Miner, Shaitan, Sumana, da sternwheelers Muzaffari/Muzaffar. Waɗannan sun haɗa da jiragen ruwa na Royal Navy Fly-class Butterfly, Cranefly, Dragonfly, Mayfly, Sawfly, Snakefly, da Mantis, Moth, da Tarantula.

Bayan yakin, cinikin koguna ya ragu da muhimmanci a cikin ƙarni na 20 yayin da aka kammala titin jirgin kasa na Basra-Baghdad-Mosul, wani yanki da ba a kammala ba a baya na titin jirgin kasa na Bagadaza, kuma hanyoyi sun mamaye yawancin zirga-zirgar jigilar kayayyaki.

Etymology[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Badouin suna haye kogin Tigris da ganima (c.1860)

Tsohon Girkanci na Tigris ( Τίγρις ) ma'ana " damisa " (idan ana bi da shi azaman Girkanci), an samo shi daga Tsohon Farisa Tigrā, kanta daga Elamite Tigra, kanta daga Sumerian Idigna ko Idigina (wataƙila an samo shi daga * id (i) gina "ruwa mai gudu"). [5] A Sumerian lokaci, wanda za a iya fassara a matsayin "da gaggawar kogin", ya bambanta da na Taigiris ta zuwa ga maƙwabcinsa, wato Kogin Yufiretis, wanda leisurely taƙi sa shi saka ƙarin silt da kuma gina wata babbar gado fiye da Taigiris. An aro nau'in Sumerian zuwa Akkadian a matsayin Idiqlat kuma daga nan zuwa sauran yarukan Semitic (kwatanta Ibrananci Ḥîddeqel, Syriac Deqlaṯ, Larabci Dijlah ).[ana buƙatar hujja]

Wani suna na Tigris da aka yi amfani da shi a Farisa ta Tsakiya shine Arvand Rud, a zahiri "kogi mai sauri". A yau, duk da haka, Arvand Rud ( Sabon Persian : اروند رود ) yana nufin haduwar kogin Furat da Tigris, wanda aka fi sani da Larabci da Shatt al-Arab . A cikin Kurdawa, an san shi da Ava Mezin, "Babban Ruwa".[ana buƙatar hujja]

Mosul, Iraq
A wajen Mosul, Iraki

Sunan Tigris a cikin harsunan da suka kasance masu mahimmanci a yankin sune kamar haka:

Harshe Samun Tigris
Akkadian 𒁇𒄘𒃼, Idiqlat
Larabci دجلة, Dijlah ; حداقل, Ḥdaqil
Aramaic דיגלת, Diglath
Armenian Տիգրիս, Tigris, Դգլաթ, Dglatʿ
Girkanci ἡ Τίγρης, -ητος, da hē Tígrēs, -ētos ;

ἡ, ὁ Τίγρις, -ιδος, hē, ho Tígris, -idos

Ibrananci   Ḥîddeqel Littafi Mai Tsarki  Ḥiddeqel [6]
Hurrian Aranzah [7]
Farisa Tsohon Farisa : 𐎫𐎡𐎥𐎼𐎠 Tigra ; Farisa ta Tsakiya : Tigr ; Farisa na zamani : دجله Dejle
Sumerian 𒁇𒄘𒃼 Idigna/IdiginaIDIGNA (Borg 2003 nr. 124) 💈💄</img>
Syriac ܕܸܩܠܵܬܼ Deqlaṯ
Baturke Dicle

Gudanarwa da ingancin ruwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kogin Batman

Yankin Tigris yana da ruwa sosai a Iraki da Turkiyya don samar da ruwan sha don ban ruwa a yankuna masu bushe da hamada da ke kan iyaka da kwarin kogin. Damming ya kuma kasance muhimmi wajen kawar da ambaliya a Iraki, wanda tarihi ya yi kaurin suna a yankin Tigris bayan narkar da dusar kankara a cikin watan Afrilu a tsaunukan Turkiyya.

Matsalolin ruwan da Turkiyya ta yi a baya-bayan nan ya kasance batun cece-kuce, saboda illar da ke tattare da muhalli a cikin kasar Turkiyya da kuma yuwuwar rage kwararar ruwa daga magudanar ruwa. Dam na Mosul shi ne madatsar ruwa mafi girma a Iraki.

Ana amfani da ruwa daga kogunan biyu a matsayin hanyar matsi yayin rikici. [8]

A cikin shekara ta 2014 an sami babban ci gaba wajen samar da yarjejeniya tsakanin wakilan masu ruwa da tsaki na Iraki da Turkiyya kan wani shiri na inganta musaya da daidaita bayanai da ka'idojin da suka shafi magudanar ruwa na Tigris.

A watan Fabrairun shekara ta 2016, ofishin jakadancin Amurka a Iraki da kuma Firayim Ministan Iraki Haider al-Abadi sun ba da gargadin cewa Dam din Mosul na iya rushewa. Amurka ta gargadi jama'a da su kaurace wa magudanar ruwan Tigris saboda mutane tsakanin 500,000 zuwa miliyan 1.5 na cikin hadarin nutsewa saboda ambaliyar ruwa idan dam din ya ruguje, kuma manyan biranen Iraki na Mosul, Tikrit, Samarra, da Baghdad suna cikin hadari. kasada.

Addini da tatsuniyoyi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin tarihin Sumerian , allahn Enki ne ya halicci Tigris, wanda ya cika kogin da ruwa mai gudana.

A cikin tatsuniyar Hittiyawa da Hurrian, Aranzah (ko Aranzahas a cikin sunan Hittiyawa ) shine sunan Hurrian na Kogin Tigris, wanda aka yi masa sihiri. Shi ɗan Kumarbi ne kuma ɗan'uwan Teshub da Tašmišu, ɗaya daga cikin alloli uku ya tofa albarkacin bakinsa daga bakin Kumarbi a kan Dutsen Kanzuras . Daga baya ya hada baki da Anu da Teshub don halaka Kumarbi.

Tigris ya bayyana sau biyu a cikin Tsohon Alkawari . Na farko, a cikin Littafin Farawa, shi ne na uku na koguna huɗu da ke reshen kogin da ke fitowa daga gonar Adnin . [6] An ambaci na biyu a cikin Littafin Daniyel, inda Daniyel ya ce ya sami ɗaya daga cikin wahayinsa “lokacin da nake bakin babban kogin Tigris”. [9]

Haka nan ana ambaton kogin Tigris a Musulunci.[ana buƙatar hujja] A kabarin Imam Ahmad Bin Hambali da Syed Abdul Razzaq Jilani ne a birnin Bagadaza, da kuma da ya kwarara daga Tigris ƙuntatãwa da yawan baƙi.

Tigris River in Baghdad (2016)
Tufafin Masarautar Iraqi 1932-1959 wanda ke nuna koguna biyu, mahaɗar Shatt al-Arab da dajin dabino, wanda a da ya kasance mafi girma a duniya.

Kogin ya kasance a kan rigar makamai na Iraki daga shekara ta 1932-1959.

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Assuriya
  • Yaro na wayewa
  • Yakin yakin neman zabe na Dam din Ilisu na yaki da dam a Tigris a Turkiyya
  • Jerin wurare a Iraki
  • Namun daji na Iraki

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Isaev, V.A.; Mikhailova, M.V. (2009).
  2. Pliny: Natural History, VI, XXVI, 128-131
  3. Namio Egami, "The Report of The Japan Mission For The Survey of Under-Water Antiquities At Qurnah: The First Season," (1971-72), 1-45, https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/orient1960/8/0/8_0_1/_pdf.
  4. Larsen, M.T., The Conquest of Assyria: Excavations in an Antique Land, Routledge, 2014, pp 344-49
  5. F. Delitzsch, Sumerisches Glossar, Leipzig (1914), IV, 6, 21.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Genesis 2:14
  7. E. Laroche, Glossaire de la langue Hourrite, Paris (1980), p. 55.
  8. Vidal, John.
  9. Daniel 10:4

Hanyoyin waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]