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Mahbub ul Haq

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Mahbub ul-Haq ( Urdu: محبوب الحق‎  ; an haifeshi a ranar 24 ga watan Fabrairu shekarata alif 1934 zuwa ranar 16 ga watan Yuli shekarata alif 1998,masanin tattalin arzikin Pakistan ne, masanin ci gaban kasa da kasa, kuma ɗan siyasa wanda ya zama Ministan Kuɗi na Pakistan daga ranar 10 ga watan Afrilu shekarata alif 1985 zuwa ranar 28 ga watan Janairu shekarata alif 1986, kuma daga watan Yuni zuwa watan Disamba shekarata alif 1988 a matsayin mai rikon kwarya . .

Haq ya koma Pakistan don zama babban masanin tattalin arziki na Hukumar Tsare-tsare a cikin shekarar alif 1960. A cikin shekarata alif 1970, bayan faduwar Ayub Khan, Haq ya koma Washington, DC don yin aiki a Bankin Duniya a matsayin Daraktan Tsare Tsare-tsare har zuwa shekarata alif 1982, inda ya taka muhimmiyar rawa wajen sake daidaita tsarinta na taimakawa ci gaba a kasashe masu karamin karfi .

Ya koma Pakistan a cikin shekarar alif 1982, kuma a cikin shekarata alif 1985 ya zama Ministan Kudi tare da Gwamnatin Pakistan, kuma ya kula da lokacin sassaucin tattalin arziki a cikin kasar. A cikin shekarata alif 1989, ya koma Amurka, inda ya zama mai ba da shawara na musamman ga shirin ci gaban Majalisar Dinkin Duniya (UNDP) a karkashin shugabanta, William Henry Draper III . Ya koma Pakistan a cikin shekarata alif 1996 don kafa Cibiyar Ci gaban Bil Adama a babban birnin Islamabad .

Littafinsa na shekarar alif 1995, Tunani kan Ci gaban Dan Adam, an ce ya buɗe sabbin hanyoyi don ba da shawarwari na manufofin ci gaban ɗan adam, kamar Majalisar Dinkin Duniya Global Compact da aka kafa a shekarar 2000.

Rayuwar farko da ilimi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An haifi Haq a cikin dangin musulmin Punjabi a ranar 24 ga Fabrairu 1934 a garin Gurdaspur, [1] Lardin Punjab, Indiya ta Burtaniya (yanzu tana cikin Jamhuriyar Indiya ). [2] Shekarunsa na matashi ya ga tarzoma tsakanin al'umma da tilasta yin hijira bayan samun 'yancin kai na Indiya da Pakistan daga mulkin Birtaniya a watan Agustan 1947. [2] Shi da iyalinsa sun yi ƙaura daga Indiya zuwa sabuwar ƙasar Pakistan da aka ƙirƙira bayan rabuwar Indiya ; Haq ya bayyana cewa da kyar suka tsira da rayukansu a cikin daya daga cikin jiragen kasan 'yan gudun hijirar da ke kan hanyar zuwa Pakistan. [2] Bayan ya isa Lahore, an ba Haq gidaje da gwamnati ta dauki nauyinsa kuma ya yanke shawarar ci gaba da karatunsa.

A cikin 1953, ya sauke karatu da digiri a fannin tattalin arziki daga Jami'ar Kwalejin Gwamnati ta Lahore. [3] Daga baya ya sami gurbin karatu don halartar Jami'ar Cambridge, inda ya sami wani BA a cikin wannan horo tare da masanin tattalin arzikin Indiya Amartya Sen, [4] wanda ya kulla abota ta kud da kud. [3] Bayan sabunta karatunsa, Haq ya tafi Amurka don karatun digiri na uku a Jami'ar Yale kuma ya sami digiri na uku . Daga baya, Haq ya gudanar da aikin postdoctoral a Jami'ar Harvard a 1960-61. [3]

Bayan ya koma Pakistan a cikin 1957 yana da shekaru 23, Haq ya shiga Hukumar Tsare-tsare a matsayin Mataimakin Shugaban yayin da ya shirya shirinsa na shekaru biyar na farko. [5] Sakamakon babban tunanin tattalin arziki a cikin makarantun Amurka, Haq ya ba da shawarar jari-hujja a matsayin tushen tattalin arziki na tattalin arzikin kasa kuma ya taimaka wajen jagorantar gwamnati don amfani da ka'idojin kasuwa na kyauta don bunkasa tattalin arziki. Gwamnatin mulkin soja ta Janar Ayub Khan ta amince da wannan tsarin da zuciya ɗaya bayan da ta hau mulki a watan Oktoban 1958. Ya zuwa shekarun 1960 a matsayin babban masanin tattalin arziki na Hukumar Tsare-tsare Haq yana gabatar da jawabai a duk fadin kasar don tallafawa wadannan manufofin tattalin arziki.

Yayin da kasashen duniya ke yabawa Pakistan a matsayin abin koyi na ci gaba, Haq ya nuna damuwa cewa duk bai dace ba tare da rarraba fa'idodin ci gaba. Ci gaban tattalin arziƙin cikin sauri ya sa ƙungiyar Haq ta yi shakkar dorewar irin wannan yanayin na ci gaba na dogon lokaci, kuma yana ƙara tallafawa haraji mai nauyi na azuzuwan mallakar kadarorin. A cikin jawabin da aka ba da rahoto ga Cibiyar Nazarin Harkokin Tattalin Arziki ta Jami'ar Karachi a cikin Afrilu 1968, Haq ya yi zargin cewa "kungiyoyin dangin masana'antu 22 sun mamaye tsarin tattalin arziki da na kuɗi na Pakistan kuma suna sarrafa kusan kashi biyu bisa uku na kadarorin masana'antu, 80% na banki da 79% na kadarorin inshora a yankin masana'antu." [6]

Jerin sun hada da Dawood dangin Dawood Group, Saigols na Saigol Group, Adamjees na Adamjee Group, Colony, Fancy, Valika, Jalil, Bawany, Crescent, Wazir Ali, Gandhara, Ispahani, House of Habib, Khyber, Nishat Group, Beco, Gul Ahmed Group, Arag, Hafiz, Karim, Milwala and Dada. [7]

Wadannan ayoyin sun taka muhimmiyar rawa wajen tara miliyoyin mutane a wani gagarumin yunkuri na zanga-zanga wanda ya kai ga hambarar da Field Marshal Ayub Khan a cikin Maris 1969. Bayan faduwar Ayub, Haq ya karɓi goron gayyata daga Robert McNamara, shugaban Bankin Duniya don ya zama Daraktan Tsare-tsarensa. A lokacin mulkinsa (1970 – 82), Haq ya rinjayi falsafar ci gaban Bankin da manufofin bayar da lamuni, da mai da hankali kan shirye-shiryen kawar da fatara da ƙara yawan rabon noma, abinci mai gina jiki, ilimi, samar da ruwa da sauran sassa na zamantakewa . Ya rubuta wani nazari [8] wanda ya zama mafari ga buƙatu na yau da kullun da hanyoyin haɓaka ɗan adam na 1980s.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Baru, Sanjaya (1988) Mahbub ul Haq and Human Development: A Tribute, Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 33, No. 35 (Aug. 29 - Sep. 4), pp. 2275-2279 (5 pages)
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 "Inaugural Mahbub ul Haq-Amartya Sen Lecture, UNIGE | Human Development Reports". hdr.undp.org. Retrieved 23 February 2016
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 "Amartya Sen - Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 23 February 2016.
  4. "Honouring Mahbubul Haq - The Express Tribune". The Express Tribune. Retrieved 23 February 2016.
  5. Mahbub ul Haq (1996) Reflections on Human Development. Oxford University Press. 288 pages. ISBN 0-19-510193-6
  6. "Obituary: Mahbub ul Haq". The Independent. Retrieved 23 February 2016.
  7. https://www.economist.com/node/169653
  8. Mahbub ul Haq (1976) The Poverty Curtain: Choices for the Third World. Columbia University Press. 247 pages. 08033994793.ABA