Marie Curie

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Marie Curie
Farfesa

Rayuwa
Cikakken suna Marya Salomea Skłodowska
Haihuwa Warszawa, 7 Nuwamba, 1867
ƙasa Faransa
Poland
Russian Empire (en) Fassara
Mazauni Warszawa
Faris
Harshen uwa Polish (en) Fassara
Mutuwa Sancellemoz (en) Fassara, 4 ga Yuli, 1934
Makwanci Panthéon (en) Fassara
Cemetery Sceaux (en) Fassara
Yanayin mutuwa Sababi na ainihi (aplastic anemia (en) Fassara)
Ƴan uwa
Mahaifi Władysław Skłodowski
Mahaifiya Bronisława Skłodowska
Abokiyar zama Pierre Curie (en) Fassara  (26 ga Yuli, 1895 -  19 ga Afirilu, 1906)
Yara
Ahali Bronisława Dłuska (en) Fassara, Józef Skłodowski (en) Fassara da Helena Skłodowska-Szaley (en) Fassara
Ƴan uwa
Yare House of Skłodowski (en) Fassara
Karatu
Makaranta Science Faculty of Paris (en) Fassara
X LO im. Królowej Jadwigi in Warsaw (en) Fassara
University of Paris (en) Fassara Doctor of Science (en) Fassara : physics (en) Fassara
University of Paris (en) Fassara 1894) Master of Science (en) Fassara : Lissafi
Flying University (en) Fassara
University of Paris (en) Fassara
(1891 - 1893) Master of Science (en) Fassara : physics (en) Fassara
Thesis director Gabriel Lippmann (en) Fassara
Dalibin daktanci André-Louis Debierne (en) Fassara
Óscar Moreno (en) Fassara
Marguerite Perey (en) Fassara
Branca Edmée Marques (en) Fassara
Zheng Dazhang (en) Fassara
Shi Shiyuan (en) Fassara
Emile Henriot (en) Fassara
Ștefania Mărăcineanu (en) Fassara
Harsuna Rashanci
Polish (en) Fassara
Faransanci
Sana'a
Sana'a physicist (en) Fassara, chemist (en) Fassara da university teacher (en) Fassara
Employers University of Paris (en) Fassara
Sorbonne (en) Fassara
Curie Institute (en) Fassara
Muhimman ayyuka Treatise on Radioactivity (en) Fassara
Kyaututtuka
Ayyanawa daga
Mamba German Academy of Sciences Leopoldina (en) Fassara
Saint Petersburg Academy of Sciences (en) Fassara
Academy of Sciences of the USSR (en) Fassara
Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences (en) Fassara
Russian Academy of Sciences (en) Fassara
Académie Nationale de Médecine (en) Fassara
Lwów Scientific Society (en) Fassara
Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (en) Fassara
International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation (en) Fassara
American Philosophical Society (en) Fassara
Royal Czech Society of Sciences (en) Fassara
Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights (en) Fassara
Imani
Addini agnosticism (en) Fassara
IMDb nm1792513

Marie Salomea Skłodowska–Curie (/ˈkjʊəri/ KURE-ee, [1] lafazin French pronunciation: ​ maʁi kyʁi], lafazin Polish pronunciation: [ˈmarja skwɔˈdɔfska kʲiˈri]; An haifi Maria Salomea Skłodowska, Polish: [ˈmarja salɔˈmɛa skwɔˈdofska]; 7 Nuwamba 1867-4 Yuli 1934) 'yar ƙasar Poland ne kuma masaniyar ilimin kimiya na Faransa kuma masaniyar ilmin sinadarai wanda ta gudanar da bincike na farko akan aikin radioactive. Ita ce mace ta farko da ta ci lambar yabo ta Nobel, mutum na farko kuma mace daya tilo da ta taba lashe kyautar Nobel sau biyu, kuma ita kadai ce ta lashe kyautar Nobel a fannonin kimiyya biyu. Mijinta, Pierre Curie, shi ne wanda ya lashe kyautar Nobel ta farko, wanda ya sa su zama ma'aurata na farko da suka lashe kyautar Nobel tare da kaddamar da gadon iyali na Curie na kyautar Nobel biyar. Ta kasance, a cikin shekarar 1906, mace ta farko da ta zama farfesa a Jami'ar Paris.[2]

An haife ta a Warsaw, a cikin daular Poland a lokacin, wani yanki na daular Rasha. Ta yi karatu a Jami'ar Flying ta sirri ta Warsaw kuma ta fara horar da ilimin kimiyya a Warsaw. A shekara ta 1891, tana da shekaru 24, ta bi yayanta Bronisława don yin karatu a Paris, inda ta sami digiri mafi girma kuma ta gudanar da aikinta na kimiyya na gaba. A shekara ta 1895 ta auri masanin kimiyyar lissafi dan kasar Faransa Pierre Curie, kuma ta raba lambar yabo ta Nobel a Physics ta 1903 tare da shi tare da masanin kimiyya Henri Becquerel don aikinsu na farko na bunkasa ka'idar "radioactivity" kalmar da ta kirkiro. A 1906 Pierre Curie ya mutu a wani hatsarin titin Paris. Marie ta sami lambar yabo ta Nobel a ilmin sinadarai a shekarar 1911 saboda binciken da ta yi na abubuwan da ake kira polonium da radium, ta yin amfani da dabarun da ta ƙirƙiro don keɓe isotopes na rediyoaktif.

A karkashin jagorancinta, an gudanar da binciken farko a duniya game da maganin neoplasms ta hanyar amfani da isotopes na rediyoaktif. Ta kafa Cibiyar Curie a Paris a 1920, da Cibiyar Curie a Warsaw a 1932; duka biyun sun kasance manyan cibiyoyin bincike na likita. A lokacin Yaƙin Duniya na ɗaya ta haɓaka rukunin mobile radioactive don ba da sabis na X-ray ga field hospitals.

Marie Curie

Yayin da 'yar ƙasar Faransa, Marie Skłodowska Curie, wacce ta yi amfani da sunayen sunaye biyu, [3] [4] ba ta rasa ma'anarta ta asalin Poland ba. Ta koya wa 'ya'yanta mata yaren Poland kuma ta kai su ziyara a Poland. Ta sanya sunan sinadarin farko da ta gano polonium, sunan kasarta ta haihuwa.

Marie Curie ta mutu a 1934, tana da shekaru 66, a Sancellemoz Gidajen zama Na Siyarwa da Hayar a Passy, Haute-Savoie), Faransa, na fama da cutar anemia mai yiwuwa daga kamuwa da cutar radiation a lokacin binciken kimiyya da kuma lokacin aikinta na radiology a field hospitals lokacin yakin duniya na daya. Baya ga kyautar Nobel ta Nobel, ta sami wasu karramawa da yawa da yawa; a cikin shekarar 1995 ta zama mace ta farko da aka zana bisa ga cancantarta a cikin Paris Panthéon. da Poland sun bayyana 2011 a matsayin shekarar Marie Curie a lokacin Shekarar Kimiyya ta Duniya. Ita ce batun ayyukan tarihin rayuwa da yawa, inda ake kuma san ta da Madame Curie.

Rayuwa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Shekarun farko[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Władysław Skłodowski, 'ya'ya mata (daga hagu) Maria, Bronisława, Helena, 1890

An haifi Maria Skłodowska a Warsaw, a Congress Poland a cikin Daular Rasha, ranar 7 ga watan Nuwamba 1867, ɗa na biyar kuma ƙarami na sanannun malamai Bronisława, née Boguska, da Władysław Skłodowski. ’Yan’uwan dattijon Maria (mai suna Mania) su ne Zofia (an haife shi a shekara ta 1862, mai laƙabi da Zosia), Józef Skłodowski [pl] . (an haife shi a 1863, mai lakabi Józio), Bronisława (an haife shi 1865, mai lakabi Bronia ) da Helena (an haifi 1866, mai lakabi Hela).[5]

A bangarorin uba da na uwa, dangi sun yi asarar dukiyoyinsu da dukiyoyinsu ta hanyar nuna kishin kasa a cikin boren kasa na Poland da nufin maido da 'yancin kai na Poland (na baya-bayan nan shi ne tashin hankalin Janairu na 1863-65). Wannan ya la’anci tsara na gaba, ciki har da Maria da ’yan’uwanta, ga gwagwarmaya mai wuyar samun ci gaba a rayuwa. Kakan mahaifin Maria, Józef Skłodowski (1804-1882) [pl], ya kasance shugaban makarantar firamare ta Lublin wanda Bolesław Prus ya halarta, wanda ya zama babban jigo a cikin adabin Poland.

Władysław Skłodowski ya koyar da ilimin lissafi da kimiyyar lissafi, darussan da Maria za ta bi, kuma shi ne darektan wasan motsa jiki na Warsaw biyu (makarantar sakandare) na yara maza. Bayan hukumomin Rasha sun kawar da koyarwar dakin gwaje-gwaje daga makarantun Poland, ya kawo yawancin kayan aikin dakin gwaje-gwaje a gida kuma ya umurci yaransa su yi amfani da su. Daga karshe masu kula da shi na Rasha sun kore shi saboda ra’ayin goyon bayan Poland suka tilasta masa ya dauki mukamai masu karancin albashi; Iyalin kuma sun yi asarar kuɗi a kan wani mummunan jari kuma a ƙarshe sun zaɓi su kara kudin shiga ta hanyar kwana a gidan. Mahaifiyar Maria Bronisława ta kula da wata babbar makarantar kwana ta Warsaw ga 'yan mata; ta yi murabus daga mukamin bayan an haifi Mariya. Ta mutu da tarin fuka a watan Mayu 1878, lokacin da Maria ke da shekaru goma. Kasa da shekaru uku da suka shige, babban yayan Maria, Zofia, ya mutu sakamakon kamuwa da cutar typhus daga wani jirgin ruwa.[6] Mahaifin Maria ya kasance wanda bai yarda da Allah ba, mahaifiyarta ƙwararriyar 'yar Katolika ce. Mutuwar mahaifiyar Mariya da ’yar’uwarta ya sa ta daina bin addinin Katolika kuma ta zama marar imani.

Maria (hagu), 'yar'uwar Bronisława, c. 1886

Sa’ad da ta kai shekara goma, Maria ta soma zuwa makarantar kwana ta J. Sikorska; na gaba, ta halarci dakin motsa jiki na 'yan mata, wanda ta sauke karatu a ranar 12 ga watan Yuni 1883 tare da lambar zinare. Bayan rugujewa, wataƙila saboda baƙin ciki, ta yi shekara ta gaba a ƙauye tare da dangin mahaifinta, a shekara ta gaba tare da mahaifinta a Warsaw, inda ta yi wasu koyarwa. Ba za a iya shiga makarantar sakandare ta yau da kullun ba saboda mace ce, ita da 'yar uwarta Bronisława sun shiga cikin Jami'ar Flying na sirri (wani lokacin ana fassara su azaman Jami'ar Floating ), wata cibiyar kishin ƙasa ta Poland ta manyan makarantu wacce ta karɓi ɗalibai mata.

Krakowskie Przedmiescie 66, Warsaw, inda Maria ta yi aikinta na farko na kimiyya, 1890-91.

Maria ta yi yarjejeniya da ’yar’uwarta, Bronisława, cewa za ta ba ta taimakon kuɗi a lokacin karatun likitancin Bronisława a birnin Paris, a madadin irin wannan taimakon shekaru biyu bayan haka.[7] Dangane da wannan, Mariya ta ɗauki matsayi na farko a matsayin mai koyar da gida a Warsaw, sannan na tsawon shekaru biyu a matsayin shugabar gwamnati a Szczuki tare da dangin da ke ƙasa, Żorawskis, waɗanda dangin mahaifinta ne. Yayin da yake aiki ga dangin na ƙarshe, ta ƙaunaci ɗansu, Kazimierz Żorawski, mashahuran lissafi na gaba. Iyayensa sun ƙi amincewa da ra'ayinsa na auren ɗan'uwan da ba shi da kuɗi, kuma Kazimierz ya kasa yin adawa da su.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. (Jane ed.). Missing or empty |title= (help)
  2. "Marie Curie Facts" . Nobelprize.org. Archived from the original on 6 March 2019. Retrieved 2 March 2019.
  3. See her signature, "M. Skłodowska Curie", in the infobox.
  4. Her 1911 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was granted to "Marie Sklodowska Curie" File:Marie Skłodowska-Curie's Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1911.jpg.
  5. "Marie Curie and the radioactivity, The 1903 Nobel Prize in Physics" . nobelprize.org . Archived from the original on 30 July 2018. "Marie called this radiation radioactivity—"radio" means radiation."
  6. Her 1911 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was granted to "Marie Sklodowska Curie" File:Marie Skłodowska- Curie's Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1911.jpg .
  7. Goldsmith, Barbara (2005). Obsessive Genius: The Inner World of Marie Curie . W. W. Norton & Company. p. 149. ISBN 978-0-393-05137-7 . Archived from the original on 5 May 2016. Retrieved 15 March 2016.