Bincike

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bincike
industry (en) Fassara
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Basrelief sculpture "Bincike rike da fitilar ilimi" (1896) na Olin Levi Warner . Library of Congress, Thomas Jefferson Building, a Washington, DC

Bincike,A kan kira shi da suna Nazari "wani aiki ne da ya shafi bin ciko ababe da zasu yada ilimi acikin sauki ga manazarta ko akan hadaka akan tarin ilimi ". Bincike Ya kunshi tattarawa, tsari da kuma nazarin shaida don kara fahimtar wani batu, wanda, ke nuna kulawa ta musamman ga sarrafa tushen son zuciya da kuskure. Wadannan ayyukan suna da alaqa da lissafin kudi da sarrafawa don son zuciya. Ayyukan bincike na iya zama fadada akan aikin da ya gabata a fagen nazarin. Don gwada ingancin kayan aiki, matakai, ko gwaje-gwaje, bincike na iya maimaita abubuwan ayyukan da suka gabata ko aikin gaba daya.

Manufofin farko na, bincike na asali (kamar yadda ya Kuma saba da binciken da aka yi amfani da shi ) sune takardun shaida, ganowa, fassarar, da bincike da ci gaba (R&D) hanyoyin da tsarin, don ci gaban ilimin dan adam. Hanyoyi zuwa bincike sun dogara ne akan ilimin zamani, wadanda suka bambanta da yawa a ciki da tsakanin dan adam da kimiyya. Akwai nau'ikan bincike da yawa: kimiyya, dan adam, fasaha, tattalin arziki, zamantakewa, kasuwanci, tallace-tallace, bincike mai aiki, rayuwa, fasaha, da dai sauransu. Nazarin kimiyya na ayyukan bincike an san shi da bincike-meta .

Mai bincike shine mutumin da ke gudanar da bincike, maiyuwa an gane shi a matsayin sana'a ta wurin aikin aiki na yau da kullun. Masu bincike ko dai Masanin Kimiyyar Jama'a ne ko Masanin Kimiyyar Halitta. Domin ya zama mai binciken zamantakewa ko masanin zamantakewa, yakamata mutum ya sami ilimi mai yawa akan batutuwan da suka shafi ilimin zamantakewa wadanda suka kware a ciki. Haka nan, domin ya zama mai binciken kimiyyar dabi’a, mutum ya kamata ya samu ilimi a fagen da ya shafi kimiyyar halitta (Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Astronomy, Zoology da sauransu).

Etymology[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Aristotle, (384-322 BC), daya daga cikin alkaluma na farko a cikin hadaka hanyar kimiyya

Kalmar bincike ta samo asali ne daga, Tsakiyar Faransanci " recherche ", wanda ke nufin "ci gaba da neman", kalmar da kanta ta samo asali ne daga tsohuwar kalmar Faransanci " recerchier " kalma mai mahimmanci daga "re-" + "cerchier", ko " Sercher", ma'ana 'bincike'. Farkon amfani da kalmar ta kasance a cikin 1577. [1]

Ma'anoni[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An bayyana bincike ta hanyoyi daban-daban, kuma yayin da akwai kamanceceniya, ba a cikin su bayyana ma'anar guda daya, mai tattare da komai ba, wanda duk wanda ya shiga cikinsa ya runguma.

Bincike, a cikin mafi sauki shine neman ilimi da neman gaskiya. A bisa tsari, nazari ne mai tsauri kan matsalar da wani dabarar da aka zaba da gangan ya kai hari wanda ya fara da zabar hanyar shirya wani tsari (tsari) da aiki da shi ta fuskar zayyana hasashen bincike, zabar hanyoyi da dabaru, zabi ko hadaka kayan aikin tattara bayanai, sarrafa bayanai, fassara da kare tare da gabatar da mafita/matsalolin.

Wani ma'anar bincike ya ba da John W. Creswell, wanda ya bayyana cewa "bincike wani tsari ne na matakan da ake amfani da su don tattarawa da kuma nazarin bayanai don kara fahimtar wani batu ko batu". Ya kunshi matakai uku: gabatar da tambaya, tattara bayanai don amsa tambayar, da gabatar da amsar tambayar.

Kamus, na kan layi na Merriam-Webster ya bayyana bincike dalla-dalla a matsayin "bincike ko jarrabawa; musamman : bincike ko gwaji da nufin ganowa da fassarar bayanai, bita kan ka'idoji ko dokoki da aka yarda da su ta fuskar sabbin bayanai, ko aikace-aikacen aikace-aikacen irin wannan. Sabbin ka'idoji ko dokoki da aka sabunta"

Siffofin bincike[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

asalin bincike[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Binciken asali, wanda ake kira bincike na farko, bincike ne wanda ba a dogara kawai akan takaitawa, bita, ko hadin wallafe-wallafen da suka gabata a kan batun bincike ba. Wannan abu na asali ne na asali . Manufar bincike na asali shine don samar da sabon ilimi, maimakon gabatar da ilimin da yake akwai a cikin sabon nau'i (misali, takaitawa ko rarrabawa). Binciken asali na iya kasancewa ta nau'i daban-daban, ya danganta da horon da ya shafi. A cikin aikin gwaji, yawanci ya kunshi kallon kai tsaye ko kai tsaye na abin da aka bincika, misali, a cikin dakin gwaje-gwaje ko a fagen, rubuta hanyoyin, sakamako, da karshen gwaji ko saitin gwaje-gwaje, ko bayar da fassarar sabon labari. sakamakon baya. A cikin aikin tantancewa, yawanci ana samun wasu sabbin (misali) sakamakon lissafin da aka samar, ko sabuwar hanyar tunkarar matsalar data kasance. A cikin wasu batutuwa wadanda galibi ba su aiwatar da gwaji ko bincike irin wannan ba, asalinsu shine ta musamman hanyar canza fahimtar data kasance ko sake fassara bisa ga sakamakon aikin mai binciken .

Matsayin, asalin binciken yana daga cikin manyan ma'auni don labaran da za a buga a cikin mujallu na ilimi kuma yawanci ana kafa su ta hanyar bitar takwarorinsu . [2] Daliban da suka kammala karatun ana buKatar yawanci don yin bincike na asali a matsayin wani bangare na kamus .

Binciken kimiyya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ana gudanar da binciken kimiyya na farko a dakin gwaje-gwaje na microscope na dakin gwaje-gwaje na kasa na Idaho
Kayan aikin bincike na kimiyya a MIT
Jirgin ruwan binciken ruwa na Jamus <i id="mwgw">Sonne</i>

Binciken, kimiyya hanya ce mai tsauri ta tattara bayanai da amfani da son sani . Wannan bincike yana ba da bayanan kimiyya da ra'ayoyin don bayanin yanayi da kaddarorin duniya. Yana sa aikace-aikacen aikace-aikace mai yiwuwa. Hukumomin jama'a ne, gungiyoyin agaji da gungiyoyi masu zaman kansu, wadanda suka hada da kamfanoni da yawa ke ba da kudin bincike na kimiyya. Za a iya raba binciken kimiyya zuwa nau'o'i daban-daban bisa ga nau'o'in ilimi da aikace-aikace. Binciken kimiyya wani ma'auni ne da aka fi amfani da shi wajen tantance matsayin jami'ar ilimi, amma wasu na ganin cewa irin wannan tantancewar ba daidai ba ce da aka yi wa cibiyar, saboda ingancin bincike ba ya nuna ingancin koyarwa (wadannan ba lallai ba ne su yi kama da juna). [3]

Gaba daya, ana fahimtar bincike don bin wani tsari na tsari . Kodayake tsari na mataki na iya bambanta dangane da batun da mai bincike, matakan da ke biyowa galibi suna cikin mafi yawan bincike na yau da kullun, duka na asali da kuma amfani da su:

  1. Dubawa da samuwar maudu'in : Ya kunshi yanki na abin da mutum ke sha'awar da kuma bin wannan yanki don gudanar da bincike mai alaka. Bai kamata a zabi yanki ba da gangan tunda yana bukatar karanta dimbin adabi a kan maudu'in don tantance tazarar da ke cikin wallafe-wallafen da mai binciken ya yi niyyar takaitawa. Yana da kyau a sha'awar yankin batun da aka zaba. Binciken zai zama barata ta hanyar danganta mahimmancinsa zuwa ilimin da aka rigaya ya kasance game da batun.
  2. Hasashe : Hasashen da za a iya gwadawa wanda ke nuna alakar da ke tsakanin masu canji biyu ko fiye.
  3. Ma'anar ra'ayi : Bayanin ra'ayi ta hanyar danganta shi da wasu ra'ayoyi.
  4. Ma'anar aiki : Cikakkun bayanai game da ayyana ma'auni da kuma yadda za a auna su a cikin binciken.
  5. Tara bayanai : Ya kunshi gano yawan jama'a da zabar samfurori, tattara bayanai daga ko game da wadannan samfuran ta amfani da takamaiman kayan bincike. Dole ne kayan aikin da ake amfani da su don tattara bayanai su kasance masu inganci kuma abin dogaro.
  6. Analysis of data : Ya kunshi ruguza guda daya na bayanan don yanke hukunci game da shi.
  7. Fassarar Bayanai : Ana iya wakilta wannan ta cikin teburi, adadi, da hotuna, sannan aka bayyana su cikin kalmomi.
  8. Gwaji, sake fasalin hasashe
  9. karshe, maimaitawa idan ya cancanta

Kuskure na gama gari shine za a tabbatar da hasashe (duba, a maimakon haka, hasashe mara kyau ). Gabadaya, ana amfani da hasashe don yin hasashen da za a iya gwadawa ta hanyar lura da sakamakon gwaji. Idan sakamakon bai dace da hasashe ba, to, an yi hasashe (duba lalata ). Duk da haka, idan sakamakon ya kasance daidai da hasashe, an ce gwajin don tallafawa hasashe. Ana amfani da wannan harshe mai hankali saboda masu bincike sun gane cewa madadin hasashe na iya yin daidai da abubuwan lura. Ta wannan ma'ana, ba za a taɓa iya tabbatar da hasashe ba, sai dai kawai ana goyan bayan ta hanyar tsira daga gwajin kimiyya kuma, a karshe, ana tunanin ko'ina a matsayin gaskiya.

Hasashen mai amfani yana ba da damar tsinkaya kuma a cikin daidaiton lura da lokacin, za a tabbatar da hasashen. Yayin da daidaiton abin lura ke inganta tare da lokaci, hasashe na iya daina ba da ingantaccen hasashen. A wannan yanayin, wani sabon hasashe zai taso don ƙalubalantar tsohon, kuma gwargwadon yadda sabon hasashe ya yi hasashen hasashen da ya fi na tsohon, sabon zai maye gurbinsa. Masu bincike kuma za su iya amfani da hasashe maras tushe, wanda bai fadi wata alaqa ko bambanci tsakanin masu canji masu zaman kansu ko masu dogaro ba.

Binciken a cikin dan adam[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Bincike a cikin ilimin dan adam ya ƙunshi hanyoyi daban-daban kamar misali hermeneutics da semiotics . Masana ilimin dan adam yawanci ba sa nemo madaidaicin amsar tambaya, a maimakon haka, suna bincika batutuwa da cikakkun bayanai da ke kewaye da ita. Magana koyaushe yana da mahimmanci, kuma mahallin na iya zama zamantakewa, tarihi, siyasa, al'adu, ko kabilanci. Misali na bincike a cikin dan adam shine bincike na tarihi, wanda ke cikin hanyar tarihi . Masana tarihi suna amfani da tushe na farko da wasu shaidu don bincikar wani batu cikin tsari, sannan su rubuta tarihi ta hanyar lissafin abubuwan da suka gabata. Sauran nazarin na nufin kawai bincika abubuwan da ke faruwa a cikin al'ummomi da al'ummomi, ba tare da neman dalilai ko dalilai na yin bayanin wadannan ba. Wadannan karatun na iya zama masu inganci ko kididdigewa, kuma suna iya amfani da hanyoyi daban-daban, kamar ka'idar kwakkwaran ko ka'idar mata. [4]

Rikicin rigima na koyarwar fasaha ya zama mai dogaro da ilimi yana haifar da karbuwar binciken fasaha a matsayin tsarin bincike na farko a cikin fasaha kamar na sauran fannoni. Daya daga cikin halayen bincike na fasaha shine cewa dole ne ya yarda da abin da ya dace sabanin hanyoyin kimiyya na gargajiya. Don haka, yana kama da ilimin zamantakewar al'umma a cikin yin amfani da bincike mai inganci da ma'amala a matsayin kayan aiki don amfani da ma'auni da bincike mai mahimmanci. [5]

Makarantar rawa da yawace yawace (Dans och Cirkushögskolan, DOCH), Stockholm ta bayyana binciken fasaha kamar haka - "Bincike na fasaha shine bincika da gwadawa tare da manufar samun ilimi a ciki da kuma ilimin fasahar mu. Ya dogara ne akan ayyukan fasaha, hanyoyi,da mahimmanci. Ta hanyar takardun da aka gabatar, abubuwan da aka samu za a sanya su a cikin mahallin." Binciken fasaha yana nufin habaka ilimi da fahimta tare da gabatar da fasaha. [6] Fahimtar mafi sauki ta Julian Klein ta bayyana bincike na fasaha a matsayin kowane irin bincike da ke amfani da yanayin fasaha na fahimta. Don bincike na matsalolin tsakiya na binciken fasaha na yau, duba Giaco Schiesser . [7]

A cewar wani mai zane Hakan Topal, a cikin bincike na fasaha, "watakila fiye da sauran nau'o'in, ana amfani da hankali a matsayin hanyar da za a gano nau'i-nau'i iri-iri na sababbin sababbin hanyoyin da ba zato ba tsammani". Yawancin marubuta, walau na littafan almara ko na almara, suma dole su yi bincike don tallafawa ayyukansu na kirkire-kirkire. Wannan na iya zama na gaskiya, tarihi, ko bincike na baya. Binciken bayan fage na iya hadawa, alal misali, bincike na yanki ko tsari. [8]

da yanki na zane bincike (SAR) ta buga jaridar koya zaneda bincike ( JAR ), [9] na kasa da kasa, kan layi, bude damar shiga, da mujallar da aka bita don ganowa, bugawa, da yada bincike na fasaha da fasaha. hanyoyinsa, daga dukkan fannonin fasaha kuma yana gudanar da Kasuwar Bincike (RC), [10] [11] [12] mai bincike, bayanan tarihi na binciken fasaha, wanda kowa zai iya ba da gudummawarsa.

ayyakace yayi magana akan nau'ikan bincike na tushen fasaha guda takwas (ABR): binciken labari, bincike-bincike na almara, shayari, kiɗa, rawa, wasan kwaikwayo, fim, da fasahar gani.

A cikin 2016 ka'idodin Florence 'a kan Doctorate a cikin Arts . Ka'idodin Florence da suka shafi Ka'idodin Salzburg da Shawarwar Salzburg na Ƙungiyar Jami'ar Turai suna ba da maki bakwai na hankali don tantance Doctorate / PhD a cikin Arts idan aka kwatanta da digiri na kimiyya / PhD. An amince da ka'idodin Florence kuma ana goyan bayan AEC, CILECT, CUMULUS da SAR .

Binciken tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Masanin tarihin Jamus Leopold von Ranke (1795-1886), wanda aka dauka a matsayin ɗaya daga cikin waɗanda suka kafa tarihin tushen zamani.

Hanyar tarihi ta kunshi dabaru da jagororin da masana tarihi ke amfani da tushen tarihi da wasu shaidu don bincike sannan kuma su rubuta tarihi. Akwai jagororin tarihi daban-daban waɗanda masana tarihi suka saba amfani da su a cikin aikinsu, ƙarƙashin taken suka na waje, suka na cikin gida, da haɗawa. Wannan ya haɗa da ƙananan zargi da suka na sha'awa. Kodayake abubuwa na iya bambanta dangane da batun da mai bincike, waɗannan ra'ayoyin suna cikin mafi yawan binciken tarihi na yau da kullun:

  • Gano asalin kwanan watan
  • Shaida na wuri
  • Gane marubuci
  • sarafa bayanai
  • Gane mutunci
  • Halin abin dogaro

Binciken daftarin aiki[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

 

Matakan gudanar da bincike[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Tsarin bincike da shaida
Zagayen bincike

Yawancin lokaci ana gudanar da bincike ta amfani da tsarin samfurin hourglass na bincike. [13] Samfurin agogon sa'a yana farawa tare da faffadan bakan don bincike, yana mai da hankali kan bayanan da ake buƙata ta hanyar hanyar aikin (kamar wuyan hourglass), sannan fadada bincike a cikin hanyar tattaunawa da sakamako. Manyan matakai wajen gudanar da bincike su ne:

  • Gano matsalar bincike
  • Nazarin adabi
  • Ƙayyadaddun manufar bincike
  • Ƙayyade takamaiman tambayoyin bincike
  • Ƙayyadaddun tsarin ra'ayi, wani lokaci har da saitin hasashe
  • Zaɓin hanya (don tattara bayanai)
  • Tarin bayanai
  • Tabbatar da bayanai
  • Yin nazari da fassara bayanan
  • Ba da rahoto da kimanta bincike
  • Sadar da sakamakon binciken da, maiyuwa, shawarwari

Matakan gabaɗaya suna wakiltar tsarin gaba ɗaya; duk da haka, ya kamata a yi la'akari da su azaman tsari mai canzawa koyaushe maimakon ƙayyadaddun matakan matakai. Yawancin bincike suna farawa da cikakken bayani na matsalar, ko kuma wajen, dalilin shiga cikin binciken. Binciken wallafe-wallafen yana gano kurakurai ko ramuka a cikin binciken da ya gabata wanda ke ba da hujja ga binciken. Sau da yawa, ana yin bitar wallafe-wallafe a wani yanki da aka bayar kafin a gano tambayar bincike . Wani gibi a cikin adabi na yanzu, kamar yadda mai bincike ya gano, sannan ya haifar da tambayar bincike. Tambayar bincike na iya zama daidai da hasashe . Hasashen shine tunanin da za a gwada. Masu binciken (s) suna tattara bayanai don gwada hasashe. Masu binciken (s) sun yi nazari da fassara bayanai ta hanyoyi daban-daban na kididdiga, suna shiga cikin abin da aka sani da bincike mai zurfi . Sakamakon binciken bayanai na kin yarda ko rashin kin yarda da hasashe maras tushe ana bayar da rahoto da kimantawa. A karshe, mai binciken zai iya tattauna hanyoyin da za a bi don karin bincike . Duk da haka, wasu masu bincike suna ba da shawarar hanyar komawa baya: farawa tare da bayyana binciken da tattaunawa akan su, motsawa "sama" don gano matsalar bincike da ke fitowa a cikin binciken da nazarin wallafe-wallafe. Hanyar da aka bi ta baya ta tabbata ta hanyar ma'amala ta hanyar bincike inda binciken bincike, tambayoyin bincike, hanyar bincike, wallafe-wallafen binciken da suka dace, da sauransu ba su da cikakkiyar masaniya har sai binciken ya fito cikakke kuma an fassara shi.

Rudolph Rummel ya ce, “...babu wani mai bincike da ya isa ya yarda da kowane gwaji daya ko biyu a matsayin tabbatacce. Sai kawai lokacin da kewayon gwaje-gwajen suka yi daidai da nau'ikan bayanai da yawa, masu bincike, da hanyoyin za su iya samun kwarin gwiwa ga sakamakon."

Plato a cikin Meno yayi magana game da wata matsala ta asali, idan ba ma'ana ba, na yin bincike da za a iya fassara ta ta hanyar da ke gaba, "Idan kun san abin da kuke nema me yasa kuke nema?! [watau, kuna da. An riga an same shi] Idan ba ku san abin da kuke nema ba, me kuke nema? !" [14]

Hanyoyin bincike[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Dakin bincike a ɗakin karatu na Jama'a na New York, misali na bincike na biyu da ke ci gaba
Maurice Hilleman, fitaccen masanin rigakafin rigakafi na karni na 20, an lasafta shi da ceton rayuka fiye da kowane masanin kimiyya a wancan lokacin.

Manufar tsarin bincike shine samar da sabon ilimi ko zurfafa fahimtar wani batu ko batu. Wannan tsari yana daukar manyan siffofi guda uku (ko da yake, kamar yadda aka tattauna a baya, iyakokin da ke tsakanin su na iya zama m):

  • Binciken bincike, wanda ke taimakawa wajen ganowa da ayyana matsala ko tambaya.
  • Bincike mai mahimmanci, wanda ke gwada ra'ayoyin kuma yana ba da shawarar mafita ga matsala ko tambaya.
  • Binciken kwakkwaran, wanda ke gwada yuwuwar mafita ta amfani da hujjoji na zahiri .

Akwai manyan nau'ikan kira na bincike mai karfi guda biyu: bincike mai inganci da bincike mai kididdigewa. Masu bincike suna zabar hanyoyin kididdigewa ko kididdiga bisa ga yanayin batun binciken da suke son bincikawa da tambayoyin binciken da suke son amsawa:

Bincike mai inganci

Ƙwararren bincike yana nufin karin abubuwan da ba na kididdigewa ba, amfani da hanyoyi daban-daban na tattara bayanai, nazarin bayanai, fassarar bayanai don ma'anoni, ma'anoni, halaye, alamomin misalan abubuwa. Kwararren bincike ya ci gaba da rarraba zuwa nau'ikan nau'ikan wannan binciken an rarraba su: Wannan binciken ya fi mayar da hankali kan al'adun rukunin mutane wadanda suka hada da halaye, harshe, ayyuka, tsari, kima, ƙa'idodi da abubuwan duniya, kimanta salon rayuwar dan adam. Kabila: mutane, Grapho: don rubutawa, wannan almajirin na iya hadawa da kungiyoyin kabilu, kabila, sake tsugunar da jama'a da halayen jin daɗin jama'a. Phenomenology : Dabaru ce mai ƙarfi sosai don nuna hanya zuwa ilimin ƙwararrun ƙwararrun kiwon lafiya kuma mafi dacewa don bincika matsalolin ƙalubale a cikin ilimin sana'o'in kiwon lafiya.

Binciken ƙididdiga
Wannan ya ƙunshi bincike na ƙididdiga na ƙididdiga na kaddarorin ƙididdiga da abubuwan al'ajabi da alaƙarsu, ta hanyar yin ƙungiyar tambaya da tattara bayanan ƙididdiga don tantance ta ta amfani da hanyoyin ƙididdiga . Ƙirar binciken ƙididdiga na gwaji ne, daidaitawa, da bincike (ko siffantawa). [15] Ana iya amfani da kididdigar da aka samo daga bincike mai ƙididdigewa don tabbatar da wanzuwar haɗin kai ko alaƙa tsakanin masu canji. Binciken ƙididdigewa yana da alaƙa da matsayin falsafa da ka'idar positivism .

Hanyoyin tattara bayanai masu kididdigewa sun dogara da samfurin bazuwar da tsararrun kayan tattara bayanai wadanda suka dace da gogewa daban-daban cikin kayyadaddun martani.[ana buƙatar hujja] haifar da sakamako wadanda za a iya takaitawa, kwatantawa, da kuma haɗa su zuwa ga yawan jama'a idan an tattara bayanan ta amfani da ingantaccen samfuri da dabarun tattara bayanai. Binciken kididdigewa ya shafi gwajin hasashe da aka samo daga ka'idar ko iya ƙididdige girman abin ban sha'awa. [16]

Idan tambayar binciken ta kasance game da mutane, ana iya sanya mahalarta bazuwar zuwa jiyya daban-daban (wannan ita ce kawai hanyar da za a iya ɗaukar binciken kididdiga a matsayin gwaji na gaskiya).[ana buƙatar hujja]Idan wannan ba , mai binciken zai iya tattara bayanai game da mahalarta da halayen yanayi don sarrafa ƙididdiga don tasirin su akan dogara, ko sakamako, mai canzawa. Idan manufar ita ce ta zama gama gari daga mahalarta bincike zuwa yawan jama'a, mai binciken zai yi amfani da samfurin yuwuwar don zaɓar mahalarta.

A cikin bincike na ƙididdiga ko ƙididdigewa, masu binciken (masu) na iya tattara bayanan farko ko na sakandare. Bayanan farko sune bayanan da aka tattara musamman don bincike, kamar ta hanyar tambayoyi ko tambayoyin tambayoyi. Bayanan na biyu bayanai ne da suka wanzu, kamar bayanan ƙidayar, waɗanda za a iya sake amfani da su don bincike. Yana da kyau aikin bincike na ɗabi'a don amfani da bayanan sakandare a duk inda zai yiwu. [17]

Binciken hada-hadar hanya, watau binciken da ya hada da abubuwa masu inganci da kididdiga, ta yin amfani da bayanan farko da na sakandare, ya zama ruwan dare gama gari. [18] Wannan hanya tana da fa'idodi waɗanda amfani da hanya ɗaya kaɗai ba zai iya bayarwa ba. Misali, mai bincike zai iya zaɓar ya gudanar da bincike mai inganci kuma ya bi shi da ƙididdiga na ƙididdiga don samun ƙarin fahimta.

Manyan bayanai sun kawo babban tasiri kan hanyoyin bincike ta yadda a yanzu masu bincike da yawa ba sa yin kokari sosai wajen tattara bayanai; Bugu da ƙari, an ƙirƙiri hanyoyin yin nazari cikin sauƙi samuwan adadi mai yawa na bayanai. Nau'in Hanyar Bincike 1. Hanyar Bincike ta Observatory 2. Hanyar Bincike Daidaita

Binciken da ba na zahiri ba

Binciken da ba a iya amfani da shi ba ( ka'idar ) wata hanya ce da ta shafi ci gaban ka'idar sabanin amfani da kallo da gwaji. Don haka, binciken da ba na zahiri ba yana neman mafita ga matsalolin ta amfani da ilimin da ake da shi a matsayin tushensa. Wannan, duk da haka, ba ya nufin cewa ba za a iya samun sababbin ra'ayoyi da sababbin abubuwa a cikin tafkin da aka kafa da kuma ingantaccen ilimin ba. Binciken da ba na zahiri ba ba cikakkiyar madadin bincike ba ne saboda ana iya amfani da su tare don ƙarfafa hanyar bincike. Babu ɗayan da ba shi da tasiri fiye da ɗayan tunda suna da takamaiman manufarsu a kimiyya. Yawanci bincike mai zurfi yana samar da abubuwan lura waɗanda ke buƙatar yin bayani; sannan bincike na ka'idar yayi kokarin bayyana su, kuma a yin haka ya haifar da hasashe da za a iya gwadawa; Sannan ana gwada waɗannan hasashe ta zahiri, suna ba da ƙarin abubuwan lura waɗanda za su buƙaci ƙarin bayani; da sauransu. Duba Hanyar Kimiyya .

Misali mai sauƙi na ɗawainiyar da ba ta da ƙarfi ita ce ƙirar sabon magani ta amfani da aikace-aikacen da aka bambanta na ilimin da ke akwai; wani kuma shine ci gaban tsarin kasuwanci a cikin nau'i na ginshiƙi mai gudana da rubutu inda duk abubuwan da suka dace sun fito ne daga ingantaccen ilimi. Yawancin bincike na cosmological shine ka'idar a yanayi. Binciken ilimin lissafi baya dogara ga bayanan da ake samu a waje; maimakon haka, yana neman tabbatar da ka'idoji game da abubuwan lissafi .

Da'a na bincike[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ka'idodin bincike sun shafi batutuwan ɗabi'a da ke tasowa a lokacin ko sakamakon ayyukan bincike, da kuma halayen masu bincike guda ɗaya, da kuma abubuwan da suka shafi al'ummomin bincike. [19] A tarihi, badakala irin su gwajin ɗan adam na Nazi da gwajin syphilis na Tuskegee ya haifar da fahimtar cewa ana buƙatar kwararan matakai don gudanar da bincike na ɗabi'a don tabbatar da cewa ba a cutar da mutane, dabbobi da muhalli ba ta hanyar binciken kimiyya. Gudanar da ka'idojin bincike bai dace ba a cikin ƙasashe kuma babu wata hanyar da ta dace a duk duniya game da yadda ya kamata a magance shi. [20] [21] [22] Kwamitocin da'a na bincike ( Hukumar bita a cikin Amurka) sun fito a matsayin tsarin mulki ɗaya don tabbatar da gudanar da bincike cikin gaskiya.

Sa’ad da muke yanke hukunci na ɗabi’a, ƙila za a yi mana ja-gora da ɗabi’u dabam-dabam . Masana falsafa sun bambanta tsakanin hanyoyin kamar deontology, consequentialism, Confucianism, virtue ethics, da Ubuntu ethics, don lissafta kaɗan. Ko da kuwa hanyar da za a bi, aikace-aikacen ka'idar ɗabi'a zuwa takamaiman mahallin an san shi azaman ɗa'a mai amfani, kuma ana iya kallon ɗabi'ar bincike a matsayin wani yanki na ɗabi'a da aka yi amfani da shi saboda ana amfani da ka'idar ɗa'a a cikin yanayin bincike na zahiri.

Ethical issues may arise in the design and implementation of research involving human experimentation or animal experimentation. There may also be consequences for the environment, for society or for future generations that need to be considered. Research ethics is most developed as a concept in medical research, with typically cited codes being the 1947 Nuremberg Code, the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki, and the 1978 Belmont Report. Informed consent is a key concept in research ethics thanks to these codes. Research in other fields such as social sciences, information technology, biotechnology, or engineering may generate different types of ethical concerns to those in medical research.

A cikin ƙasashe irin su Kanada, ana buƙatar horar da ɗabi'un bincike na wajibi ga ɗalibai, furofesoshi da sauran waɗanda ke aiki a cikin bincike, [23] [24] yayin da Amurka ta kafa doka kan yadda kwamitocin bita na cibiyoyi ke aiki tun daga Dokar Bincike ta ƙasa ta 1974.

An bambanta da'a na bincike da haɓaka ingantaccen ilimi ko bincike, wanda ya haɗa da batutuwa irin su rashin da'a na kimiyya (misali zamba, ƙirƙira bayanai ko saɓo ). Saboda kusancin kusanci da mutunci, ana ƙara haɓaka ɗabi'un bincike a matsayin wani ɓangare na faffadan fage na gudanar da bincike (RCR a Arewacin Amurka) ko Bincike da Ƙirƙirar Alƙawari a Turai, kuma tare da hukumomin gwamnati kamar Ofishin Bincike na Amurka. Mutunci ko Kwamitin Ba da Shawarar Sadarwar Sadarwar Kanada kan Haƙƙin Haƙƙin Bincike na haɓaka ko buƙatar horon tsaka-tsakin ga masu bincike.

Matsaloli a cikin bincike[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

-bibangareike[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Meta-research shine nazarin bincike ta hanyar amfani da hanyoyin bincike. Har ila yau, an san shi da "bincike kan bincike", yana da nufin rage sharar gida da haɓaka ingancin bincike a kowane fanni. Meta-bincike ya damu da kansa tare da gano son zuciya, kurakuran hanya, da sauran kurakurai da rashin aiki. Daga cikin binciken meta-bincike akwai ƙarancin ƙima na haɓakawa a cikin fagage da yawa. Ana kiran wannan wahalar sake haifar da bincike " rikicin maimaitawa ." [25]

Hanyoyin bincike[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A cikin fannoni da yawa, hanyoyin Yammacin Turai na gudanar da bincike sun fi yawa. [26] Ana koyar da masu binciken hanyoyin tattara bayanai da nazari da yawa na Yammacin Turai. Haɓaka haɓakar ƴan asalin ƙasar a matsayin masu bincike ya kawo ƙarin hankali ga lacuna na kimiyya a cikin hanyoyin tattara bayanai masu mahimmancin al'adu . Hanyoyin tattara bayanai na yammacin duniya bazai zama mafi inganci ko dacewa ga bincike kan al'ummomin da ba na yamma ba. Misali, " Hua Oranga " an halicce shi ne a matsayin ma'auni don kimanta tunanin mutum a cikin al'ummar Māori, kuma ya dogara ne akan ma'auni na lafiyar hankali mai mahimmanci ga mutanen Māori - "taha wairua (girman ruhaniya), taha hinengaro (girman tunani), taha tinana (girman jiki), da taha whanau (girman iyali)". [27]

son zuciya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Research is often biased in the languages that are preferred (linguicism) and the geographic locations where research occurs. Periphery scholars face the challenges of exclusion and linguicism in research and academic publication. As the great majority of mainstream academic journals are written in English, multilingual periphery scholars often must translate their work to be accepted to elite Western-dominated journals.[28] Multilingual scholars' influences from their native communicative styles can be assumed to be incompetence instead of difference.[29]

Domin kwatankwacin siyasa, ƙasashen Yamma sun fi yawa a cikin karatun ƙasa ɗaya, tare da mai da hankali kan Yammacin Turai, Kanada, Ostiraliya, da New Zealand. Tun daga shekara ta 2000, ƙasashen Latin Amurka sun fi shahara a karatun ƙasa ɗaya. Sabanin haka, ƙasashe a cikin Oceania da Caribbean sune mafi ƙanƙanta na bincike kaɗan. Alamun son zuciya kuma suna nuna alaƙa da ilimin harshe: ƙasashen da harsunansu na hukuma na Faransanci ko Larabci ba su da yuwuwar zama abin da ake mayar da hankali kan karatun ƙasa ɗaya fiye da ƙasashen da ke da harsunan hukuma daban-daban. A cikin Afirka, ƙasashen da ke magana da Ingilishi sun fi sauran ƙasashe wakilci. [30]

Gabaɗaya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Gabaɗaya shine tsarin aiwatar da ingantaccen sakamakon binciken guda ɗaya. [31] Nazarin tare da ƙunƙun yanki na iya haifar da rashin daidaituwa, ma'ana cewa sakamakon ƙila ba zai iya amfani da wasu al'ummomi ko yankuna ba. A cikin siyasa kwatankwacin, wannan na iya haifar da yin amfani da nazarin ƙasa ɗaya, maimakon ƙirar nazarin da ke amfani da bayanai daga ƙasashe da yawa. Duk da batun gama-gari, karatun ƙasa ɗaya ya ƙaru sosai tun daga ƙarshen 2000s. [30]

Bitar takwarorinsu na bugawa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

 

 

Bita na tsara wani nau'i ne na kayyade kai ta ƙwararrun mambobi na sana'a a cikin filin da ya dace. Ana amfani da hanyoyin bita na tsara don kiyaye ƙa'idodin inganci, haɓaka aiki, da samar da gaskiya. A cikin ilimin kimiyya, ana amfani da bitar takwarorinsu sau da yawa don tantance dacewar takardar ilimi don bugawa. Yawanci, tsarin bitar takwarorinsu ya ƙunshi ƙwararru a wannan fanni waɗanda editoci suke tuntuɓar su don yin bitar ayyukan ilimi da abokin aikinsu ya samar ta hanyar rashin son zuciya da rashin son kai, kuma ana yin hakan kyauta. Al'adar sake dubawa ta abokan gaba kyauta duk da haka ta kawo matsaloli da yawa waɗanda kuma ke nuni da dalilin da ya sa yawancin masu bitar takwarorinsu ke ƙi gayyata da yawa don dubawa. An lura da cewa wallafe-wallafen daga ƙasashen waje ba safai suke tashi zuwa matsayi ɗaya da na Arewacin Amurka da Turai ba, saboda ƙayyadaddun wadatar albarkatu da suka haɗa da takarda mai inganci da nagartaccen software na nuna hoto da kayan aikin bugu ya sa waɗannan wallafe-wallafen ba su da ƙarfi. gamsar da ƙa'idodi a halin yanzu ɗauke da iko na yau da kullun ko na yau da kullun a cikin masana'antar bugawa. [29] Wadannan iyakoki kuma suna haifar da rashin wakilci na masana daga ƙasashen da ke kewaye a cikin jerin wallafe-wallafen da ke da matsayi mai daraja dangane da yawa da ingancin ƙoƙarin binciken waɗannan malamai, kuma wannan rashin wakilcin ya haifar da raguwar yarda da rashin daidaituwa. sakamakon kokarin da suke yi a matsayin gudummawar da ke tattare da ilimin da ake samu a duniya.

Tasirin motsin buɗe ido,[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Motsin shiga buɗe yana ɗauka cewa duk bayanan da ake ganin suna da amfani yakamata su kasance masu 'yanci kuma suna cikin "yankin jama'a", na "yan Adam". Wannan ra'ayin ya sami yaɗuwa a sakamakon tarihin mulkin mallaka na Yamma kuma ya yi watsi da wasu ra'ayi na rarraba ilimi. Misali, yawancin al'ummomin ƴan asalin suna ganin cewa samun wasu bayanai da suka dace da ƙungiyar yakamata su kasance ta hanyar alaƙa. [32]

Ana zargin cewa akwai ma'auni biyu a tsarin ilimin Yammacin Turai. A gefe guda, "Gudanar da Haƙƙin dijital" da ake amfani da shi don hana samun damar yin amfani da bayanan sirri a dandalin sada zumunta ana yin bikin ne a matsayin kariya ta sirri, yayin da a lokaci guda lokacin da ƙungiyoyin al'adu ke amfani da irin wannan ayyuka (watau al'ummomin 'yan asalin) ana yin Allah wadai da hakan a matsayin "shigarwa". sarrafawa" kuma an tsawatar a matsayin tacewa.

Hanyoyi na gaba[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Duk da cewa rinjayen Yammacin Turai ya zama sananne a cikin bincike, wasu masana, irin su Simon Marginson, suna jayayya da "bukatar [ga] duniyar jami'a". Marginson yayi jayayya cewa tsarin Confucian na Gabashin Asiya zai iya daukar nauyin tsarin Yammacin Turai.

Wannan na iya kasancewa saboda sauye-sauye na kudade don bincike duka a Gabas da Yamma. An mai da hankali kan jaddada nasarar ilimi, al'adun gabashin Asiya, musamman a Sin da Koriya ta Kudu, sun karfafa karuwar kudade don fadada bincike. Sabanin haka, a duniyar ilimi ta Yamma, musamman a Burtaniya da kuma wasu gwamnatocin jihohi a Amurka, an samu raguwar kudade don gudanar da bincike a jami’o’i, wanda wasu suka yi.  ya ce na iya haifar da koma baya ga rinjayen Yammacin Turai a cikin bincike.

Hanyoyi na mulkin mallaka[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

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Ƙwarewa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A cikin tsarin ilimi na ƙasa da na masu zaman kansu da yawa, ƙwarewar bincike ya haifar da lakabin aiki na yau da kullun.

A Rasha[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A cikin Rasha ta yau, da wasu ƙasashe na tsohuwar Tarayyar Soviet, kalmar mai bincike ( Russian: Научный сотрудник , nauchny sotrudnik ) An yi amfani da shi duka a matsayin jumla ga mutumin da ke gudanar da bincike na kimiyya, kuma a matsayin matsayi na aiki a cikin tsarin Kwalejin Kimiyya, Jami'o'i, da sauran cibiyoyin bincike.

An san masu daraja masu zuwa:

  • Ƙwararrun Mai Bincike (Ƙungiyar Ƙwararrun Bincike)
  • Mai Bincike (Abokin Bincike)
  • Babban Mai Bincike (Babban Abokin Bincike)
  • Jagoran Mai Bincike (Jagoran Ƙwararrun Bincike)
  • Babban Mai Bincike (Babban Mataimakin Bincike)

wallafawa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Murfin fitowar farko ta Nature, 4 ga Nuwamba 1869

Buga ilimi tsari ne da ya wajaba ga malaman ilimi su yi nazari kan aikin da kuma samar da shi ga masu sauraro. Tsarin ya bambanta da yawa ta filin kuma koyaushe yana canzawa, idan sau da yawa a hankali. Yawancin aikin ilimi ana buga su a cikin labarin jarida ko sigar littafi. Hakanan akwai babban rukunin bincike da ke wanzuwa a cikin ko dai tass ko sigar dissertation. Ana iya samun waɗannan nau'ikan bincike a cikin ma'ajin bayanai a sarari don kasidu da rubuce-rubuce. A cikin bugawa, bugu na STM taƙaitaccen wallafe-wallafen ilimi ne a cikin kimiyya, fasaha, da magani. Yawancin filayen ilimi da aka kafa suna da nasu mujallu na kimiyya da sauran kantuna don bugawa, kodayake yawancin mujallu na ilimi sun ɗan bambanta, kuma suna buga ayyuka daga fagage daban-daban ko fagage daban-daban. Ire-iren wallafe-wallafen da aka karɓa azaman gudummawar ilimi ko bincike sun bambanta sosai tsakanin fage, daga bugawa zuwa tsarin lantarki. Wani bincike ya nuna cewa bai kamata masu bincike su yi la'akari sosai ga binciken da ba a maimaita su akai-akai. An kuma ba da shawarar cewa duk wani binciken da aka buga ya kamata a yi shi da wani ma'auni don tantance inganci ko amincin hanyoyinsa don hana buga sakamakon binciken da ba a tabbatar ba. [33] Samfuran kasuwanci sun bambanta a cikin yanayin lantarki. Tun daga farkon shekarun 1990, ba da lasisin albarkatun lantarki, musamman mujallu, ya zama ruwan dare. A halin yanzu, babban yanayin, musamman game da mujallu na ilimi, shine damar buɗe ido . [34] Akwai manyan nau'o'i guda biyu na buɗaɗɗen damar shiga: buɗaɗɗen damar buɗaɗɗen shiga, wanda a ciki ana samun labaran ko dukan mujallu kyauta daga lokacin bugawa, da kuma adana bayanan kai, inda marubucin ya ba da kwafin aikin nasu kyauta akan yanar gizo. .

Tallafin bincike[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Yawancin kudade don binciken kimiyya sun fito ne daga manyan tushe guda uku: bincike na kamfanoni da sassan ci gaba ; tushe masu zaman kansu ; da majalissar bincike na gwamnati irin su Cibiyoyin Kiwon Lafiya na Ƙasa a Amurka da Majalisar Binciken Likita a Burtaniya. Ana gudanar da waɗannan da farko ta hanyar jami'o'i kuma a wasu lokuta ta hanyar ƴan kwangilar soja. Yawancin manyan masu bincike (kamar shugabannin rukuni) suna ciyar da lokaci mai yawa na neman tallafi don kudaden bincike. Waɗannan tallafin ba dole ba ne kawai ga masu bincike don gudanar da binciken su har ma a matsayin tushen cancanta. Cibiyar Sadarwar Ƙwararrun Gwamnatin Ammasu zaman kansu.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

See also[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

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  6. Schwab, M. (2009). "Draft Proposal". Journal for Artistic Research. Bern University of the Arts.
  7. Schiesser, G. (2015). What is at stake – Qu'est ce que l'enjeu? Paradoxes – Problematics – Perspectives in Artistic Research Today, in: Arts, Research, Innovation and Society. Eds. Gerald Bast, Elias G. Carayannis [= ARIS, Vol. 1]. Wien/New York: Springer. pp. 197–210.
  8. Hoffman, A. (2003). Research for Writers, pp. 4–5. London: A&C Black Publishers Limited.
  9. Henk Borgdorff (2012), The Conflict of the Faculties. Perspectives on Artistic Research and Academia (Chapter 11: The Case of the Journal for Artistic Research), Leiden: Leiden University Press.
  10. Schwab, Michael, and Borgdorff, Henk, eds. (2014), The Exposition of Artistic Research: Publishing Art in Academia, Leiden: Leiden University Press.
  11. Wilson, Nick and van Ruiten, Schelte / ELIA, eds. (2013), SHARE Handbook for Artistic Research Education, Amsterdam: Valand Academy, p. 249.
  12. Hughes, Rolf: "Leap into Another Kind: International Developments in Artistic Research," in Swedish Research Council, ed. (2013), Artistic Research Then and Now: 2004–2013, Yearbook of AR&D 2013, Stockholm: Swedish Research Council.
  13. Trochim, W.M.K, (2006). Research Methods Knowledge Base.
  14. Plato, & Bluck, R. S. (1962). Meno. Cambridge, UK: University Press.
  15. Creswell, J.W. (2008). Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.
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  17. Kara H. (2012). Research and Evaluation for Busy Practitioners: A Time-Saving Guide, p. 102. Bristol: The Policy Press.
  18. Kara H (2012). Research and Evaluation for Busy Practitioners: A Time-Saving Guide, p. 114. Bristol: The Policy Press.
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  20. Israel, M. G., & Thomson, A. C. (27–29 November 2013). The rise and much-sought demise of the adversarial culture in Australian research ethics. Paper presented at the 2013 Australasian Ethics Network Conference, Perth, Australia.
  21. Israel, M. (2016). Research ethics and integrity for social scientists: Beyond regulatory compliance (Second ed.). Los Angeles, CA: SAGE.
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  23. Government of Canada. (n.d.). Panel on Research Ethics: The TCPS2 Tutorial Course on Research Ethics (CORE). Retrieved from http://pre.ethics.gc.ca/eng/education/tutorial-didacticiel/ Archived 2019-07-01 at the Wayback Machine
  24. Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, & Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada. (2018). Tri-Council Policy Statement: Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans: TCPS2 2018. Retrieved from http://www.pre.ethics.gc.ca/eng/documents/tcps2-2018-en-interactive-final.pdf
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