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Edna Ferber

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.

 

Rayuwa da aiki[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Shekarun farko[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An haifi Ferber a watan Agusta 15,1885,a Kalamazoo,Michigan,ga wani ma'ajiyar Bayahude haifaffen Hungarian,Jacob Charles Ferber,da Milwaukee,haifaffen Wisconsin matarsa,Julia (Neumann) Ferber,wanda ya kasance daga zuriyar Bayahude Bajamushe.Ferbers sun ƙaura zuwa Kalamazoo daga Chicago,Illinois don buɗe kantin sayar da busassun kayayyaki,kuma an haifi 'yar uwarta Fannie a can shekaru uku da suka wuce. [1] Mahaifin Ferber bai ƙware a harkokin kasuwanci ba,[2] kuma dangi suna motsawa sau da yawa a lokacin ƙuruciyar Ferber.Daga Kalamazoo,sun dawo Chicago na tsawon shekara guda, sannan suka koma Ottumwa,Iowa inda suka zauna daga 1890 zuwa 1897 (shekaru 5 zuwa 12 don Ferber).A Ottumwa,Ferber da danginta sun fuskanci mummunar kyamar Yahudawa,ciki har da manya maza suna zaginta, ba'a da tofa mata a ranakun da ta kawo abincin rana ga mahaifinta,galibi suna yi mata ba'a cikin lafazin Yadish. [2] A cewar Ferber,shekarunta a Ottumwa "dole ne a yi la'akari da duk wani abu a cikina da ke gaba da duniya." [2] A wannan lokacin,mahaifin Ferber ya fara rasa ganinsa, yana buƙatar jiyya masu tsada da kuma rashin nasara. [2] Lokacin da yake da shekaru 12,Ferber da danginta sun koma Appleton, Wisconsin, inda ta sauke karatu daga makarantar sakandare kuma daga baya ta halarci Jami'ar Lawrence a takaice.

Sana'a[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Bayan kammala karatun,Ferber ta yi shirin yin nazarin ilimin balaga,tare da tunani mara kyau na wata rana ya zama dan wasan kwaikwayo,amma danginta ba za su iya samun damar tura ta zuwa jami'a ba.A lokacin,ta ɗauki aiki a matsayin mai ba da rahoto a Appleton Daily Crescent kuma daga baya ta koma Milwaukee Journal. [1] A farkon 1909 Ferber ya sha fama da anemia kuma ya koma Appleton don murmurewa. Ba ta taɓa ci gaba da aikinta a matsayin mai ba da rahoto ba,kodayake daga baya ta rufe Babban Taron Jam'iyyar Republican na 1920 da Babban Taron Dimokuradiyya na 1920 na Ƙungiyar 'Yan Jarida ta United. [1]

Yayin da Ferber ke murmurewa,ta fara rubutawa da sayar da gajerun labarai zuwa mujallu daban-daban,kuma a cikin 1911 ta buga littafinta na farko, Dawn O'Hara, Yarinyar da ta yi dariya.A cikin 1912,an buga tarin gajerun labarunta a cikin kundin mai suna Buttered Side Down.A cikin tarihin rayuwarta,Ferber ya rubuta: [2]

In that day, and for a girl in her early twenties, they were rather hard tough stories... The book got good reviews. I was startled and grimly pleased when some of the reviewers said that obviously these stories had been written by a man who had taken a feminine nom de plume as a hoax. I have always thought that a writing style should be impossible of sex determination; I don't think the reader should be able to say whether a book has been written by a man or a woman.

Ferber never Imarried, had no children, and is not known to have engaged in a romance or sexual relationship.[lower-alpha 1] In her early novel Dawn O'Hara, the title character's aunt even remarks, "Being an old maid was a great deal like death by drowning – a really delightful sensation when you ceased struggling." Ferber did take a maternal interest in the career of her niece Janet Fox, an actress who performed in the original Broadway casts of Ferber's plays Dinner at Eight (1932) and Stage Door (1936).

An san Ferber don yin furuci da kuma saurin wayo.A wani lokaci,ta ja-goranci sauran baƙi Yahudawa wajen barin liyafar gida bayan ta san mai masaukin baki yana adawa da Yahudawa. Wata rana bayan wani mutum ya yi ba'a game da yadda kwat dinta ya yi kama da namiji,sai ta amsa da cewa, "Haka ma naku."

Muhimmancin shaidar Yahudawa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Tun daga 1922,Ferber ta fara ziyartar Turai sau ɗaya ko sau biyu a shekara don shekaru goma sha uku ko goma sha huɗu. [3] A wannan lokacin kuma ba kamar yawancin Amurkawa ba,ta shiga cikin damuwa saboda hayewar jam'iyyar Nazi da kuma yada kyamar baki da ta fuskanta a lokacin kuruciyarta.Ta yi tsokaci game da wannan na cewa, “Abu ne mai ban tsoro ka ga wata nahiya–wayewa–tana rugujewa a idon mutum.Tsari ne mai sauri kuma da alama babu makawa wanda babu wanda ya ba da wata kulawa ta musamman.” [2] Tsoronta ya yi tasiri sosai a aikinta, wanda galibi yana nuna jigogi na wariyar launin fata da al'adu. Tarihin tarihinta na 1938, A Peculiar Treasure,asali ya haɗa da sadaukarwa ga Adolf Hitler wanda ya ce:

Ga Adolf Hitler, wanda ya sanya ni zama Bayahude mafi kyau kuma mutum mai fahimta, kamar yadda yake da miliyoyin sauran Yahudawa, wannan littafin an keɓe shi cikin ƙiyayya da raini.

Yayin da aka canja wannan sa’ad da aka buga littafin,har yanzu yana nuni ga barazanar Nazi. [3] Ta yawaita ambaton nasarar Yahudawa a cikin littafinta,tana ishara da kuma son nuna ba kawai nasarar yahudawa ba,amma Yahudawa suna iya amfani da hakan kuma suna yin nasara. [3]

Algonquin Round Table[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ferber lta ta kasance memba na Algonquin Round Table,ƙungiyar masu hankali da suka hadu da abincin rana kowace rana a Algonquin Hotel a New York.Ferber da wani memba na Round Table, Alexander Woolcott,sun kasance abokan gaba na dogon lokaci,rashin amincewarsu har zuwa mutuwar Woolcott a 1943,ko da yake Howard Teichmann ya bayyana a cikin tarihinsa na Woolcott cewa rashin fahimtar juna ya kasance saboda rashin fahimta.A cewar Teichmann,Ferber ta taɓa kwatanta Woolcott a matsayin " Nero na New Jersey wanda ya yi kuskuren pinafore na toga ".

Ferber ta haɗu tare da memba na Round Table George S.Kaufman akan wasan kwaikwayo da yawa da aka gabatar akan Broadway:Minick (1924), The Royal Family (1927), Dinner At takwas (1932),The Land Is Bright (1941), Stage Door (1936),da Bravo! (1948).

Ra'ayin Siyasa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A wata kuri'ar jin ra'ayin jama'a da wata jaridar ta Asabar Review of Literature ta gudanar,inda ta tambayi marubutan Amurka wane dan takarar shugaban kasa ne suka goyi bayan zaben 1940,Ferber yana cikin marubutan da suka amince da Franklin D. Roosevelt. [4]

Halayen ayyuka[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Litattafan litattafan Ferber gabaɗaya sun ƙunshi ƙwararrun jarumai mata, tare da ɗimbin arziki da tarin haruffa masu goyan baya. Ta kan bayyana aƙalla ƙaƙƙarfan hali guda ɗaya wanda ya fuskanci wariya, ƙabila ko waninsa.

Ayyukan Ferber sukan shafi ƙananan al'adun Amurkawa,kuma wani lokaci suna faruwa a wurare masu ban sha'awa da ta ziyarta amma ba ta saba da su ba,kamar Texas ko Alaska.Ta haka ta taimaka wajen nuna bambancin al'adun Amurka ga waɗanda ba su da damar dandana shi.An saita wasu litattafai a wuraren da ba ta ziyarta ba.

Legacy[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Art, nishaɗi, da kafofin watsa labarai[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Jarumar Lili Taylor ce ta bayyana Ferber a cikin fim din Mrs. Parker da Muguwar Circle (1994).
  • A cikin 2008, Laburare na Amurka ya zaɓi labarin Ferber "Miss Ferber Views 'Vultures' at Trial" don haɗawa a cikin abubuwan da ya faru na karni na biyu na Laifukan Gaskiya na Amurka.
  • A ranar 29 ga Yuli, 2002, a garinsu na Appleton, Wisconsin, Ma'aikatar Wasikun Amurka ta fitar da tambarin buga tambarin 83 ¢ Distinguished Americans na girmama ta. Mawallafin Mark Summers, sananne ne don fasaha na katako, ya ƙirƙiri wannan hoton don tambarin da ke nuna hoton Ferber baƙar fata da fari da aka ɗauka a 1927.
  • Sigar almara ta Edna Ferber ta bayyana a taƙaice azaman hali a littafin Philipp Meyer 's The Son (2013).
  • Wani ƙarin ƙagaggen sigar Edna Ferber, tare da ita a matsayin jarumar, ya bayyana a cikin jerin litattafai masu ban mamaki ta Ed Ifkovic kuma ta buga Poisoned Pen Press, gami da Downtown Strut: An Edna Ferber Mystery, wanda aka rubuta a cikin 2013.
  • A cikin 2013, an shigar da Ferber a cikin Zauren Adabin Adabin Chicago na Fame.
  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Gilbert 2000.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Ferber 1939.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Empty citation (help) Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name ":3" defined multiple times with different content
  4. "Among those who have stated they will vote for President Roosevelt are Edna Ferber..." "Editorial: Presidential Poll", Saturday Review of Literature. November 2, 1940 (p.8).


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