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Ruwan ruwa

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Kogin Mississippi yana zubar da mafi girman yanki na kowane kogin Amurka, yawancin yankuna na noma . Ruwan ruwa na noma da sauran gurɓataccen ruwa da ke gudana zuwa mashigar shine sanadin hypoxic, ko mataccen yanki a cikin Tekun Mexico .

Magudanar ruwa ani yanki ne na ƙasa inda duk ruwan saman da ke gudana ke haɗuwa zuwa wuri guda, kamar bakin kogi, ko kuma zuwa cikin wani ruwa kamar tafki ko teku . An raba basin daga magudanan ruwa da ke kusa da kewayen, magudanar ruwa, wanda ya ƙunshi jerin abubuwa masu ɗaukaka, kamar tudu da tuddai . Basin na iya ƙunshi ƙananan kwanduna waɗanda ke haɗuwa a mahaɗar kogi, suna yin tsari na matsayi .

sharuddan magudanar ruwa sun hada da wurin magudanar ruwa, kwandon ruwa, wurin magudanar ruwa, ruwan kogi, kwandon ruwa, [1] da impluvium . [2] [3] A Arewacin Amirka, ana kiran su da ruwa, ko da yake a wasu wuraren da ake magana da Ingilishi, ana amfani da "watershed" kawai a ma'anarsa ta asali, na rarraba magudanar ruwa.

Ana ƙayyade iyakokin ruwan magudanar ruwa ta hanyar ƙetaren ruwa, aiki gama gari a injiniyan muhalli da kimiyya.

A cikin rufaffiyar magudanar ruwa, ko kwandon ruwa na endorheic, maimakon kwarara zuwa teku, ruwa yana haɗuwa zuwa cikin cikin kwandon, wanda aka sani da nutsewa, wanda zai iya zama tafkin dindindin, tafkin busasshen, ko kuma wurin da ruwa ya ɓace . karkashin kasa .

Magudanun ruwa iri ɗaya ne amma ba iri ɗaya da lambar naúrar ruwa ba, waɗanda wuraren magudanar ruwa ne da aka keɓe don yin gida a cikin tsarin magudanar ruwa mai matakai da yawa. An ayyana raka'o'in hydrologic don ba da izinin mashigai, kantuna, ko nutsewa da yawa. A cikin tsattsauran ma'ana, duk kwalayen magudanar ruwa raka'o'in ruwa ne amma ba duk rukunin ruwa ba ne magudanar ruwa.

Manyan magudanan ruwa na duniya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Manyan rarrabuwar kawuna, yana nuna yadda kwalayen magudanan ruwa na ƙasa ke zubewa cikin tekuna. Wurare masu launin toka sune kwano na endorheic waɗanda ba sa magudanar ruwa zuwa tekuna

Ruwan ruwa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kusan kashi 48.71% na ƙasar duniya yana magudanar ruwa zuwa Tekun Atlantika .[ana buƙatar hujja]</link>A Arewacin Amirka, ruwan <span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (January 2017)">saman</span> ] [ zuwa Tekun Atlantika ta kogin Saint Lawrence da manyan tafkuna, Gabashin Tekun Amurka, Maritimes na Kanada, da mafi yawan Newfoundland da Labrador . Kusan duk Kudancin Amurka gabas da Andes suma suna magudanar ruwa zuwa Tekun Atlantika, hakama yawancin Yammacin Turai da Tsakiyar Turai da mafi girman yanki na yammacin Saharar Afirka, da yammacin Sahara da wani yanki na Maroko .

Manyan tekunan Mediterranean biyu na duniya kuma suna kwarara zuwa Tekun Atlantika. Tekun Caribbean da Gulf of Mexico basin sun haɗa da yawancin ciki na Amurka tsakanin Appalachian da Dutsen Rocky, ƙaramin yanki na lardunan Kanada na Alberta da Saskatchewan, gabashin Amurka ta tsakiya, tsibiran Caribbean da Gulf, da ƙaramin yanki. na Arewacin Amurka ta Kudu. Basin Tekun Bahar Rum, tare da Bahar Maliya, ya haɗa da yawancin Arewacin Afirka, Gabas ta Tsakiyar Afirka (ta cikin Kogin Nilu ), Kudanci, Tsakiya, da Gabashin Turai, Turkiyya, da yankunan bakin teku na Isra'ila, Lebanon, da Siriya .

Tekun Arctic ya malalo mafi yawan Yammacin Kanada da Arewacin Kanada gabas da Rarraba Nahiyar, arewacin Alaska da sassan North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, da Montana a Amurka, bakin tekun arewacin yankin Scandinavian a Turai, tsakiya da arewa Rasha, da wasu sassan Kazakhstan da Mongoliya a Asiya, wanda ya kai kusan kashi 17% na ƙasar duniya. [4]

Sama da kashi 13% na ƙasar a duniya suna magudawa zuwa Tekun Pasifik . [4] Basinsa ya haɗa da yawancin China, gabas da kudu maso gabashin Rasha, Japan, Koriya ta Koriya, mafi yawan Indochina, Indonesia da Malaysia, Philippines, duk tsibiran Pacific, bakin tekun arewa maso gabashin Ostiraliya, da Kanada da Amurka yamma da Gabas ta Tsakiya. Rarraba Nahiyar (ciki har da mafi yawan Alaska), da kuma yammacin Amurka ta tsakiya da Kudancin Amirka a yammacin Andes.

Magudanar ruwan tekun Indiya kuma ya ƙunshi kusan kashi 13% na ƙasar duniya. Tana magudanar da gabar gabashin Afirka, gaɓar tekun Bahar Maliya da Tekun Fasha, yankin Indiya, Burma, da galibin sassan Ostiraliya .

Manyan kwanukan kogi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Manyan kogi biyar (ta yanki), daga mafi girma zuwa ƙarami, su ne na Amazon (7M km 2 ), Kongo (4M km 2 ), Nilu (3.4M km 2 ), Mississippi (3.22M km 2 . ), da kuma Río de la Plata</link> (3.17M km 2 ). Koguna uku da suka fi zubar da ruwa mafi yawa, daga mafi yawa zuwa ƙarami, sune kogin Amazon, Ganges, da kogin Kongo. [5]

Endorheic magudanun ruwa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Endorheic basin a tsakiyar Asiya

Endorheic basin kwalaye ne na cikin ƙasa waɗanda ba sa magudanar ruwa zuwa teku. Ruwan ruwa na Endorheic ya rufe kusan kashi 18% na ƙasar Duniya. Wasu kwandunan endorheic suna magudawa zuwa tafkin Endorheic ko Tekun Ciki . Yawancin waɗannan tafkunan suna da yawa ko kuma sun bambanta da girma dangane da yanayi da shigowa. Idan ruwa ya ƙafe ko ya kutsa cikin ƙasa a ƙarshensa, yankin na iya tafiya da sunaye da yawa, irin su playa, lebur gishiri, busasshen tafkin, ko alkali nutse .

Mafi girman tafkunan endorheic suna tsakiyar Asiya ta tsakiya, gami da Tekun Caspian, Tekun Aral, da tafkuna masu yawa. Sauran yankuna na endorheic sun hada da Babban Basin a Amurka, da yawa daga cikin hamadar Sahara, magudanar ruwa na Kogin Okavango ( Kalahari Basin ), tsaunukan da ke kusa da Babban Tafkunan Afirka, ciki na Ostiraliya da Larabawa, da sassa a Mexico. da Andes . Wasu daga cikin waɗannan, kamar Babban Basin, ba kwandunan magudanan ruwa guda ɗaya ba ne amma tarin kwanononin rufaffiyar maƙwabta.

A cikin jikin ruwa na endorheic inda evaporation shine hanyar farko ta asarar ruwa, ruwan ya fi yawan gishiri fiye da teku. Babban misalin wannan shine Tekun Matattu .[ana buƙatar hujja]</link>[ <span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (April 2023)">abubuwan da ake bukata</span> ]

Muhimmanci[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Iyakoki na geopolitical[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Magudanan ruwa sun kasance masu mahimmanci a tarihi don tantance iyakoki, musamman a yankunan da kasuwancin ruwa ke da mahimmanci. Misali, kambin Ingilishi ya ba Kamfanin Hudson's Bay ikon mallakar gashin gashi a duk fadin Hudson Bay, yankin da ake kira Rupert's Land . Ƙungiyar siyasa ta Bioregional a yau ta haɗa da yarjejeniyoyin ƙasashe (misali, yarjejeniyoyin ƙasa da ƙasa da, a cikin Amurka, ƙayyadaddun ƙayyadaddun jihohi ) ko wasu ƙungiyoyin siyasa a cikin wani magudanar ruwa na musamman don sarrafa jiki ko jikunan ruwa da take shiga. Misalan irin waɗannan ƙaƙƙarfan ƙaƙƙarfan yanki sune Hukumar Tafkuna da Hukumar Tsare-tsare ta Yankin Tahoe .

Ilimin kimiyyar ruwa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Magudanar ruwa na Kogin Ohio, wani yanki na kogin Mississippi
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  5. Encarta Encyclopedia articles on Amazon River, Congo River, and Ganga Published by Microsoft in computers.