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Harshen Bambara

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Harshen Bambara
Bamanankan
'Yan asalin magana
2,700,000
Masaba (en) Fassara, Baƙaƙen boko, Baƙaƙen boko, N'Ko (en) Fassara da Ajami
Lamban rijistar harshe
ISO 639-1 bm
ISO 639-2 bam
ISO 639-3 bam
Glottolog bamb1269[1]

Bambara, ߓߡߊߣߊ߲‎ aka fi sani da Bamana (N'Ko script) ko Bamanankan (N' Ko script; Larabci script), yare ne na gari da harshen ƙasa na Mali wanda kimanin mutane miliyan 14 ke magana da shi, asalin Mutanen Bambara miliyan 4.1 da kimanin masu amfani da Harshe na biyu miliyan 10. [2] An kiyasta cewa kusan kashi 80 cikin 100 na yawan mutanen Mali suna magana da Bambara a matsayin yare na farko ko na biyu. Yana da tsarin sashi na batun-abu-kalma da sautuna biyu.[ana buƙatar hujja]

Rarraba[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Bambara wani rukuni na harsuna masu alaƙa da juna da ake kira Manding, waɗanda masu magana da su na asali suka gano tarihin al'adunsu zuwa Daular Mali ta zamani. ɗaukar nau'ikan Manding gabaɗaya (a tsakanin masu magana da asali) don fahimtar juna - ya dogara da fallasawa ko saba da yaruka tsakanin masu magana - kuma mutane miliyan 30 zuwa 40 ne ke magana a cikin ƙasashen Burkina Faso, Senegal, Guinea-Bissau" id="mwMA" rel="mw:WikiLink" title="Guinea-Bissau">Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Laberiya, Ivory Coast da Gambiya. Manding wani bangare ne na manyan dangin Mandé na harsuna.

Yankin rarraba[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ana magana da Bambara a ko'ina cikin Mali a matsayin harshen magana. Ana magana da yaren a yankunan gabas, kudu, da arewacin Bamako, inda masu magana da asali da / ko waɗanda ke nuna kansu a matsayin membobin ƙabilar Bambara suka fi yawan jama'a. Wadannan yankuna galibi ana daukar a matsayin asalin tarihin mutanen Bambara, musamman Ségou, bayan sun rabu da sauran kungiyoyin Manding.

Harsuna[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Babban yaren shine Standard Bamara, wanda ke da tasiri mai mahimmanci daga Maninkakan. Bambara tana da yaruka da yawa na gida: Kaarta, Tambacounda (yamma); Beledugu, Bananba, Mesekele (arewa); Jitumu, Jamaladugu, Segu (cibiyar); Cakadugu, Keleyadugu, Jalakadougu, Kurulamini, Banimɔn, Cɛmala, Penovndugu, Baninkɔ, Shɛndugu (kudu); Kala, Kuruma, Saro, yaruka zuwa arewa maso gabashin Mopugu (musamman, Zegka).

Rubuce-rubuce[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Shafi daga Grammaire da hanyar Bambara ta Francis Delaforge (1949)

Tun daga shekara ta 1967, an rubuta Bambara galibi a cikin Rubutun Latin, ta amfani da wasu ƙarin haruffa. Sau sunE.C.E. a, e, ɛ (tsohon è) , i, o, ɔ (tsohon ò), u; ana iya amfani da ƙamus don nuna sautin. Tsohon digraph 'ny' yanzu an rubuta shi ɲ lokacin da ya nuna alamar hanci; ana adana rubutun ny don haɗuwa da wasula ta hanci tare da sautin baki na gaba. Bayan taron rubutun Bamako na 1966, an rubuta fasalin hanci "nk" data-linkid="178" href="./ŋ" id="mwXg" rel="mw:WikiLink" title="Ŋ">ŋ" a matsayin "ŋ", kodayake a cikin wallafe-wallafen farko ana rubuta shi sau da yawa a matsayin ng ko nk.

The N'Ko (Samfuri:Lang-nqo) alphabet is a script devised by Solomana Kante in 1949 as a writing system for the Manding languages of West Africa; N’Ko means 'I say' in all Manding languages. Kante created N’Ko in response to what he felt were beliefs that Africans were a "cultureless people" since prior to this time there had been no indigenous African writing system for his language. N'ko first gained a strong user base around the Maninka-speaking area of Kante's hometown of Kankan, Guinea and disseminated from there into other Manding-speaking parts of West Africa. N'ko and the Arabic script are still in use for Bambara, although only the Latin-based orthography is officially recognized in Mali.

Rubutun Latin[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Yana amfani da wasula bakwai a, e, ɛ, i, o, ɔ da u, kowannensu ana iya sa shi nasalized, pharyngealized da murmured, yana ba da jimlar wasula 21 (haruffa suna kusa da kwatankwacin IPA).  [ana buƙatar hujja][ana buƙatar ƙa'ida] Rubuta tare da haruffa na Latin ya fara ne a lokacin mulkin mallaka na Faransa, kuma an gabatar da rubutun farko a cikin 1967. Ilimi yana da iyaka, musamman a yankunan karkara. Kodayake rubuce-rubucen rubuce-aikacen suna canzawa ne kawai a hankali (saboda rinjaye na Faransanci a matsayin "harshe na masu ilimi"), akwai wadataccen wallafe-wallafen baki, wanda sau da yawa tatsuniyoyin sarakuna da jarumawa ne. Wannan wallafe-wallafen baki galibi ana ba da shi ta hanyar griots (Jeliw a Bambara) waɗanda suka haɗu da Masu ba da labari, mawaƙa masu yabo, da littattafan tarihin ɗan adam waɗanda suka yi nazarin kasuwancin waka da karatun shekaru da yawa. Yawancin waƙoƙinsu tsofaffi ne kuma an ce sun koma tsohuwar daular Mali.

Harshen haruffa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • A - a - [a]
  • B - zama - [b]
  • C - wannan - [t͡ʃ]
  • D - daga - [d]
  • E - da - [e]
  • Ɛ - ɛ - [ɛ]
  • F - ef - [f]
  • G - ge - [g]
  • H - ha - [h]
  • I - i - [i]
  • J - ni - [d͡ʒ]
  • K - ka - [k]
  • L - ɛl - [l]
  • M - Queen - [m]
  • N - ya yi la'akari da shi
  • Йы - ɲe - [ɲ]
  • Ŋ - ɛŋ - [ŋ]
  • O - o - [o]
  • O - ɔ - [ɔ]
  • P - pe - [p]
  • R - ɛr - [r]
  • S - 167 - [s]
  • T - ka - ka [t]
  • U - u - [u]
  • W - wa - [w]
  • Y - kai - [j]
  • Z - ze - [z]

Sauran[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • kh - [ɣ] (an yi amfani da shi don kalmomin aro daga wasu harsunan Afirka)
  • -n - sautin hanci
  • sh - ita - [ʃ] (bambancin yanki na s)

Rubuce-rubucen N'ko[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Sautin sautin[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • An yi amfani da ita a - [a]
  • An yi amfani da ita a matsayin
  • Sanya - da - [i]
  • An yi amfani da ita a matsayin
  • An yi amfani da shi a matsayin
  • An yi amfani da shi a matsayin
  • An yi amfani da shi a matsayin

Sautin da aka yi amfani da shi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • An ba - [b]
  • Sanya - [p]
  • An yi amfani da ita a matsayin
  • Sanya - ja - [d͡ʒ]
  • Sanya - ca - [t͡ʃ]
  • An yi amfani da ita a matsayin
  • Sanya - ra - [r]
  • Sanya - sa - [s]
  • Wannan shi ne? - ga - [g/ʀ/ɣ]
  • Sanya - [ɡ͡b]
  • An yi amfani da ita a matsayin [f]
  • Ka - [k]
  • An yi amfani da ita a matsayin
  • An yi amfani da ita a matsayin
  • Za a yi amfani da shi a matsayin mai suna "Shay"
  • An yi amfani da shi ko kuma ya yi amfani da su
  • An yi amfani da shi a matsayin
  • An yi amfani da shi a matsayin [w]
  • Sanya - ya - [j]
  • Sanya - ha - [h]
  • Sashin sautin hanci - [-̃]

Sauti[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • An yi amfani da shi a takaice
  • An yi taƙaice - ƙasa
  • Tsawon tsawo - tsawo
  • Tsawon - ƙasa

Fasahar sauti[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Sautin da aka yi amfani da shi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Labari Alveolar Palatal Velar Gishiri
Hanci m n ɲ ŋ
Plosive p b t d SashenYanayinSanya d͡ʒ ShaanYa kamata a yi amfani da shiSanya k ɡ
Fricative f s z (ʃ) (ɣ) ƘasashenYa kamata a yi amfani da shiSanya h
Kusanci w l j zama hakaYa kamata a yi amfani da shiSanya
Trill r

Kowane ma'anar tana wakiltar sauti guda ɗaya tare da wasu banbanci:

  • "W" ana furta shi kamar yadda yake a Turanci (misali jira) sai dai a ƙarshen kalma, lokacin da alama ce ta jam'i kuma ana furta ta a matsayin [u].
  • "S" ana furta shi sau da yawa kamar yadda yake a cikin kalmar Ingilishi "duba" amma wani lokacin ana furta su a matsayin "sh" [ʃ] kamar yadda yake cikin kalmar "takalma" ko kuma a matsayin [z].
  • "G" ana furta shi sau da yawa kamar yadda yake a cikin kalmar Ingilishi "go" amma a tsakiyar kalma, ana iya furta shi kamar yadda yake cikin kalmar Mutanen Espanya "abogado" ([ɣ]) kuma wani lokacin a farkon kalma kamar [gw].

Sautin sautin[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A gaba Tsakiya Komawa
Kusa i iː ĩYa kasance u uː ũA cikin su
Tsakanin Tsakiya eːda kuma: ẽSai dai oːo õYankin
Bude-tsakiya ɛ ɛː ɛ̃ O.A.ɔː ɔ̃
Bude a aː ã

Harshen harshe[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Tsarin jumla na asali shine batun-abu-kalma (SOV). Ɗauki jumlar, n t'a lon (Ban sani ba). a">n shine batun (I), a shine abu (shi), kuma [ta] lon shine aikatau ([to] sani). T' ya fito ne daga alamar halin yanzu mara kyau té, bé ka alamar halin yanzu mai tabbatarwa (n b'a don zai nufin "Na san shayi"). Kamar yawancin harsunan SOV, Bambara yana amfani da postpositions maimakon prepositions - rawar da suke takawa tana kama da prepositions na Turanci amma an sanya ta bayan sunan.

Harshen yana da <i id="mwAXk"><i id="mwAXo">sa</i></i> biyu (tsakiyar / daidaitattun da kuma sama); misali sa 'mutuwa' vs. sá 'macijin.' Tsarin jayayya na harshe ya ƙunshi batun, wanda ya biyo bayan taimakon aspectival, wanda ya bi abu kai tsaye, kuma a ƙarshe kalma mai wucewa.

Bambara ba ya canzawa ga jinsi. Za'a iya ƙayyade jinsi don suna ta hanyar ƙara adjective, - Turi ko -kɛ don namiji da -muso don mace. An kafa jam'i ta hanyar haɗa ƙayyadaddun ƙayyadadden -u, galibi tare da sautin ƙasa (a cikin orthography, -w) zuwa sunaye ko adjectives.

Kalmomin aro[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A cikin birane, an maye gurbin haɗin Bamanankan da yawa a cikin amfani na yau da kullun ta hanyar aro na Faransanci wanda sau da yawa ke nuna sauya lambar. Yaren Bamako yana amfani da jimloli kamar: N tara Kita amma babu wanda yake can.N tara Kita amma babu wanda yake a can.: Na tafi Kita [Bamanankan ] amma babu wanda a can [Faransanci]. Hukuncin a cikin Bamanankan kadai zai zama tara Kita nka mɔkɔ si tun tɛ yen. Ana amfani da ra'ayin Faransanci "est-ce que" a cikin Bamanankan; duk da haka, ana furta shi a hankali kuma a matsayin sashi uku, [ɛsikə].

Bamanankan yana amfani da kalmomin aro na Faransanci da yawa. Misali, wasu mutane na iya cewa: I ka kurusi ye nere ye: "Kafãku yana da rawaya" (ta amfani da fitowar rawaya, kalmar Faransanci don rawaya, galibi suna amfani da joni.)

Koyaya, mutum zai iya cewa: I ka kulosi ya nɛrɛmuku' ye, wanda ke nufin "kayanka yana da rawaya". Kalmar Bamanankan ta asali don rawaya ta fito ne daga "nɛrɛmuku," kasancewa gari (muku) da aka yi daga néré (ya'yan itace), iri daga doguwar iri. Ana amfani da Nɛrɛmuku sau da yawa a cikin sauces a Kudancin Mali.

Most French loan words are suffixed with the sound 'i'; this is particularly common when using French words which have a meaning not traditionally found in Mali. For example, the Bamanankan word for snow is niegei, based on the French word for snow neige. As there has never been snow in Mali, there was no unique word in Bamanankan to describe it.

Misalan[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  

  1. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Harshen Bambara". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. Bambara at Ethnologue (26th ed., 2023) Closed access icon

Masu zane-zane na Mali kamar su Oumou Sangaré, Sidiki Diabaté, Fatoumata Diawara, Rokia Traoré, Ali Farka Touré, Habib Koité da ma'aurata Amadou & Mariam galibi suna raira waƙa a Bambara. Kalmomin a cikin Bambara sun faru ne a kan Stevie Wonder's Journey Through "The Secret Life of Plants".

Bugu da ƙari, a cikin 2010, ƙungiyar mawaƙa ta Mutanen Espanya Dover ta fitar da kundi na 7 na I Ka Kené tare da mafi yawan kalmomin a cikin harshen. Har ila yau, rapper na Amurka Nas ya fitar da waƙar da ake kira "Sabali" a cikin 2010, wanda ya ƙunshi Damian Marley . Sabali kalma ce ta Bambara wacce ke nufin haƙuri.

Matsayi na Shari'a[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Bambara [1] kasance har zuwa 2023 ɗaya daga cikin harsuna da yawa da Mali ta sanya a matsayin harshen ƙasa.

Bayanan da aka ambata[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Bayani[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

 

Tushen[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Haɗin waje[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Bayani[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Littattafan ƙamus[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Maliyiri.com shafin yanar gizo ne wanda ke ba da fassarorin Turanci-Bambara-Faransa kuma aikin al'umma ne inda masu amfani zasu iya ƙara sabbin kalmomi, sharhi, samar da ra'ayoyi da bin juna.
  • Corpus Bambara de Référence - Etiquetage online da saukewa Bambara-French Dictionary (kimanin shigarwa 11,500 a ƙarshen 2014), tare da lissafin Faransanci-Bambara, wanda ke da alaƙa da Corpus B Barbara de Référence
  • Wani ka taa's Mobile-friendly Bambara-English dictionary wanda ya hada da Faransanci da Jula.
  • Rubutun Bambara (>2300) a cikin Wiktionary na Faransanci
  • Bambara-Faransa-Turanci ƙamus a kan layi da ƙamus masu saukewa don masu koyon harshe
  • Sunayen bishiyoyin Bambara (sunan kimiyya -> sunan gama gari)

Kayan ilmantarwa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Sauran haruffa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

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