Christopher Columbus

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Christopher Columbus
ɗan Adam
Bayanai
Jinsi namiji
Ƙasar asali Republic of Genoa (en) Fassara
Mubaya'a Crown of Castile (en) Fassara
Sunan asali Cristoforo Colombo da Christoffa Corombo
Sunan haihuwa Christophorus Columbus
Suna Cristoforo
Sunan dangi Colombo
Shekarun haihuwa 1451, 1451, 1450, 31 Oktoba 1451 da 1 Satumba 1451
Wurin haihuwa Genoa
Lokacin mutuwa 20 Mayu 1506 da 19 Mayu 1506
Wurin mutuwa Valladolid (en) Fassara
Dalilin mutuwa Gazawar zuciya
Wajen rufewa Catedral de Sevilla (en) Fassara
Uba Domenico Colombo (en) Fassara
Uwa Susanna Fontanarossa (en) Fassara
Dangi Bartholomew Columbus (en) Fassara da Diego Colombos (en) Fassara
Mata/miji Filipa Moniz Perestrelo (en) Fassara
Abokin mara aure Beatriz Enríquez de Arana (en) Fassara
Yarinya/yaro Ferdinand Columbus da Diego Columbus (en) Fassara
Iyali Columbus family (en) Fassara
Significant person (en) Fassara Juan Perez (en) Fassara da Antonio de Marchena (en) Fassara
Harsuna Yaren Sifen
Sana'a mabudi, sailor (en) Fassara, seafarer (en) Fassara, traveler (en) Fassara da inventor (en) Fassara
Filin aiki sea shipping (en) Fassara, marine transportation (en) Fassara da seamanship (en) Fassara
Muƙamin da ya riƙe profanador (en) Fassara da Viceroy of the Indies (en) Fassara
Addini Cocin katolika
Religious order (en) Fassara Third Order of Saint Francis (en) Fassara
Military rank (en) Fassara admiral (en) Fassara da almirante de la mar Océana (en) Fassara
Military unit (en) Fassara Columbus' fleet (en) Fassara
Mamba na Columbus Conquistador of America (en) Fassara
Influenced by (en) Fassara Pierre d'Ailly (en) Fassara, Paolo dal Pozzo Toscanelli (en) Fassara, Ptolemy (en) Fassara, Marco Polo da John Mandeville (en) Fassara
Present in work (en) Fassara Christophe Colomb (en) Fassara
Copyright status as a creator (en) Fassara copyrights on works have expired (en) Fassara
Documentation files at (en) Fassara SAPA Foundation, Swiss Archive of the Performing Arts (en) Fassara

Christopher Columbus [lower-alpha 1] (/kəˈlʌmbəs/; [1] an haife shi a tsakanin 25 ga watan Agusta da 31 ga watan Oktoba na shekara ta alif ɗari 1451) Miladiyya. ya mutu a ranar 20 ga watan Mayu na shekara ta alif 1506) Miladiyya.Dan Italiyanci ne [lower-alpha 2] mai bincike kuma mai navigator. Wanda ya kammala tafiye-tafiye guda huɗu a cikin tekun Atlantika wanda sarakunan Katolika na Spain suka dauki nauyinsa, wanda ya bude hanya ga yaduwar binciken Turai da kuma mulkin mallaka na Amurka. Balaguronsa sune farkon sanannun tuntuɓar Turai tare da Caribbean, Amurka ta Tsakiya, da Kudancin Amurka.

Sunan Christopher Columbus shi ne anglicisation na Latin Christophorus Columbus. Masana gabaɗaya sun yarda cewa an haifi Columbus a Jamhuriyar Genoa kuma yana magana da yare na Ligurian a matsayin harshensa na farko. Ya tafi teku tun yana ƙarami kuma ya yi tafiye-tafiye da yawa, har zuwa arewa da tsibirin Biritaniya da kuma kudu zuwa ƙasar Ghana a yanzu. Ya auri mace mai daraja ta Fotigal Filipa Moniz Perestrelo, wadda ta haifi ɗansa Diego, kuma ya kasance a Lisbon shekaru da yawa. Daga baya ya ɗauki farka na Castilian, Beatriz Enríquez de Arana, wanda ya haifi ɗansa, Fernando (wanda aka ba shi azaman Hernando). [3]

Babban mai ilimin kansa, Columbus ya kasance ƙwararren mai ilimin ƙasa, ilmin taurari, da tarihi. Ya ɓullo da wani shiri na neman hanyar yammacin teku zuwa Gabashin Indiya, yana fatan samun riba daga cinikin kayan yaji. Bayan Yaƙin Granada, da kuma bin ɗorewa na Columbus a cikin masarautu da yawa, Sarakunan Katolika Sarauniya Isabella I da Sarki Ferdinand II sun yarda da ɗaukar nauyin tafiya yamma. Columbus ya bar Castile a watan Agusta 1492 tare da jiragen ruwa guda uku kuma ya yi ƙasa a cikin Amurka a ranar 12 ga watan Oktoba, wanda ya kawo ƙarshen zaman ɗan adam a cikin Amurkan yanzu ana kiransa zamanin pre-Columbian. Wurin saukarsa tsibiri ne a cikin Bahamas, wanda mazaunansa suka fi sani da Guanahani. Daga baya ya ziyarci tsibiran da a yanzu ake kira Cuba da Hispaniola, inda ya kafa mulkin mallaka a ƙasar Haiti a yanzu. Columbus ya koma Castile a farkon 1493, yana kawo adadin mutanen da aka kama tare da shi. Nan da nan maganar tafiyar tasa ta bazu cikin Turai.

Christopher Columbus

Columbus ya kara tafiye-tafiye guda uku zuwa Amurka, yana binciken Ƙananan Antilles a 1493, Trinidad da arewacin bakin tekun Kudancin Amirka a 1498, da gabashin Gabashin Amurka ta Tsakiya a 1502. Yawancin sunayen da ya ba wa yanayin ƙasa, musamman tsibirai, har yanzu ana amfani da su. Ya kuma ba da sunan indios ("Indiyawa") ga 'yan asalin da ya ci karo da su. Ba a da tabbas gwargwadon yadda yake sane da cewa Amerikawa yanki ne daban-daban; bai taba yin watsi da imaninsa a fili cewa ya isa Gabas mai Nisa ba. A matsayinsa na gwamna mai mulkin mallaka, mutanen zamaninsa sun zarge Columbus da mummunar zalunci kuma ba da daɗewa ba aka cire shi daga mukamin. Dangantakar da Columbus ta yi da Crown of Castile da masu mulkin mallaka da aka nada a Amurka ya kai ga kama shi da kuma cire shi daga Hispaniola a 1500, daga baya kuma ya tsawaita shari'a kan abubuwan da shi da magadansa suka yi iƙirarin cewa kambi ya bi su.

Balaguron na Columbus ya ƙaddamar da wani lokaci na bincike, mamayewa, da mulkin mallaka wanda ya daɗe tsawon ƙarni, don haka ya kawo Amurkawa cikin tasirin Turai. Canja wurin kayayyaki, ra'ayoyi, da mutane tsakanin Tsohuwar Duniya da Sabuwar Duniya waɗanda suka biyo bayan tafiyarsa ta farko ana kiranta da musayar Columbian. An yi bikin Columbus a ko'ina cikin ƙarni bayan mutuwarsa, amma fahimtar jama'a ta wargaje a ƙarni na 21 yayin da masana suka ba da kulawa sosai ga illolin da aka yi a ƙarƙashin mulkinsa, musamman farkon raguwar Taínos 'yan asalin Hispaniola da ke haifar da zalunci da Tsohuwar Duniya. cututtuka, da kuma ta wannan bautar da mutane. Wurare da yawa a Yammacin Duniya suna ɗauke da sunansa, ciki har da ƙasar Colombia, Gundumar Columbia, da kuma British Columbia.

Ƙuruciya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Gidan Christopher Columbus a Genoa, Italiya, an sake gina gidan na ƙarni na 18 wanda Columbus ya girma. Wataƙila an lalata asalin asali a lokacin harin bam na 1684 na Genoa.

Ƙuruciyar ta Columbus ba ta da tabbas, amma masana sun yi imanin an haife shi a Jamhuriyar Genoa tsakanin 25 ga watan Agusta zuwa 31 ga watan Oktoba 1451. Mahaifinsa shi ne Domenico Colombo, mai saƙa ulu wanda ya yi aiki a Genoa da Savona kuma wanda ya mallaki kullun cuku wanda matashi Christopher yayi aiki a matsayin mataimaki. Mahaifiyarsa ita ce Susanna Fontanarossa. [3] Yana da 'yan'uwa uku-Bartolomeo, Giovanni Pellegrino, da Giacomo (wanda ake kira Diego)-da kuma 'yar'uwa mai suna Bianchinetta. [4] Ɗan uwansa Bartolomeo ya gudanar da taron bitar zane-zane a Lisbon na aƙalla wani ɓangare na girmansa.

Yarensa na asali ana tsammanin yaren Genoese ne duk da cewa Columbus bai taɓa yin rubutu a cikin wannan yaren ba. [3] Sunansa a cikin yaren Genoese na ƙarni na 16 shine Cristoffa Corombo (lafazin Ligurian pronunciation:). Sunansa a cikin Italiyanci Cristoforo Colombo, kuma a cikin Mutanen Espanya Cristóbal Colón.

Christopher Columbus

A daya daga cikin rubuce-rubucensa, ya ce ya tafi teku yana dan shekara sha hudu. [3] A cikin shekarar 1470, dangin Colombo sun ƙaura zuwa Savona, inda Domenico ya karɓi gidan abinci. Wasu marubutan zamani sun yi jayayya cewa ba daga Genoa yake ba amma, a maimakon haka, daga yankin Aragon na Spain ko daga Portugal. [5] Waɗannan hasashe masu fa'ida gabaɗaya an rage su daga manyan malamai. [6] [3]

A cikin shekarar 1473, Columbus ya fara karatunsa a matsayin wakilin kasuwanci ga mawadata Spinola, Centurione, da Di Negro na Genoa. Daga baya, ya yi tafiya zuwa Chios, tsibirin Aegean da Genoa ke sarauta a lokacin. [3] A cikin watan Mayu na shekara ta 1476, ya shiga cikin ayarin motocin da Genoa ta aika don ɗaukar kaya masu daraja zuwa arewacin Turai. Wataƙila ya ziyarci Bristol, Ingila, da Galway, Ireland, [7] inda wataƙila ya ziyarci Cocin St. Nicholas Collegiate. An yi hasashen cewa shi ma ya tafi Iceland a shekara ta 1477, kodayake masana da yawa suna shakkar hakan. An san cewa a cikin kaka na 1477, ya tashi a wani jirgin ruwa na Portuguese daga Galway zuwa Lisbon, inda ya sami ɗan'uwansa Bartolomeo, kuma suka ci gaba da ciniki ga dangin Centurione. Columbus ya kafa kansa a Lisbon daga 1477 zuwa 1485. A cikin shekarar 1478, Centurones sun aika Columbus a kan balaguron siyan sukari zuwa Madeira. Ya auri Felipa Perestrello e Moniz, 'yar Bartolomeu Perestrello, ɗan ƙasar Portugal ɗan asalin Lombard, wanda ya kasance kyaftin ɗin bayar da gudummawa na Porto Santo.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kwafin Columbus's The Travels of Marco Polo, tare da rubuce-rubucen rubuce-rubucen hannunsa a cikin Latin da aka rubuta a gefe.
  1. In other relevant languages:
  2. The modern state of Italy had yet to be established; most scholars believe that Columbus was born in the Republic of Genoa.[2]
  1. "Columbus".
  2. Flint, Valerie I.J. (16 May 2021). "Christopher Columbus". Encyclopedia Britannica (in Turanci). Retrieved 2 January 2022.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 Phillips & Phillips 1992.
  4. Bergreen 2011.
  5. (in Portuguese) "Armas e Troféus."
  6. Davidson 1997.
  7. (Iain ed.). Missing or empty |title= (help)