Tutsi

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Tutsi
Jimlar yawan jama'a
2,000,000
Yankuna masu yawan jama'a
Ruwanda, Burundi, Jamhuriyar dimokuradiyya Kwango, Tanzaniya da Uganda
Addini
Katolika
Kabilu masu alaƙa
Banyarwanda (en) Fassara

Tutsi ( /t ʊ t s i / . Kinyarwanda Furuci: [ɑ.βɑ.tuː.t͡si] ), ko Abatutsi, ƙabila ce ta yankin Manyan Tabkuna na Afirka.

Tutsi ƴan kabilar Bantu ne -da yake magana na asalin Nilotic mai yiwuwa kuma na biyu mafi girman ƙabilu a Rwanda da Burundi (sauran biyun sune manyan ƙabilar Bantu Hutu da Pygmy na Twa ). Hema, ƙaramar ƙabilar makiyaya ta Nilotic, suma suna zaune kusa da Tutsi a Ruwanda kuma suna wucewa zuwa yankin Arewa da arewa maso gabashin Rwanda.

A tarihi, 'yan Tutsi makiyaya ne kuma sun cika rukunin mayaƙa. Kafin shekara ta 1962 sun tsara da kuma sarrafa zamantakewar Rwandan, wanda ya ƙunshi masarautan Tutsi da talakawan Hutu, ta hanyar tsarin abokan hulɗa. Sun mallaki manyan muƙamai a cikin rarrabuwar al'umma kuma suka zama masu faɗa aji.

Asali da rarrabuwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ma'anar mutanen "Hutu" da "Tutsi" na iya canzawa ta lokaci da wuri. Tsarin zamantakewar jama'a bai kasance cikin kwanciyar hankali ba a duk faɗin Ruwanda, har ma a lokacin mulkin mallaka a ƙarƙashin mulkin Beljam . Masarautar Tutsi ko fitattu ta bambanta da talakawan Tutsi, kuma galibi ba a rarrabewa da Hutu masu arziƙi daga Tutsi masu aji ba.

Lokacin da Turawan mulkin mallaka na Beljiyam suka gudanar da Ƙididdigar jama'a, suna son gano mutanen a duk fadin Rwanda-Burundi bisa tsarin tsari mai sauki. Sun fassara "Tutsi" a matsayin duk wanda ke da shanu sama da goma (alamar arziki) ko tare da sifar jiki ta dogon hanci, ko doguwar wuya, wanda galibi ke alaƙar da Tutsi.

Tutsi yawanci ana cewa sun isa yankin Manyan Tabkuna daga yankin Ƙahon Afirka . [1] [2]

Wasu masu bincike sun ɗauke ƴan Tutsi daga asalin Kushitik  , duk da cewa ba sa jin yaren Cushitic, kuma sun zauna a yankunan da suke aƙalla shekaru 400, wanda hakan ya haifar da auratayya mai yawa tare da Hutu a yankin. Saboda tarihin cudanya da auratayya tsakanin Hutu da Tutsi, masanan tarihi da tarihi sun yarda da cewa kwanan nan ba za a iya kiran Hutu da Tutsi da kyau ƙabilu daban-daban.

Yawancin manazarta da ma mazauna Yankin Manyan Tabkuna suna adawa da Tutsi - a matsayin "Kurayi" - ga mutanen Bantu kamar Hutu da kabilu da yawa a Gabashin Jamhuriyar Demokradiyyar Kongo da Uganda. Koyaya, Bantu rarrabuwa ce ta harshe (duba lafazin Bantu da kuma kalmar akan "mutanen Bantu - na biyun yana cewa: Mutanen Bantu sune masu jin yarukan Bantu"). Kamar yadda Tutsi suke magana da yaren Bantu iri ɗaya da Hutu, su mutane ne na Bantu (masu magana).

Halittar jini[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Paul Kagame, ɗan ƙabilar Tutsi kuma Shugaban Ƙasar Rwanda

Y-DNA (layin uba)[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Nazarin ƙwayar halittar zamani na Y-chromosome gabaɗaya yana nuna cewa Tutsi, kamar Hutu ne, galibi ana cire Bantu (60% E1b1a, 20% B, 4% E-P2 (xE1b1a)). Tasirin ƙwayar halittar mahaifin da ke hade da Kahon Afirka da Arewacin Afirka ba su da yawa (a ƙasa da 3% E1b1b-M35 ), kuma ana ba da su ga yawancin mazaunan da suka gabata. Koyaya, 'yan Tutsi suna da zurfin zurfin haplogroup B ta hanyar uba (14.9% B) fiye da Hutu (4.3% B).

Trombetta et al. (2015) ya sami 22.2% na E1b1b a cikin ƙaramin samfurin Tutsis daga Burundi, amma babu masu ɗaukar haplogroup tsakanin jama'ar Hutu da Twa na cikin gida. Yarjejeniyar ta ƙarami ta kasance daga ƙaurace mai shekaru 4,000 [3] M293 iri-iri, wanda ke nuni da cewa magabatan Tutsi a wannan yankin na iya haɗe da wasu makiyaya Kush na Kudancin - masu fashin baƙi. Alamar iyayenta E-V1515 ana tsammanin ta samo asali ne daga arewacin yankin Afirka na kusan shekaru 12,000 zuwa 14,000 da suka gabata.

mtDNA (layin uwa)[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ange Kagame, diyar Paul Kagame .

Babu wani nazarin ƙwayar halitta game da Tutsi na mtDNA ko layin uwaye. Koyaya, Fornarino et al. (2009) yayi rahoton cewa bayanan da ba a buga ba ya nuna cewa wani ɗan Tutsi daga Ruwanda yana ɗauke da ƙungiyar mtDNA haplogroup R7 ta Indiya . Furtherarin gwajin 23andme na DNA ya nuna cewa layin Tutsi mtDNA yana da alaƙa da mafarautan mahaifa na gabashin Afirka, musamman haplogroup L0, [4] tare da ƙalilan masu alaƙa da layin mtDNA na Yammacin Afirka. Hakanan adadi mai kyau yana ɗaukar layin mtDNA na Yammacin-Eurasia, musamman M1a, K1a; amma kuma J1 da R0 [5]

Tsayi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Matsakaicinsu tsayi ƙafa 5 inci 9 (175 cm), duk da cewa an fi samun masu mutane a matsayin masu tsayi fiye da ƙafa 7 (213 cm).

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kafin zuwan masu mulkin mallaka, Ruwanda ta kasance tana ƙarƙashin mulkin masarautar Tutsi bayan tsakiyar 1600. Farawa a kusan 1880, mishan mishan na Katolika sun isa yankin Manyan Tabkuna. Daga baya, a lokacin da rundunar Jamus sun shagaltar da yankin a lokacin yaƙin duniya, da rikici da kuma} ƙarin ga Katolika hira zama mafi pronounced. Yayin da 'yan Tutsi ke adawa da tuba, mishaneri sun sami nasara ne kawai tsakanin Hutu . A cikin ƙoƙarinta na ba da lada ga tubar, gwamnatin mulkin mallaka ta kwace ƙasar Tutsi bisa al'ada kuma ta sake tura ta ga ƙabilun Hutu.

A cikin Burundi, yayin haka, mamayar Tutsi ta ma fi tsayi. Wata ƙungiya mai mulki, Ganwa, ba da daɗewa ba ta fito daga cikin 'yan Tutsi kuma suka karɓi ikon gudanar da mulkin ƙasar yadda ya kamata.

Jamus ta mallaki yankin a matsayin mallaka (kafin Yaƙin Duniya na ɗaya ) da Belgium . Dukansu 'yan Tutsi da Hutu sun kasance masu fada a ji na gargajiya, amma duka ikon mulkin mallaka ya ba wa' yan Tutsi ilimi kawai kuma su shiga cikin mulkin mallaka. Irin waɗannan manufofin nuna wariyar sun haifar da jin haushi.

Lokacin da 'yan Beljiyam suka karɓi ragamar mulki, sun yi imanin cewa za a iya gudanar da mulki mafi kyau idan sun ci gaba da gano yawan alƙaluma. A cikin shekarun 1920, sun buƙaci mutane su kasance tare da wata kabila kuma sun rarraba su daidai lokacin ƙidayar jama'a.

A cikin 1959, Belgium ta sauya matsayinta kuma ta ba Hutu mafi rinjaye damar karɓar ikon gwamnati ta hanyar zaɓen gama gari bayan samun 'yanci. Wannan ya nuna wani bangare na siyasar cikin gida ta Beljiyam, inda nuna wariyar launin fata ga mafi rinjayen Hutu ya zama ana kama da zalunci a cikin Belgium wanda ya samo asali daga rikicin Flemish-Walloon, kuma ana ganin dimokuraɗiyya da karfafa Hutu a matsayin martani na adalci ga Mamayar Tutsi. Manufofin Beljiyom sun yi kaɗa-kaɗe sosai a cikin wannan lokacin har zuwa samun 'yancin kan Burundi da Rwanda .

Ƴancin Ruwanda da Burundi (1962)[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Hutu mafi rinjaye a Ruwanda sun yi tawaye ga Tutsi kuma sun sami damar karɓar mulki. Tutsi sun tsere kuma sun ƙirƙiro al'ummomin ƙaura a wajen Ruwanda a cikin Uganda da Tanzania. Tun bayan samun ‘yancin kan ƙasar ta Burundi, wasu‘ yan Tutsi masu tsatsauran ra’ayi suka hau karagar mulki suka danne ‘yan Hutu, musamman wadanda suka yi karatu. [6] [7] [8] [9] Abubuwan da suka yi ya haifar da mutuwar kusan Hutus 200,000. Gwamnatocin Rwanda da Burundi daban-daban sun ci gaba da nuna bambanci daga lokacin mulkin mallaka, gami da katin shaida wanda ya bambanta Tutsi da Hutu.

Rikicin Burundi (1993)[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A shekarar 1993, jami'an Tutsi sun kashe zaɓaɓɓen shugaban ƙasar Burundi na farko, Melchior Ndadaye, ɗan Hutu, kamar yadda shi ma mutumin da ya cancanci ya gaje shi a karkashin tsarin mulki. Wannan ya haifar da kisan kare dangi a Burundi tsakanin tsarin siyasar Hutu da sojojin Tutsi, inda a ciki "mai yuwuwa kusan Tutsi 25,000" tsohon ya kashe kuma na baya "akalla aƙalla masu yawa". [10] Tun daga Tsarin Arusha na 2000 na Arusha, a yau a Burundi 'yan Tutsi marasa rinjaye sun ba da iko ta hanyar daidaitawa tare da mafi rinjayen Hutu. A al'adance, 'yan Tutsi sun fi ƙarfin ikon tattalin arziki da ikon soja. [11]

Kisan ƙare dangi da aka yiwa Tutsi (1994)[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tutar Tutsi ta Rwandan Patriotic Front .

Irin wannan yanayin ya faru a Ruwanda, amma a can ne Hutu suka hau mulki a 1962. Su kuma galibi suna zaluntar Tutsi, waɗanda suka gudu daga ƙasar. Bayan tashin hankali na adawa da Tutsi a kusa da 1959-1961, Tutsis sun gudu da yawa.

Wadannan al'ummomin Tutsi da ke gudun hijira sun haifar da yunkurin 'yan tawayen Tutsi. Ruwanda Ruwanda Patriotic Front, akasarinsu 'yan Tutsi ne da ke gudun hijira musamman mazaunan Uganda, sun kai hari kan Ruwanda a 1990 da nufin' yantar da Ruwanda. RPF tana da gogewa game da yaƙe-yaƙe ba bisa ƙa'ida ba daga Yaƙin Bush na Yuganda, kuma ta sami goyon baya sosai daga gwamnatin Uganda. Gabatarwar RPF ta farko ta dakatar da ɗaga makaman Faransa zuwa ga gwamnatin Rwanda. Attoƙarin neman zaman lafiya ya ƙare a Yarjejeniyar Arusha .

Yarjejeniyar ta wargaje bayan kisan Shugabannin Ruwanda da na Burundi, wanda ya haifar da sake ɓarkewar rikici da fara kisan kare dangi kan Tutsi na 1994, inda Hutu a lokacin ke kan mulki suka kashe kimanin mutane 500,000-600,000, akasarinsu ‘yan Tutsi. . Rikici a bayan kisan kare dangin, RPF da Tutsi ke mulki ya hau karagar mulki a watan Yulin 1994.

Harshe[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

'Yan Tutsi suna magana da rukunin harsunan Ruwanda-Rundi a matsayin yarensu na asali. Ruwanda-Rundi ta kasu kashi biyu cikin yarukan Kinyarwanda da Kirundi, wadanda aka daidaita su a matsayin harsunan hukuma na Burundi da Rwanda.

Al'adu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Abin ado na wuyan hannu ta Tutsi ta gargajiya (igitembe).

A cikin yankin Ruwanda, daga ƙarni na 15 zuwa 1961, sarki ne yake mulkin Tutsi ( mwami ). Ƙasar Beljiyom ta soke tsarin sarauta, biyo bayan zaben raba gardama na ƙasa wanda ya kai ga samun ‘yanci. Sabanin haka, a yankin arewa maso yammacin ƙasar (galibi 'yan Hutu), manyan masu mallakar ƙasa na yanki sun raba mulki, kwatankwacin al'ummar Buganda (a cikin ƙasar Uganda ta yanzu).

A ƙarƙashin sarkinsu mai tsarki, al'adun Tutsi a al'adance sun ta'allaka ne da aiwatar da adalci da mulki. Su kaɗai ne ke mallakar shanu, kuma suka wadatar da kansu daga kayayyakin su. Ari da haka, salon rayuwarsu ya ba su lokacin hutu da yawa, wanda suka ciyar da haɓaka fasahar zane-zane na waƙa, saƙa da kiɗa. Dangane da matsayin Tutsi a matsayin mafi rinjaye tsiraru a yayin ganawa da manoman Hutu da sauran mazauna yankin, an kwatanta wannan dangantakar da tsakanin iyayengiji da masu fada a ji a Turai.

Kwandon Tutsi na gargajiya.

A cewar Fage (2013), 'yan Tutsi suna da alaƙa ta hanyar ilimin bantu da yawan mutanen Bantu da Nilotic. Wannan bi da bi yana fitar da yiwuwar asalin Kushitik don kafa ajin masu mulkin Tutsi-Hima a cikin masarautun lacustrine. Koyaya, al'adun binne masarauta na masarautun na ƙarshe sun yi kama da waɗanda tsoffin jihohin Cushitic Sidama suke yi a kudancin yankin Gibe na Habasha. Akasin haka, yawan mutanen Bantu da ke arewacin Tutsi-Hima a yankin tsaunin Kenya kamar su Agikuyu sun kasance har zuwa zamanin da muke ciki ba tare da sarki ba (maimakon haka suna da tsarin da ba shi da tsari na zamani wanda suka karba daga mutanen cushitic) yayin da akwai adadi na masarautun Bantu da ke kudu da Tutsi-Hima a Tanzaniya, duk waɗannan sun yi tarayya irin tsarin sarautar Tutsi-Hima. Tunda masarautun Cushitic Sidama suna hulɗa da ƙungiyoyin Nilotic, Fage don haka yake ba da shawara cewa ƴan ƙabilar Tutsi na iya zama daga ɗayan mutanen Nilotic masu ƙaura. Ta haka ne kakannin Tutsi 'Nilotic za su kasance a matsayin su na masu shiga tsakani na al'adu, suna yin amfani da wasu al'adun masarauta daga masarautun Cush na kusa da su sannan kuma suna ɗaukar waɗancan al'adun da aka aro daga kudu tare da su lokacin da suka fara zama tsakanin Bantu autochthones a yankin Great Lakes.

Koyaya, ana iya tabbatar da ɗan bambanci tsakanin al'adun yau na Tutsi da Hutu; duka ƙungiyoyi biyu suna magana da yaren Bantu daya. Yawan auratayya tsakanin kungiyoyin biyu ya kasance a al'adance yana da matukar girma, kuma dangantakar sun kasance mai kyau har zuwa karni na 20. Masana da yawa sun yanke shawarar cewa ƙaddarar Tutsi ya kasance kuma galibi shine nuna aji ko bangaranci, maimakon ƙabila.

Kamar yadda aka faɗa a sama, binciken DNA ya nuna ƙarara cewa mutane suna da kusanci da juna fiye da ƙungiyoyi masu nisa.

Tutsi a cikin Kwango[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Akwai ainihin ƙungiyoyi biyu na Tutsi a cikin Kwango (DRC). Akwai Banyamulenge, wanda ke zaune a gefen kudu na Kivu ta Kudu . Zuri'a ne daga makiyayan Rwandan, Burundi da Tanzania. Na biyu kuma akwai 'yan Tutsi a cikin Masisi ta Arewa Kivu da Kalehe a Kudancin Kivu - kasancewar suna cikin jama'ar Banyarwanda (Hutu da Tutsi). Wadannan ba Banyamulenge bane. Wasu daga cikin waɗannan Banyarwanda zuriyar mutane ne waɗanda suka rayu tun kafin mulkin mallaka a Rutshuru da Masisi - a kan yankin Kongo a halin yanzu. Wasu kuma sun yi kaura ko kuma turawan Beljam sun “dasa” su daga Rutshuru ko daga Ruwanda kuma galibi sun zauna a Masisi a Arewacin Kivu da Kalehe a Kudancin Kivu.

Sananun mutane[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Paul Kagame
  • Stromae
  • Michel Micombero
  • James Kabarebe
  • Louise Mushikiwabo
  • Biliyaminu Sehene

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Hanyoyin haɗin waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. International Institute of African Languages and Cultures, Africa, Volume 76, (Oxford University Press., 2006), pg 135.
  2. Josh Kron, "Shooting star of the continent", Haaretz, 14 September 2010, accessed 14 September 2010
  3. https://yfull.com/tree/E-M293/
  4. https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1k1OGP8ECkoWPBPQFaF7I4ZuP09iCxhNmoMrbTjmPLQ0/edit?pli=1#gid=157366413
  5. https://yfull.com/mtree/M1a1f1/
  6. Michael Bowen, Passing by;: The United States and genocide in Burundi, 1972, (Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 1973), p. 49
  7. René Lemarchand, Selective genocide in Burundi (Report – Minority Rights Group; no. 20, 1974)
  8. Rene Lemarchand, Burundi: Ethnic Conflict and Genocide (New York: Woodrow Wilson Center and Cambridge University Press, 1996)
  9. Christian P. Scherrer, Genocide and crisis in Central Africa: conflict roots, mass violence, and regional war; foreword by Robert Melson. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2002
  10. Totten, p. 331
  11. International Commission of Inquiry for Burundi (2002)