Tema

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Tema birni ne, da ke a yankin Bight of Benin, da kuma Tekun Atlantika na ƙasar Ghana. Tana da nisan kilomita 25 (16 mi) gabas da babban birni; Accra, a cikin yankin Greater Accra, kuma shine babban birnin Tema. Ya zuwa shekara ta 2013, Tema ita ce ta goma sha ɗaya mafi yawan matsuguni a ƙasar Ghana, tare da mutane kusan 161,612 - raguwar da aka samu daga adadin ta na 2005 wanda ya kai 209,000.[1] Greenwich Meridian (Longitude 00) ya wuce kai tsaye ta cikin gari.[2] Ana yiwa garin Tema lakabi da "Garin tashar jirgin ruwa" saboda matsayinta na babbar tashar jirgin ruwan Ghana. Ya ƙunshi al'ummomi daban-daban 25 waɗanda aka ƙidaya daidai da kowane ɗayansu yana da sauƙin isa ga abubuwan more rayuwa.[3]

Tema birni ne da aka gina a kan ƙaramin ƙauyen kamun kifi.[4] Shugaban kasar Ghana na farko, Kwame Nkrumah ne ya ba Tema aiki, kuma ya bunkasa cikin sauri bayan gina babbar tashar jirgin ruwa a 1961. Garin Tema an tsara shi, an tsara shi kuma an haɓaka shi ta hanyar mai ba da kyautar birni mai tsarawa kuma masanin gine-ginen ƙasar Ghana na farko, Theodore S. Clerk.[5] Yanzu ta kasance babbar cibiyar kasuwanci, gida ga matatar mai da masana'antu da yawa, kuma tana da hanyar Accra da babbar hanyar jirgin ƙasa. Tema na daya daga cikin manyan tashoshin jiragen ruwa biyu na kasar ta Ghana, dayan kuma ita ce Sekondi-Takoradi.[2] Tema ya zama Kwamiti mai cin gashin kansa a cikin 1974 kuma an daukaka shi zuwa matsayin Majalisar Babban Birni a cikin Disamba 1990. Tema babban birni ne na Metananan biranen goma sha shida, Mananan hukumomi da Gundumomi a cikin yankin Greater Accra. Lardin Metropolitan ya raba iyaka da Ashaiman Municipal, Adenta Municipal District, da Ledzokuku-Krowor Municipal District zuwa yamma bi da bi, ta gabas da Gundumar Kpone Katamanso, zuwa Arewa tare da Yankin Dangme West da kuma Kudu tare da Gulf of Guinea.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An gina Tema ne a wurin wani ƙaramin ƙauyen kamun kifi da ake kira Torman, wanda aka sa wa suna na yankin na tsiron calabash, Tor, wanda aka noma a can. "Tema" ya samo asali ne daga lalacin "Torman". Gwamnati ta gano wurin kafin samun 'yanci, kuma a cikin 1952 ta sayi murabba'in kilomita 166 (64 sq mi) na arewacin arewacin tashar, wanda aka damka wa Kamfanin Bunkasa Tema don sabon ci gaban masana'antu da na zama. Mazauna garin Torman sun yi kaura zuwa wani sabon wurin kamun kifi mai nisan kilomita 3 (kilomita 1.9) daga nesa, wanda suka kira Newtown.[6]

An gina Babban Garin Tema, kuma tashar Tema ta buɗe a hukumance, a cikin 1962. A cikin shekarun da suka gabata, Tema ya zama cibiyar masana'antu ta Ghana, tare da ingantaccen tsarin shimfidawa wanda ke dauke da shimfidar wuri da fitilun kan titi. Tana alfahari da cibiyoyin nishaɗin zamani da sauran abubuwan more rayuwa waɗanda ba safai a cikin biranen Afirka ba a lokacin.[6] Shugaba Nkrumah ya nada Theophilus Asiaw Mills a matsayin Kwamishina na Gundumar na farko. Mahimmancin Tema a matsayin tashar jiragen ruwa da masana'antar masana'antu ya bayyana ta hanyar gaskiyar cewa Ofishin 'yan sanda na Ghana yana kula da yanki na musamman na' yan sanda wanda aka keɓe ga birnin gaba ɗaya.

Yawan kwararar jama'a ya fara ne a cikin shekarun 1960 saboda damar samun aikin yi a garin, amma Kamfanin Raya Tema ya kasa gina gidaje da samar da wasu ayyuka don biyan bukatun baƙin haure.[7] Girman gundumar Tema Newtown ya cika da hauhawar yawan jama'a, kuma ya zama ɗan uwan ​​talaka na Tema Township, ba tare da karɓar ɗayan ingantattun gidajen ba, hanyoyin da aka shimfida, ko abubuwan more rayuwa. Bugu da ƙari, ba a yi amfani da kuɗin da kamfanonin Tema Newtown suka biya don korar ƙauyukan ba saboda wani rikicin shugabanci. Saboda haka ba a yi cikakken amfani da damar kamun kifi a yankin ba.[6]

Yanayi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tema yana da yanayin mai zafi mai ƙarancin yanayi a ƙarƙashin ƙirar yanayi na Köppen (ƙirar yanayi na Köppen: BSh). Tana cikin yanki mafi bushewa na kudancin Ghana, ana samun ruwan sama kusan shekara daya kimanin milimita 750 (30 a cikin). Matsakaicin yanayin zafi yana da girma duk shekara, galibi yana wuce 30° Celsius.[2]

Climate data for Tema
Watan Janairu Fabrairu Maris Afrilu Mayu Yuni Yuli Ogusta Satumba Oktoba Nuwamba Disamba Shekara
Average high °C (°F) 32
(89)
32
(90)
32
(90)
33
(91)
32
(90)
30
(86)
28
(82)
28
(83)
29
(85)
30
(86)
32
(89)
33
(91)
33
(91)
Average low °C (°F) 23
(73)
24
(75)
24
(76)
26
(78)
25
(77)
24
(75)
23
(73)
23
(74)
24
(75)
23
(73)
23
(73)
24
(76)
23
(73)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 7.6
(0.3)
25
(1.0)
25
(1.0)
130
(5.0)
130
(5.0)
150
(6.0)
76
(3.0)
25
(1.0)
76
(3.0)
76
(3.0)
25
(1.0)
7.6
(0.3)
750
(29.6)
Source: Myweather2.com[8]
Babban Kamfanin Kasuwancin Tema.

Manyan kayayyakin masana'antu na garin sun hada da alminiyon, karafa, kifin da aka sarrafa, matatun mai, yadi, sinadarai, kayayyakin abinci, da siminti.[1] Manyan kamfanoni dake aiki a Tema sun hada da Volta Aluminium (VALCO), matatar mai ta Tema (TOR), Nestlé Ghana Ltd., Wahome Karfe Ltd, Tema Shipyard.[9] Hakanan akwai yankin yanki kyauta a Tema.

Tashar jiragen ruwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tashar jirgin ruwa a Tema Port a cikin 2008.

Tashar Tema, wacce aka bude a 1962, ita ce mafi girma daga tashoshin jiragen ruwa guda biyu a Ghana. Tana da yanki mai kewaye da ruwa na murabba'in kilomita 1.7 (0.66 sq mi) da kuma cikakken fili na murabba'in kilomita 3.9 (1.5 sq mi). Baya ga shigo da kayan da Ghana ke fitarwa da kuma fitar da su, hanya ce da ake hada-hadar zirga-zirgar ababen hawa, wacce ke hada-hadar jigilar kayayyaki zuwa kasashen Burkina Faso, Mali da Nijar. Tashar Tema tana daukar kashi 80% na kayan shigowa da shigo da kaya na Ghana, gami da babban kamfanin fitarwa na kasar, koko

Tashar tana da kilomita 5 (mil 3.1) na ruwa, da ruwa masu zurfin ruwa 12, da tashar tankar mai ta wuce gona da iri, da shinge, da wuraren adana kaya, da kuma wuraren da ake wucewa. Tashar tana da wuraren da aka rufe da kuma rufe wuraren adana kaya, gami da yankin da aka shimfida 77,200-m2 (hekta 7.72) don adana kwantena, kayayyakin karafa da sauran kayan na yau da kullun. Filin yadi na tashar yana iya ɗaukar sama da 8,000 TEUs a kowane lokaci. Rufe wurin da aka rufe, wanda ya kai kimanin 25,049 m2 (hekta 2.51) a yankin, ya kunshi sheda shida tare da jimlar damar daukar tan dubu 50 na kaya. Har ila yau, tashar jirgin ruwan ta hada da tashar busassun tashar jirgin ruwa da hanya mai sanyuwa ta 100,000.[10] Ana gudanar da tashar jirgin ne ta Hukumar Kula da Tashoshin Jiragen Ruwa na Ghana.

Tashar kamun kifi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ghana ta dade tana da kamun kifi. Tashar kamun kifi ta Tema tana gefen gabashin tashar jirgin ruwan garin. Ya ƙunshi tashar jirgin ruwa na cikin gida, da mashigar ruwa, da tashar jirgin ruwa na waje, da kuma yankin kasuwanci tare da tallace-tallace da wuraren adana sanyi.[7]

An gina tashar jirgin ruwa na kamun kifi tare da babbar tashar Tema a shekarar 1962 don samar da kayan sarrafawa ga jiragen ruwa na masarufi da masana'antu, da kuma karfafa ci gaban masana'antar kamun kifi na gida. A cikin 1965, an gina tashar jirgin ruwa na waje don manyan jiragen ruwa na masana'antu kamar trawlers, jiragen ruwa na tuna, da masu jigilar ruwa.[7] Jiragen ruwan da ke aiki a yankin suna da tsawon mita 30-45 kuma suna iya sayan tan 55-65 na kifi (galibi kifin kifi da sandar kifi da sckere mackerel) a kowace tafiya kamun kifi. Jirgin ruwan tuna yana daga kananun jiragen ruwa kimanin 45-50 m a tsayi, iya saukar da tan 200-250 na kama, zuwa manyan sigar da tsawon 50-65 m da ikon sauka zuwa tan 650 a kowace tafiya kamun kifi.[7] Mafi yawan jiragen ruwa na kamun kifi, masu jigilar ruwa mai zurfin (tare da tsayin 90-105 m), galibi jiragen ruwa ne da aka yi haya.[7] Tun daga 1984, kamun ƙasa ya ƙaddara kimanin tan 200,000 zuwa 300,000 metric tonnes a shekara. Kamawar Tuna a Ghana ya ci gaba da samun daidaito na tan 30,000 a kowace shekara tun daga 1981.[7]

Kogin Canoe yana kula da masunta. Kullum kwandon jirgin ruwa kusan 400 ne ke zaune. Waɗannan galibi nau'uka biyu ne: jiragen ruwa na katako, waɗanda ake kira da suna "Legelege", da kuma ƙarfe. Kwalejojin katako suna da tsayi a kan duka (LOA) tsakanin 30 zuwa 70 m, galibi mallakin byan asalin Ghanaan Ghana ne.[10] Ayyukansu sun ƙaru a cikin watannin Yuni – Satumba. Sana'ar kamun kifin gwangwani na da alhakin kusan kashi 70% na kamun.[10]

Ilimi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kwalejin SOS-Hermann Gmeiner International (SOS-HGIC), wata makarantar haɗin kai mai zaman kanta wacce ke ba da maki 10 zuwa 13, tana Tema. A baya ta yi amfani da Takaddar Shaida ta Babban Sakandare ta Duniya (IGCSE) don maki 10 da 11 da kuma International Baccalaureate (IB) na aji 12 da 13 amma a yanzu haka tana gudanar da cikakken shirin IB Diploma na dukkan maki hudu. Margaret Nkrumah ce ke jagorantar makarantar sama da shekaru 15, kuma yanzu haka Mista Israel Titi Ofei da Nii Amaa Akita ke shugabanta. Tema kuma tana da makarantar duniya, Tema International School (TIS), wacce ke ta biyu ga HGIC, da kuma babbar makarantar sakandare, Tema Secondary School (TSS ko Temasco), wanda aka gina a ranar 22 ga Satumba 1961. Tema tana da manyan makarantun sikandire na gwamnati kamar su Chemu Senior High School a Community 4, Tema Methodist Day School, Mahean Senior High School, Our Lady of Merior Senior High School da Tema Technical Institute. Makarantun Shirye-shirye masu zaman kansu kamar Creator Schools, St Paul Methodist Primary and JHS, Marbs Preparatory School, Datus Complex, Deks Educational Institute, Naylor SDA School, Tema Christian Centre, Tema Parents Association, First Baptist School, Tema Regular Baptist School, Queen Esther School, Dorsons School, Adwenie Memorial, Creator School, New Covenant School, St Alban's School, Lorenz Wolf School, Bexhill School Complex, Life International School, Mazon Grace Academy, Santabarbera School, Angels Specialist School, First Star Academy, Pentecost School, Star School Complex, Tema Ridge, St John Bosco School da Rosharon Montessori School. Firamare na jama'a da na makarantun sakandare suna cikin Tema. Twedaase Primary School, Star School, Aggrey Road School, Republic Road School, Padmore School, Mante Din Drive, Amen Basic, Manhean SDA, School, Bethel Methodist School da sauransu.

Biranin Tagwaye[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kasa Birni Gunduma / Gunduma / Yanki / Jiha Kwanan wata
Birtaniya United Kingdom Greenwich Greater London 1990
Tarayyar Amurka United States San Diego California 1976
Tarayyar Amurka United States Roanoke Virginia 2010
Tarayyar Amurka United States Columbia Maryland 2013

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Tema Archived 17 Mayu 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Greater Accra » Tema Metropolitan Archived 2 Nuwamba, 2010 at the Wayback Machine.
  3. Tema. "Tema Communities". thecityoftema.com. the city of Tema. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  4. Jackson, Iain; Oppong, Rexford Assasie (2014-10-02). "The planning of late colonial village housing in the tropics: Tema Manhean, Ghana". Planning Perspectives. 29 (4): 475–499. doi:10.1080/02665433.2013.829753. ISSN 0266-5433.
  5. Goold, David. "Dictionary of Scottish Architects - DSA Architect Biography Report (July 2, 2017, 11:06 pm)". www.scottisharchitects.org.uk. Archived from the original on 7 April 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-02.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 "Poverty In The Mist of Riches" Archived 4 Oktoba 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 Tema Archived 15 ga Yuli, 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  8. "Tema Weather Averages". Myweather2. 2013. Retrieved 20 June 2013.
  9. "P.S.C. Tema Shipyard Ltd". ghanaweb.com. Archived from the original on 24 September 2013. Retrieved 15 July 2013.
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 Tema Archived 4 ga Maris, 2009 at the Wayback Machine.