Age of Discovery

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Age of Discovery
age (en) Fassara
Bayanai
Mabiyi Middle Ages (en) Fassara
Ta biyo baya early modern period (en) Fassara
Start time (en) Fassara 17 century
End time (en) Fassara 21 century
Wani ayari mai kwafi na "Caravela Vera Cruz", yana kewaya kogin Tagus, Lisboa. Waɗannan ƙananan jiragen ruwa sun taka muhimmiyar rawa a binciken Iberian.
Nao Victoria ta yi nasarar aiwatar da dawafi na farko a tarihi. Hoton na yanzu yana nuna kwafin Victoria, wanda aka gina a 1992, yana ziyartar Nagoya, Japan, don Expo 2005.

Age of Discovery (ko zamanitekbincike), wanda kuma aka sani da farkon zamani, lokaci ne da ya mamaye zamanin Sail, kusan daga karni na 15 zuwa karni na 17 a tarihin Turai, lokacin da Turawan seafaring suka binciko. yankunan da aka yi wa mulkin mallaka kuma aka ci su a fadin duniya.

Babban binciken da aka yi a ketare, tare da Portuguese da Sipaniya a kan gaba, daga baya Dutch, England, da Faransa suka haɗu, ya zama wani abu mai karfi a cikin al'adun Turai, musamman gamuwa da Turai da mulkin mallaka na Amurka. Har ila yau, yana nuna karuwar karɓar mulkin mallaka a matsayin manufofin gwamnati a yawancin ƙasashen Turai. Don haka, wani lokaci yana da kama da guguwar farko ta turawan mulkin mallaka.

Binciken Turai a wajen Bahar Rum ya fara ne tare da balaguron ruwa na Portugal zuwa tsibirin Canary a 1336, kuma daga baya tare da binciken Portuguese na tsibiran Atlantika na Madeira da Azores, a gabar da yammacin Afirka a 1434 da kafa tekun. Hanyar zuwa Indiya a cikin shekarar 1498 ta Vasco da Gama, wanda sau da yawa ana la'akari da tafiya mai ban mamaki sosai, yayin da ya fara jigilar ruwa da kasuwanci na Portuguese a Kerala da Tekun Indiya.[1]

Babban abin da ya faru a cikin Age of Discovery ya faru lokacin da Spain ta dauki nauyin tafiye-tafiyen tafiye-tafiye na Christopher Columbus a tsakanin 1492 da 1504, wanda ya ga farkon mulkin mallaka na Amurka. Shekaru bayan haka, balaguron Magellan-Elcan na ƙasar Sipaniya ya yi zagaye na farko a duniya tsakanin 1519 zuwa 1522, wanda ake ɗaukarsa a matsayin wata babbar nasara a cikin teku, kuma ya yi tasiri sosai ga fahimtar Turai game da duniya. Wadannan binciken sun haifar da balaguron ruwa da yawa a cikin Tekun Atlantika, Indiya, da Tekun Pasifik, da balaguron ƙasa a cikin Amurka, Asiya, Afirka, da Ostiraliya wanda ya ci gaba har zuwa ƙarshen karni na 19, sannan binciken yankunan polar a karni na 20.

Age of Discovery

Binciken ƙasashen waje na Turai ya haifar da haɓaka kasuwancin ƙasa da ƙasa da dauloli na mulkin mallaka na Turai, tare da hulɗar tsakanin Tsohuwar Duniya (Turai, Asiya, da Afirka) da Sabuwar Duniya (Amurka), da Ostiraliya, suna samar da canjin Colombian, ɗimbin canja wurin tsire-tsire, dabbobi, abinci, yawan mutane (ciki har da bayi), cututtuka masu yaduwa, da al'adu tsakanin Gabas da Yammacin Duniya. Age of Discovery kuma daga baya binciken Turai ya ba da izinin yin taswirar duniya, wanda ya haifar da sabon ra'ayi na duniya da wayewar nesa da ke shiga cikin hulɗa. A lokaci guda kuma, an yaɗa sabbin cututtuka, suna rage yawan mutanen da ba su taɓa hulɗa da Tsohuwar Duniya ba, musamman game da ’yan asalin ƙasar Amirka. Zamanin ya ga yawaitar bautar da jama'a, cin zarafi da cin zarafi da sojoji suka yi tare da karuwar tasirin tattalin arziki da yaduwar al'adu da fasahar Turai.

Ra'ayi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Age of Discovery

  An bincika manufar age of Discovery, tare da nuna mahimmancin tarihin ainihin lokacin wannan lokaci. Kalmar "Age of Discovery" ta kasance a cikin littattafan tarihi kuma har yanzu ana amfani da su. J. H. Parry, ya kira lokacin a madadin shekarun bincike, yana jayayya cewa ba wai kawai lokacin daya daga cikin binciken Turai zuwa yankunan da ba a san su ba amma kuma ya haifar da fadada ilimin yanki da ilimin kimiyya. "Har ila yau, ya ga manyan nasarorin farko na bincike mai zurfi game da iko, farkon wannan kusanci na kimiyya, fasaha, da kuma aikin yau da kullun wanda ke da mahimmancin halayen yammacin duniya na zamani." [2] Anthony Pagden ya zana kan aikin Edmundo O'Gorman don bayanin cewa "Ga dukkan Turawa, abubuwan da suka faru na Oktoba 1492 sun zama 'gano'. Wani abu da ba su da masaniya a kansa, kwatsam ya bayyana kansa ga kallonsu." [3] O'Gorman ya ci gaba da cewa, haduwar ta zahiri da ta geographical da sabbin yankuna ba ta da muhimmanci fiye da kokarin da Turawa suke yi na hada wannan sabon ilimi a cikin ra'ayinsu na duniya., abin da ya kira "ƙirƙirar Amurka" [4] Pagden yayi nazarin asalin kalmomin "gano" da "ƙirƙira". A cikin Ingilishi, "ganowa" da siffofinsa a cikin harsunan soyayya sun samo asali daga "disco-operio, ma'anar buɗewa, bayyanawa, bayyanawa ga kallo" tare da ra'ayi na zahiri cewa abin da aka bayyana ya wanzu a baya. Kadan daga Turawa lokacin. lokacin binciken yayi amfani da kalmar "ƙirƙirar" don saduwa da Turai, tare da sananne banda Martin Waldseemüller, wanda taswirarsa ya fara amfani da kalmar "Amurka" [3]

Babban ra'ayi na shari'a na Ka'idodin Ganowa, wanda Kotun Koli ta Amurka ta bayyana a cikin shekarar 1823, ya zana kan ikirarin ikon ikon Turai na neman ƙasa yayin bincikensu. An yi amfani da manufar "Discovery" don aiwatar da iƙirarin mulkin mallaka da Age of Discovery, amma kuma ƴan asalin ƙasar da masu bincike sun kalubalanci su. Yawancin ƴan asalin ƙasar sun ƙalubalanci ra'ayi da iƙirarin 'yan mulkin mallaka na "discovery" a kan ƙasashensu da mutanensu a matsayin tilastawa da ƙin kasancewar 'yan asalin ƙasar.

Lokacin da ake kira Age of Exploration, an kuma bincika ta hanyar tunani akan fahimta da amfani da bincike. An tattauna fahimtarsa da amfani da shi, kamar kimiyya gabaɗaya, kamar yadda ake tsara shi kuma ana amfani da shi don ayyukan mulkin mallaka, nuna wariya da cin zarafi, ta hanyar haɗa shi da ra'ayoyi kamar "iyaka" (kamar yadda yake a cikin iyaka) da kuma bayyana kaddara, sama zuwa zamanin binciken sararin samaniya.

A madadin haka, an yi amfani da kalmar da ra'ayi na tuntuɓar, kamar yadda a farkon tuntuɓar, an yi amfani da shi don ba da ƙarin haske da daidaituwa game da shekarun ganowa da mulkin mallaka, ta amfani da madadin sunayen Age of Contact ko Period Contact, suna tattauna shi a matsayin "aikin da ba a gama ba, iri-iri".

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Butel, Paul (2002-03-11). The Atlantic. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-203-01044-0. Archived from the original on 2021-04-21. Retrieved 2021-11-15.
  2. Parry, J. H. (1973). The Age of Reconnaissance: Discovery, Exploration, and Settlement, 1450–1650. London: Cardinal. p. 13.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Pagden 1993.
  4. O’Gorman, Edmundo. The Invention of America. An Inquiry into the Historical Nature of the New World and the Meaning of History. Bloomington, IN 1961, 9-47.