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Haƙƙoƙin yan asalin ƙasa

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Haƙƙoƙin yan asalin ƙasa
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Ƙaramin ɓangare na Haƙƙoƙi, Hakkokin Yan-adam da political movement (en) Fassara

Haƙƙoƙin ƴan asalin ƙasa su ne haƙƙoƙin da ke wanzuwa don sanin takamaiman yanayin ƴan asalin ƙasar . Wannan ya haɗa da ba kawai mafi mahimman haƙƙoƙin ɗan adam na rayuwa da amincin jiki ba, har ma da haƙƙin kan ƙasarsu (ciki har da taken asali ), harshe, addini, da sauran abubuwan al'adun gargajiya waɗanda wani yanki ne na wanzuwarsu da asalinsu a matsayin mutane. . Ana iya amfani da wannan a matsayin magana don bayar da shawarwari na ƙungiyoyin zamantakewa, ko Kuma samar da wani ɓangare na dokar ƙasa wajen kafa dangantaka tsakanin gwamnati da 'yancin cin gashin kai a tsakanin 'yan asalinta, ko a cikin dokokin kasa da kasa a matsayin kariya daga keta haddi. haƙƙin ƴan ƙasa ta ayyukan gwamnatoci ko ƙungiyoyin buƙatun sirri.

Ma'anar da tarihin tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Haƙƙoƙin ƴan asali na waɗanda, kasancewarsu ƴan asalin ƙasar, Kuma ana siffanta su da kasancewarsu mutanen ƙasar da aka mamaye da kuma mulkin mallaka daga waje.

Ainihin wanene wani yanki na ƴan asalin ƙasar ana jayayya, amma ana iya fahinta sosai dangane da mulkin mallaka. Idan muka yi maganar ’yan asali muna magana ne kan al’ummomin da suke tun kafin mulkin mallaka da ke fuskantar wata barazana ta musamman daga wannan al’amari na mamaya, sannan da kuma alakar da wadannan al’ummomi suke da su da ‘yan mulkin mallaka. Ma'anar ma'anar su wanene ƴan asalin ƙasar, da kuma yanayin masu haƙƙi, ya bambanta. Kasancewa ma haɗa kai ana ɗaukarsa mara kyau kamar rashin haɗawa.

A cikin yanayin ’yan asalin zamani na Turawan mulkin mallaka.  ana iya gano fahimtar haƙƙin ƴan asalin zuwa aƙalla lokacin Renaissance . Kuma Tare da tabbatar da mulkin mallaka tare da manufa mafi girma ga masu mulkin mallaka da masu mulkin mallaka, wasu muryoyin sun nuna damuwa game da yadda ake kula da 'yan asalin asali da kuma tasirinsa ga al'ummominsu. A cikin daular Sipaniya, kambi ya kafa Babban Kotun Indiya a Mexico da kuma a cikin Peru, Kuma tare da hukunce-hukuncen shari'o'in da suka shafi ƴan asalin ƙasar da nufin kare Indiyawa daga musgunawa. An sami damar samun damar Indiyawa zuwa kotun ta hanyar ƙaramin haraji wanda ke biyan masu taimaka wa lauyoyi. [1] [2]

Batun hakkin ƴan asalin kuma yana da alaƙa da sauran matakan gwagwarmayar ɗan adam. Kuma Saboda dangantaka ta kut-da-kut tsakanin al'adu da tattalin arziƙin ƴan asalin ƙasar da yanayin muhallinsu, al'amuran haƙƙin ƴan asalin suna da alaƙa da damuwa game da sauyin muhalli da ci gaba mai dorewa . A cewar masana kimiyya da kungiyoyi irin su Rainforest Foundation, gwagwarmayar 'yan asalin kasar yana da mahimmanci don magance matsalar rage yawan iskar carbon, da kuma fuskantar barazana ga al'adu da bambancin halittu gaba ɗaya.

Wakilci[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Hakkoki, da'awar har ma da ainihin ƴan asalin ƙasar ana kama su, an yarda da su kuma ana kiyaye su daban-daban daga gwamnati zuwa gwamnati. Ƙungiyoyi daban-daban sun kasance tare da sharuɗɗa don inganta (ko aƙalla yarda) buri na ƴan asalin, Sannna kuma al'ummomin ƴan asalin galibi sun haɗu wuri ɗaya don kafa ƙungiyoyi waɗanda ke neman haɗin gwiwa don cimma muradun al'umma.

Ƙungiyoyin duniya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Akwai ƙungiyoyin farar hula masu zaman kansu da dama, Kuma cibiyoyin sadarwa, ƙungiyoyin ƴan asali da na ƴan asalin waɗanda manufar kafa su ita ce kare haƙƙoƙin ƴan asalin, gami da haƙƙin ƙasa . Wadannan kungiyoyi da cibiyoyin sadarwa da kungiyoyi suna jadada cewa matsalolin da ‘yan asalin kasar ke fuskanta shi ne rashin sanin cewa sun cancanci rayuwa ta yadda suka zaba, da kuma rashin ‘yancin mallakar filayensu da yankunansu. Sannan kumaManufar su ita ce kare haƙƙin ƴan asalin ƙasar ba tare da sanya jihohi su sanya ra'ayinsu na "ci gaba". Wadannan kungiyoyi sun ce kowace al'ada ta asali ta bambanta, mai cike da imani na addini, tsarin rayuwa, abinci da fasaha, kuma tushen matsalar shi ne tsoma baki a rayuwarsu ta hanyar rashin mutunta 'yancinsu, da kuma yadda za a magance su. mamaye kasashen gargajiya da manyan kamfanoni da kananan sana'o'i ke yi don cin gajiyar albarkatun kasa .

Majalisar Dinkin Duniya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An wakilta ƴan asalin ƙasar da bukatunsu a Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ta farko ta hanyar tsarin Ƙungiyar Aiki akan Yawan Jama'ar Yan Asalin . A cikin Afrilu shekarata 2000 Hukumar Majalisar Dinkin Duniya kan 'Yancin Dan Adam ta zartar da wani kuduri na kafa Majalisar Dinkin Duniya na dindindin kan al'amuran 'yan asalin kasar (PFII) a matsayin kungiyar ba da shawara ga Majalisar Tattalin Arziki da Zamantakewa tare da ba da izini na sake duba batutuwan 'yan asali.

A ƙarshen Disamba a shekarata 2004, Babban taron Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ya ayyana shekarar 2005–2014 a matsayin shekaru goma na duniya na biyu na 'yan asalin duniya . Babban burin sabbin shekaru goma dai shi ne karfafa hadin gwiwar kasa da kasa wajen warware matsalolin da 'yan asalin kasar ke fuskanta a fannonin al'adu, ilimi, kiwon lafiya, 'yancin dan Adam, muhalli, da ci gaban zamantakewa da tattalin arziki.

A watan Satumba na shekarar 2007, bayan wani tsari na shirye-shirye, tattaunawa da shawarwari tun daga shekarar 1982, babban taron ya amince da sanarwar 'yancin 'yan asalin asali . Sanarwar da ba ta dauri ba ta bayyana haƙƙin ɗaiɗai da na gamayya na ƴan asalin ƙasar, da kuma haƙƙinsu na ainihi, al'adu, harshe, aikin yi, lafiya, ilimi da sauran batutuwa. Kasashe hudu da ke da yawan 'yan asalin kasar sun kada kuri'ar kin amincewa da sanarwar: Amurka, Kanada, New Zealand da Ostiraliya. Tuni dai dukkansu hudu suka sauya kuri'ar amincewa. Da Kasashe 11 ne suka kaurace wa zaben: Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burundi, Colombia, Jojiya, Kenya, Nigeria, Russia, Samoa da Ukraine . Kasashe 34 ba su kada kuri'a ba, yayin da sauran kasashe 143 suka kada kuri'a.

Farashin 169[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

ILO 169 yarjejeniya ce ta Ƙungiyar Kwadago ta Duniya . Sannan kuma Da zarar wata jiha ta amince da shi, ana nufin yin aiki a matsayin doka mai kare haƙƙin kabilanci. Kuma Akwai tsira da amincin jiki ashirin da biyu, amma kuma kiyaye ƙasarsu, harshe da haƙƙoƙin addini . ILO tana wakiltar haƙƙoƙin ƴan asalin ne saboda su ne ƙungiyar da ta tilasta aiwatar da yarjejeniyar da haƙƙoƙin ƴan asalin keɓe.

Ƙungiyar Ƙasashen Amirka[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Tun daga Shekaratab1997, al'ummomin Ƙungiyar Ƙasashen Amurka suna tattaunawa game da daftarin juzu'in sanarwar da Amurka ta gabatar kan 'yancin ƴan asali. "Bayanin daftarin a halin yanzu yana ɗaya daga cikin muhimman matakai da ake gudanarwa dangane da haƙƙin 'yan asalin ƙasar Amirka" kamar yadda Ƙungiyar Ayyuka ta Duniya don Harkokin 'Yan Asalin ta ambata.

Ta ƙasa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ostiraliya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

See also: Indigenous land rights in Australia, Native title in Australia, 1967 Australian referendum (Aboriginals), Uluru Statement from the Heart, and Maori voting rights in Australia

Kanada[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

In Canada "Aboriginal rights" (French: droits ancestraux) are those rights that indigenous peoples enjoy as a result of their ancestors' long occupancy of the land, for example the right to hunt and fish a particular territory. These are distinct from "treaty rights" which are enumerated in specific agreements between indigenous groups and the state. Both treaty rights and Aboriginal rights are protected by Section 35 of the Canadian constitution of 1982.

Denmark[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

'Yan asalin Greenland sun sami mulkin gida a cikin 1979 kuma sun ba da mulkin kai a cikin 2009.

Duba wasu abubuwan[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Woodrow Borah, The General Indian Court of Mexico and the Legal Aides of the Half-Real. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press 1983.
  2. Woodrow Borah, "Juzgado General de Indios del Perú o juzgado particular de indios de El Cercado de Lima." Revista chilena de historia del derecho, no. 6 (1970): 129-142.

Hanyoyin haɗi na waje[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]