Mutanen Anaang

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Mutanen Anaang
Yankuna masu yawan jama'a
Najeriya
Kabilu masu alaƙa
Mutanen Ibibio

Anaang (kuma an

rubuta shi da Annang ) ƙabilanci ne na Kudancin Najeriya wanda filayen shi ya kasance cikin kananan hukumomi 8 daga cikin 31 na yanzu a jihar Akwa Ibom : Abak, Essien Udim, Etim Ekpo, Ika, Ikot Ekpene, Obot Akara, Oruk Anam, Ukanafun a jihar Akwa Ibom, da kuma 3 daga cikin ƙananan hukumomi 17 a jihar Abia : Ugwunagbo, Obi Ngwa, da Ukwa ta Gabas na jihar Abia . Sun kasance a cikin tsohuwar Abak da Ikot Ekpene yanki na Lardin Anaang, da kuma wani ɓangare na tsohuwar Opobo yanki na Lardin Uyo, a cikin tsohon Yankin Gabashin Najeriya. Sunan da ya dace da Ika na Akwa Ibom shine Ika-Annang . Dangane da ƙididdigar shekarar 2018, akwai kimanin masu magana da Annang miliyan 4 a Akwa Ibom, jihar Abia da sama da masu magana da magana sama da miliyan da ke zaune a wajen waɗannan jihohin.

Wuri[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Mutanen Anaang suna cikin Kudancin Najeriya kuma musamman jihar Akwa Ibom da jihar Kuros Ribas da Abia (Ikwuano, ukwa). Annangs sun rayu a kudu maso gabashin ƙasar, yankunan bakin ruwa na Najeriya tun shekaru aru aru kafin zuwan Turawa. Babban birnin siyasa na mutanen Anaang ita ce Karamar Hukumar Ikot Ekpene.

Al'adu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ƙungiyar al'ummar Anaang ta uba ce . Kowane mutum yana gano matsayinsa a cikin zamantakewar duniya daga Ilip, wanda a zahiri aka fassara shi "mahaifar". Don haka ɗan'uwa / 'yar'uwa daga Ilip ɗaya yana nufin cewa zasu iya gano asalinsu zuwa uwa ɗaya ko uba ɗaya. Wadanda zasu iya gano asalinsu ga iyaye daya sunada Ufok (a zahiri gida ko mahadi). Yawancin ufoks sune Ekpuks ko dangi da yawa kuma Ekpuks (dangin dangi) sunada "Ilung" (ma'ana ƙauye) kuma ƙauyuka da yawa sun zama " abie " ko dangi. Wannan yana cikin hanyoyi da yawa kwatankwacin tsarin da sauran mutanen kudu maso gabashin Najeriya ke amfani da shi amma ya fi karko.

Jagoranci a iyali, nasaba, kauye, ko matsayin dangi ya kasance hakki ne na maza, kuma dangin nasaba ya shafi mata koda bayan aure. Akwai al'ummomi da ƙungiyoyi da yawa ( Ulim wanda ake kira "udim") ga maza da mata waɗanda ke da mahimmanci a rayuwar ƙauyukan gargajiya. Mutane suna da auna ta biyu da lambar kuma iri mambobin a Ulim da kuma ta da nasarorin da daya ko fiye Ulims. Gudanar da mulki ne ta hanyar tsofaffin maza waɗanda ke aiki a matsayin ɓangaren majalisar dokoki da ake kira Afe Ichong, wanda Abong Ichong (Shugaban ƙauye da Clan Cif) ke jagoranta wanda ke shugaban da shugaban zartarwa amma ba tare da ikon da ya wuce abin da Afe Ichong ya bayar ba. Za'a iya nada shugaba ta hanyar Afe ko kuma iya zama ofishin gado.

Anang suna magana da yaren Annang kuma suna yin masarufi bayan girbin yam don alamar ziyarar ruhohin kakanni, ko ekpo . Wannan kuma shine sunan ƙungiyoyin maza waɗanda suka taɓa yin tasiri sosai tsakanin ƙungiyoyin Ibibio. Abubuwan da aka sassaka Anang tare da manyan abubuwa, waɗanda aka sani da iliok, waɗanda ake ɗauka masu haɗari kuma membobin ekpo ne kawai za su iya kallon su. Sauran masks suna nuna kyakkyawan ruhu, ko mfon .

Ofarfin kowane mutum, dangi (ko rukuni game da wannan al'amari) yawanci ya dogara ne da yarda da ƙauye ko dangi ta hanyar wannan tsarin zamantakewar hadadden. A cikin wannan duka, matan Anang ba su da cikakken iko ga maza. Maimakon haka matan Anaang abokan aiki ne kuma shugabanni a fannoni da yawa na al'adun Anaang, gami da yin aiki a matsayin manyan mata firistoci "Abia Iyong" a cikin bautar Eeng ko kuma masu warkarwa a cikin rukunin warkarwa. Mace ta farko da aka fi sani da Aliaha tana da mahimmanci kuma tana umarnin girmamawa cikin dangi da nasaba. Wasu al'adun sun yarda da cewa haihuwar fari mace ta kasance a cikin gidan mahaifiyarta. Kungiyoyin mata kamar su "abi-de" da "Nyaama", da "Isong Iban" suna taka muhimmiyar rawa wajen baiwa mata murya da matsayi a cikin al'umma. Babu wasu shingaye na al'ada ko na al'ada wadanda ke hana mata samun manyan mukamai ko mukamai.

Anaangs suna darajar ikon yin magana da kyau da iya magana ta amfani da karin magana abin so ne sosai, musamman tsakanin shugabannin. Masanin halayyar ɗan Adam na Amurka, Peter Farb, ya bayyana cewa sunan "Anaang" a cikin wannan rukunin yana nufin "waɗanda suke magana da kyau". Mutumin da yake da baiwar iya magana yana iya yabawa sau da yawa kamar Akwo Anaang, ma'ana "Mutumin Anaang". [1]

Ɗakin kitso[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ɗakin kitso a gargajiyance inda ake yiwa 'yan mata' yan mata budurwa cikin shirin aure. Yarinya mai kiba an santa da suna mbobo . Wannan lokaci ne na babban bikin kauye. A wani bangare na shirye shiryen aurenta an kuma umarci yarinyar kan yadda zata zama matar aure. Zata zauna a daki a tsirara don a lura da kitson da take yi, kuma zata kwana akan gadon gora wanda ake tunanin zai mata kitso. Hakanan an yi shi ne don ya sauƙaƙa mata cikin sauƙaƙa.

Hakanan an yi amfani da wannan don dalilai na haihuwa a lokacin don matan da ba su haihuwa kuma a matsayin abin da ake buƙata na shiga cikin al'ummomin ɓoye.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tarihin baka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Dangane da al'adar baka, Abiakpo ya zo yankin arewacin Anaang ne daga Eka Abiakpo. Iyalan Ukana, Utu, Ekpu, Ebom da Nyama sun bi su cikin sauri ( Turawan ingila sun haɗu da waɗannan rukunin kuma suka ba su suna Otoro), da sauran dangin Anaang. Anaang da dukkan mutanen Akwa Ibom da Kuros Ribas na Jihohin Najeriya (mutanen AkwaCross) sun mallaki yankinsu a yankin kudu maso gabashin Najeriya na gabar teku tsawon dubunnan shekaru.

Isungiyar tana da alaƙa da Efiks da Ibibios . Hijira ta kawo kungiyoyin zama a tsakanin Twi na Ghana inda sunan Anaang ke nufin "ɗa na hudu". Daga Ghana, kungiyar ta koma gabas zuwa Kamaru ta yanzu . A cikin tsaunukan Kamaru ne ƙungiyar ta ɓarke amma daga baya suka isa wannan yankin a yankin Kudu Maso Gabashin Najeriya . An yarda da jinsi kuma kungiyoyin sun tsara kansu zuwa dangi bisa ga asalin danginsu wanda aka fi sani da Iman, irin wannan tsarin ya faɗaɗa har zuwa yankin makwabtansu na arewa, Igbo .

Rubutaccen tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ba ayi rubutu ba sosai game da mutanen Anaang ba kafin tsakiyar ƙarni na 19. Tradersan kasuwar Turai na farko da suka isa yankin ƙetara kogin suna kiran ƙungiyoyin da ke zaune a wajen yankunan bakin teku a matsayin mazaunan gboasar Egbo-Sharry. Rubutun farko da aka ambata game da Anaang shine a cikin asusun Sigismund Koelle game da bayi da aka 'yanta a Saliyo . Ya ambaci wani bawa mai suna Ebengo wanda ya fito daga Nkwot a Abak . An kama Ebengo kuma an sayar da shi ga Fotigal amma daga baya wani jirgin ruwan yaƙi na Burtaniya ya sake shi kuma daga baya ya zauna a Waterloo, Saliyo . Sojojin Burtaniya sun lissafa yarukan da bayi suka yi magana a cikin jirgin da aka kama da suna "Anaang". Ambaton na biyu shi ne bayanin abin da ake kira da Yaƙin Ikot Udo Obong. Baturen ingila ya bayyana kashe mutanen Anaang da Sarki Jaja na Opobo ya yi a matsayin hukunci na bijirewa umarnin sa da kuma cinikin dabinon kai tsaye da ‘yan kasuwar na Burtaniya maimakon su bi ta kansa a matsayin mutum na tsakiya. A yakin da ya biyo baya, turawan ingila sun shiga tsakani kuma tare da taimakon Anaangs, sun kame Sarki Jaja tare da tura shi zuwa West Indies . Ingilishi ya kafa matsayi na soja a Ikot Ekpene a cikin 1904.

Bayan bin mulkin mallaka na Birtaniyya tare da canje-canje da hana su a cikin ayyukan farauta na da, Anaang ya ga hare-haren da namun daji. Yayin da mazaje suka tafi yaki a yakin duniya na biyu wadannan hare-hare sun tsananta. Hukumomin Burtaniya sun kira hare-haren kisan kai kuma sun dora alhakin hakan kan "dabbancin 'yan Afirka". Ana zargin Anaang da kasancewa cikin kungiyar asiri da ake kira Ekpeowo ( The Human Leopards Society ). An yi jayayya cewa kashe-kashen da aka haifa sakamakon tawaye ga Turawan Burtaniya a wasu wurare a Afirka ya haifar da bayyana hare-haren damisa a matsayin kisan da hukumomin Burtaniya suka yi tsakanin Anaang. Tsakanin 1945 da 1948 kusan mutane 196 aka kashe a cikin yankin Ikot Okoro a cikin ƙaramar Hukumar Oruk Anam ta yanzu; an kafa ofishin ‘yan sanda na Ikot Okoro ne saboda wannan dalilin. Burtaniya ta yanke wa mutane 96 hukunci tare da kashe mutane 77 da ba su ji ba ba su gani ba. An hana addinin Anaang mai suna Idiong kuma an kama firistocin. An kona labarai da kayan bautar a bainar jama'a kuma waɗanda ba su musulunta ba sun zama abin zargi.

Anaangs suna da tarihi da suna na rashin tsoro da damar ƙauyuka da dangi su haɗa kai don yaƙar abokin gaba. Wannan shi ne dalilin da ya sa suka sami damar rayuwa kusa da cibiyar Aro, Arochukwu tare da mashahurin Ibini Ukpabi oracle . Wani rukuni na musamman mai ban sha'awa, ko "Warrior cult", shahararrun mayaƙan Oko ne. Wannan rukunin yaƙin yana aiki sosai a cikin shekarun 1950. Waɗannan jarumawan an dauke su da rauni ga shigar wukake, mashi, da kibiyoyi. A lokuta daban-daban an gwada adduna masu kaifi a sassan jikin mambobin.

Anaang sun sha wahala kisan ƙare dangi a lokacin yaƙin basasar Najeriya . Yaƙin ya ɗauki tsawon shekaru uku (1967-1970) kuma Anaang ya rasa adadi mai yawa na mutanenta. Tasirin yaƙin da kuma sakaci da Anaang yanzu ya zama batun siyasa mai mahimmanci kuma tushen tashin hankali a yankin.

Rubutun yare[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

ɓangarorin yaren Annang na iya fahimta ga masu magana da harshen Efik, Ibibio, Oron, Eket (wanda aka fi sani da Ekid ) na Tsohuwar Masarautar Calabar . Kodayake ba a rubuta tsarin magana ta Anaang ba, amma masana ilimin harshe yanzu sun samar da rubutun yadda ake magana wanda ke ba da damar samar da rubutattun abubuwa cikin yaren (Idem-Agozino & Udondata, 2001). A yaren Annang, kalmar "ilung" na nufin ƙauye yayin da a Ibibio ana kiranta "Idung". Babban bambancin yare tsakanin Annang da sauran yaruka shine babban amfani da harafin "L" a maimakon "r" ko "d", da kuma amfani da "g" a maimakon "w". Yaren Annang yana da sauti sosai amma yare ne na son rai, watau kalmomin suna fita cikin sauƙi daga harshenku fiye da Ibibio.

Yawan jama'a[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Najeriya
  • Equatorial Guinea (a da Fernando Po )
  • Kamaru
  • Ghana

Ƙasashen waje:[ana buƙatar hujja]

  • Cuba
  • Yammacin Indiya

Lambobin Annang[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Lambobi daga sifili zuwa goma sha biyu:

A'a Turanci Annang
0 Sifili Ikpoikpo
1 Daya Ked
2 Biyu Iba
3 Uku Ita
4 Hudu Inañ
5 Biyar jijiyoyin jini
6 Shida Tsaka mai wuya
7 Bakwai Itiaba
8 Takwas Itiaita
9 Tara Ba a tambaya ba
10 Goma Duop
11 Goma sha ɗaya Duopeked
12 Goma sha biyu Duopeba

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Brink, PJ (1989) Dakin Kiba a tsakanin Annang na Najeriya. Anthropology na Kiwon Lafiya 12 (1) p. 131 - 143.
  • Ekanem, JB (2002) lasungiyoyi Masu Fuskantarwa: Annang Ba (tare da) Kiristanci na tsaye ba: An Ethnography (Alloli, Mutane, da Addini, A'a. 3), Peter Lang Publishing: Brussels ISBN 0-8204-4687-4 .
  • Enang, K. (1987) Wasu mahimman ra'ayoyin Addini game da Annang. A cikin Afirkaana Marburgensia: Cross River Religion, Hackett, RIJ (ed) Sonderheft 12 (12) 21 - 34.
  • Koelle, W. (1854) Polyglotta na Afirka da aka ambata a Udo, EU (1983) Tarihin Mutanen Annang, Apcon Press Ltd. Calabar, Najeriya.
  • Livingstone, WP (1916) Mary Slessor na Calabar: Majagaba Mishan, BiblioBazaar,  .
  • Meek, CK (1937) Doka da Iko a cikin Triabilar Najeriya. Oxford, Ingila. Jami'ar Oxford ta Latsa  .
  • Nuhu, Litinin Effiong (1988) Shari'ar Ibibio Union 1928-1937.
  •  
  • Nair, Kaanan. K. (1972) Siyasa da zamantakewa a Kudu Maso Gabashin Najeriya, 1841–1906 ;: Nazarin iko, diflomasiyya da kasuwanci a Old Calabar (Cass laburare na nazarin Afirka. Janar karatu), London, Frank Cass,  .
  • Pratten, D. (2007) Kisan Kai-Damisa: Tarihi da Jama'a a Mulkin Mallaka na Najeriya. Indianapolis, Jami'ar Jami'ar Indiana. ISBN 978-0-253-34956-9

Udondata, J & Idem-Agozino, U. (2001) Annang Orthography, Uyo, Masana Latsa.

  • Udo, EU (1983) Tarihin Mutanen Annang, Calabar, Nijeriya. Kamfanin Apcon Press Ltd.
  • Umoh, E. (2004) Taswirar Annang tare da kan iyaka, Plano TX. Amurka.
  • Waddell, HM (1893) Shekaru Talatin da tara a Afirka ta Yamma da Yammacin Indiya. London. Frank Cass Ltd.

Hanyoyin haɗin waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Farb, P. (1974) Word Play: What Happens when People Talk.