Man Gyaɗa

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Man Gyaɗa
seed oil (en) Fassara da non-drying oil (en) Fassara
Kayan haɗi Gyaɗa
Tarihi
Mai tsarawa Gyaɗa
Man gyada
Iluamuthu groundnut oil

Man gyaɗa, wanda aka fi sani da man gyaɗa ko kuma man arachis, man kayan lambu ne da ake samu daga gyaɗa. Yawancin man yana da ɗanɗano mai laushi ko tsaka tsaki[1] amma, idan an yi shi da gasashshiyar gyaɗa, yana da ɗanɗanon gyaɗa mai ƙarfi da ƙamshi.[2][3] Ana amfani da shi sau da yawa a cikin Amurka, Sinanci, Indiyawa, Afirka da Kudu maso Gabashin Asiya duka don dafa abinci na na yau da gobe, kuma a cikin yanayin gasasshen mai, don ƙarin ɗanɗano. Man gyaɗa yana da wurin hayaki mai yawa dangane da sauran man girki, don haka ana amfani da shi wajen soya abinci.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Sakamakon karancin man fetur na yaki, amfani da man gyada da ake samu ya karu a Amurka a lokacin yakin duniya na biyu.[4]

Samarwa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ga jerin sunayen kasashen da suka fi samar da man gyaɗa a faɗin duniya.

Ƙasa Samarwa, 2018
(tonnes)
1 Chaina 1,821,000
2 Indiya 1,540,976
3 Najeriya 364,100
4 Myanmar 252,465
5 Sudan 177,800
6 Senegal 175,900
7 Guinea 110,000
8 Ajantina 102,700
9 United States 97,000
10 Ghana 70,218
11 Chad 64,000
12 Brazil 63,600
Source : FAOSTAT

Amfani[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ana amfani da man gyaɗa ba tare da tacewa ba azaman ɗanɗano don yin jita-jita kamar man sesame. Ana amfani da man gyaɗa don soya abinci kamar french fries kuma yana da wurin hayaki 450. °F/232 °C.[5]

Biodiesel[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A wajen baje kolin na birnin Paris a shekara ta 1900, kamfanin Otto bisa buƙatar gwamnatin Faransa, ya nuna cewa ana iya amfani da man gyaɗa a matsayin hanyar samar da man dizal; wannan shine ɗayan farkon nunin fasahar biodiesel.[6]

Sauran amfani[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Man gyaɗa, kamar yadda yake tare da sauran kayan lambu, ana iya amfani dashi don yin sabulu ta hanyar saponification.[7]

Abun ciki[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Babban abubuwan da ke tattare da fatty acid sune oleic acid (46.8% a matsayin olein ), linoleic acid (33.4% a matsayin linolein ), da palmitic acid (10.0% a matsayin palmitin ). Man kuma ya ƙunshi wasu stearic acid, arachidic acid, behenic acid, lignoceric acid da sauran fatty acid.

Abubuwan da ke gina jiki[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  Man gyada shine kashi 17% cikakken mai, kashi 46% monounsaturated fat, da 32% polyunsaturated fat (teble).

Template:Nutritionalvalue

Properties of common cooking fats (per 100 g)
Type of fat Total fat (g) Saturated fat (g) Mono­unsaturated fat (g) Poly­unsaturated fat (g) Smoke point
Butter[8] 80-88 43-48 15-19 2-3 150 °C (302 °F)[9]
Canola oil[10] 100 6-7 62-64 24-26 205 °C (401 °F)[11][12]
Coconut oil[13] 99 83 6 2 177 °C (351 °F)
Corn oil[14] 100 13-14 27-29 52-54 230 °C (446 °F)[9]
Lard[15] 100 39 45 11 190 °C (374 °F)[9]
Peanut oil[16] 100 17 46 32 225 °C (437 °F)[9]
Olive oil[17] 100 13-19 59-74 6-16 190 °C (374 °F)[9]
Rice bran oil 100 25 38 37 250 °C (482 °F)[18]
Soybean oil[19] 100 15 22 57-58 257 °C (495 °F)[9]
Suet[20] 94 52 32 3 200 °C (392 °F)
Ghee[21] 99 62 29 4 204 °C (399 °F)
Sunflower oil[22] 100 10 20 66 225 °C (437 °F)[9]
Sunflower oil (high oleic) 100 12 84[11] 4[11]
Vegetable shortening [23] 100 25 41 28 165 °C (329 °F)[9]

Matsalolin lafiya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Idan aka yi watsi da kula da inganci, gyada da ke dauke da sinadari da ke samar da aflatoxin mai guba na iya kawo karshen gurbatar man da aka samu daga gare ta.

Allergens[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Masu rashin lafiyar gyada na iya shan man gyada mai tsafta sosai, amma yakamata su yi taka tsantsan.[24] Yawancin man gyaɗa da aka tace sosai suna cire abubuwan da ke haifar da ciwon gyaɗa kuma an nuna cewa ba su da lafiya ga "mafi yawan masu ciwon gyada". [25] Duk da haka, man gyada mai sanyi ba zai iya kawar da ciwo ba don haka zai iya zama haɗari sosai ga masu ciwon gyada.[26]

Tun da matakin sarrafa kowane samfurin sau da yawa ba a san su ba, mutane da yawa sun gaskata cewa "gujewa yana da hankali".[27][28]

Duba Kuma[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. "Peanut Oil - Uses, Health Benefits & Nutrition".
  2. Liu, Xiaojun; Jin, Qingzhe; Liu, Yuanfa; Huang, Jianhua; Wang, Xingguo; Mao, Wenyue; Wang, Shanshan (2011). "Changes in Volatile Compounds of Peanut Oil during the Roasting Process for Production of Aromatic Roasted Peanut Oil". Journal of Food Science. 76 (3): C404–12. doi:10.1111/j.1750-3841.2011.02073.x. PMID 21535807.
  3. "USA-Grown Peanut Sources - Peanut Oil". National Peanut Board. Archived from the original on 11 June 2008. Retrieved 15 January 2012.
  4. "The Peanut Situation" (Dec 12, 1942) The Billboard
  5. The Smoke Point of Fats & Oils - TheSpruce.com
  6. "Peanut Biodiesel". Boiled Peanut World. 2010. Retrieved 3 August 2011.
  7. "Saponification Table Plus The Characteristics of Oils in Soap", Soap Making Resource
  8. "Butter, stick, salted, nutrients". FoodData Central. USDA Agricultural Research Service. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 The Culinary Institute of America (2011). The Professional Chef (9th ed.). Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-470-42135-2. OCLC 707248142.
  10. "Oil, canola, nutrients". FoodData Central. USDA Agricultural Research Service. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 "Nutrient database, Release 25". United States Department of Agriculture.
  12. Katragadda, H. R.; Fullana, A. S.; Sidhu, S.; Carbonell-Barrachina, Á. A. (2010). "Emissions of volatile aldehydes from heated cooking oils". Food Chemistry. 120: 59. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.09.070.
  13. "Oil, coconut, nutrients". FoodData Central. USDA Agricultural Research Service. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
  14. "Oil, corn, nutrients". FoodData Central. USDA Agricultural Research Service. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
  15. "Lard, nutrients". FoodData Central. USDA Agricultural Research Service. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
  16. "Peanut oil, nutrients". FoodData Central. USDA Agricultural Research Service. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
  17. "Oil, olive, extra virgin, nutrients". FoodData Central. USDA Agricultural Research Service. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
  18. "Rice Bran Oil FAQ's". AlfaOne.ca. Archived from the original on 2014-09-27. Retrieved 2014-10-03.
  19. "Oil, soybean, nutrients". FoodData Central. USDA Agricultural Research Service. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
  20. "Beef, variety meats and by-products, suet, raw, nutrients". FoodData Central. USDA Agricultural Research Service. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
  21. "Nutrition data for Butter oil, anhydrous (ghee) per 100 gram reference amount"". FoodData Central. USDA Agricultural Research Service. Retrieved 25 July 2021.
  22. "Sunflower oil, nutrients". FoodData Central. USDA Agricultural Research Service. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
  23. "Shortening, vegetable, nutrients". FoodData Central. USDA Agricultural Research Service. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
  24. "USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference". Nutrient Data Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original on 3 March 2015. Retrieved 3 August 2011. Choose peanut oil and then "Oil, peanut, salad or cooking".
  25. Crevel, R.W.R; Kerkhoff, M.A.T; Koning, M.M.G (2000). "Allergenicity of refined vegetable oils". Food and Chemical Toxicology. 38 (4): 385–93. doi:10.1016/S0278-6915(99)00158-1. PMID 10722892.
  26. Hourihane, J. O'B; Bedwani, S. J; Dean, T. P; Warner, J. O (1997). "Randomised, double blind, crossover challenge study of allergenicity of peanut oils in subjects allergic to peanuts". BMJ. 314 (7087): 1084–8. doi:10.1136/bmj.314.7087.1084. PMC 2126478. PMID 9133891.
  27. "Peanut Allergy". Food Allergy Initiative. Archived from the original on 5 June 2011. Retrieved 3 August 2011.
  28. Carlson, Margaret (13 January 2012). "Deaths Show Schools Need Power of the EpiPen: Margaret Carlson". Bloomberg.

Hanyoyin haɗin waje[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

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