James Joyce

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Simpleicons Interface user-outline.svg James Joyce
James Joyce by Alex Ehrenzweig, 1915 cropped.jpg
Rayuwa
Cikakken suna James Augustine Aloysius Joyce
Haihuwa Rathgar (en) Fassara, 2 ga Faburairu, 1882
ƙasa Ireland
Mazauni avenue Charles-Floquet (en) Fassara
avenue Charles-Floquet (en) Fassara
Harshen uwa Turanci
Mutuwa Zürich (en) Fassara, 13 ga Janairu, 1941
Makwanci Fluntern Cemetery (en) Fassara
Yanayin mutuwa  (peritonitis (en) Fassara)
Ƴan uwa
Mahaifi John Stanislaus Joyce
Abokiyar zama Nora Barnacle (en) Fassara  (1931 -  13 ga Janairu, 1941)
Ma'aurata Nora Barnacle (en) Fassara
Yara
Ahali Stanislaus Joyce (en) Fassara
Karatu
Makaranta Belvedere College (en) Fassara
Clongowes Wood College (en) Fassara
University College Dublin (en) Fassara
(1898 - 1902)
Harsuna Italiyanci
Harshen Latin
Faransanci
Turanci
Jamusanci
Danish (en) Fassara
Sana'a
Sana'a maiwaƙe, Marubuci, mai koyarwa, author (en) Fassara, marubuci, ɗan jarida, literary critic (en) Fassara da prosaist (en) Fassara
Tsayi 71 in
Wurin aiki Faris, Trieste (en) Fassara da Zürich (en) Fassara
Muhimman ayyuka Dubliners (en) Fassara
A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man (en) Fassara
Ulysses (en) Fassara
Finnegans Wake (en) Fassara
Pomes Penyeach (en) Fassara
Exiles (en) Fassara
Stephen Hero (en) Fassara
Wanda ya ja hankalinsa Giambattista Vico (en) Fassara
Artistic movement fiction literature (en) Fassara
waƙa
psychological fiction (en) Fassara
Bildungsroman (en) Fassara
stream of consciousness (en) Fassara
Imani
Addini Katolika
IMDb nm0004656
jamesjoyce.ie
James Joyce signature.svg
Portrait of James Joyce
Joyce in Zürich by Conrad Ruf (c. 1918)

James Augustine Aloysius Joyce (2 Fabrairu 1882 - 13 Janairu 1941) mawallafi kuma marubucin Irish ne, mawaƙi, kuma Literary critic. Ya ba da gudummawa ga ƙungiyoyin avant-garde na zamani kuma ana ɗaukarsa a matsayin ɗaya daga cikin mafi tasiri da mahimman marubuta na ƙarni na 20. Littafin Joyce's novel Ulysses (1922) alama ce ta ƙasa wacce sassan Homer 's Odyssey suka yi daidai da salo iri-iri na adabi, musamman stream of consciousness. Sauran sanannun ayyukan su ne tarin gajerun labarai na Dubliners (1914), da litattafai A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man (1916) da Finnegans Wake (1939). Sauran rubuce-rubucensa sun haɗa da littattafai guda uku na waƙoƙi, wasan kwaikwayo, haruffa, da aikin jarida lokaci-lokaci.

An haifi Joyce a Dublin cikin dangi mai matsakaicin matsayi. Ya halarci Kwalejin Jesuit Clongwees Wood a cikin County Kildare, sannan, a takaice, Makarantar O'Connell ta Brothers Kirista. Duk da rikice-rikicen rayuwar iyali da kuɗin mahaifinsa ya sanya, ya yi fice a Kwalejin Jesuit Belvedere kuma ya sauke karatu daga Kwalejin Jami'ar Dublin a 1902. A cikin karni na 1904, ya hadu da matarsa Nora Barnacle kuma suka koma babban yankin Turai. Ya ɗan yi aiki a Pula sannan ya koma Trieste a Austria-Hungary, yana aiki a matsayin malamin Ingilishi. Ban da zama na wata takwas a Roma tana aiki a matsayin magatakardar wasiku da ziyara uku a Dublin, Joyce ya zauna a can har 1915. A cikin Trieste, ya buga littafinsa na waƙoƙin Chamber Music da ɗan gajeren labarinsa na Dubliners, kuma ya fara buga jerin abubuwan da aka buga A Portrait of Artist a matsayin matashi a cikin mujallar Turanci The Egoist. A lokacin yawancin yakin duniya na daya, Joyce ya zauna a Zürich, Switzerland kuma ya yi aiki a Ulysses. Bayan yakin, ya koma Trieste a takaice, sannan ya koma Paris a 1920, wanda ya zama mazauninsa na farko har zuwa 1940.

An fara buga Ulysses a birnin Paris a shekara ta 1922, amma an hana buga shi a Burtaniya da Amurka saboda yadda ake ganin batsa acikin sa. An shigo da kwafin zuwa ƙasashen biyu kuma an buga nau'ikan masu fashin teku har zuwa tsakiyar 1930s, lokacin da littafin ya zama doka. Joyce ya fara babban aikinsa na gaba, Finnegans Wake, a cikin 1923, ya buga shi a shekaru goma sha shida daga baya a 1939. A tsakanin waɗannan shekarun, Joyce ya yi tafiye-tafiye da yawa. Shi da Nora sun yi aure a wani bikin farar hula a London a cikin 1930. Ya yi tafiye-tafiye da yawa zuwa Switzerland, akai-akai yana neman magani don ƙara tsananta masa matsalolin ido da taimakon tunani ga 'yarsa, Lucia. Lokacin da Jamus ta mamaye Faransa a lokacin yakin duniya na biyu, Joyce ya koma Zürich a shekara ta 1940. Ya rasu a can ne a shekarar 1941 bayan tiyatar da aka yi masa na ciwon Ulser, kasa da wata guda kafin cikarsa shekaru 59 da haihuwa.

Ulysses akai-akai yana da matsayi mai girma a cikin jerin manyan littattafan adabi, kuma adabin ilimi da ke nazarin aikinsa yana da yawa kuma yana ci gaba. Yawancin marubuta, masu yin fina-finai, da sauran masu fasaha sun sami tasiri ta hanyar sabbin hanyoyinsa na salo, kamar kulawar sa na musamman ga daki-daki, yin amfani da halal ɗin cikin gida, wasan kalmomi, da sauye-sauye na makirci na gargajiya da haɓaka halaye. Kodayake yawancin rayuwarsa balagaggu ya yi amfani da shi a ƙasashen waje, duniyar tatsuniyar sa tana kan Dublin kuma yawancin haruffa waɗanda ke kama da dangin dangi, abokan gaba da abokai daga lokacinsa a can. An kafa Ulysses musamman a kan tituna da titunan birnin. An jiyo Joyce tana cewa, “Ni kaina, koyaushe ina yin rubutu game da Dublin, domin idan na iya zuwa tsakiyar Dublin zan iya shiga zuciyar dukan biranen duniya. A cikin na musamman akwai duniya baki ɗaya." [1]

Ƙuruciya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

James Joyce at six in 1888 in sailor suit with hands in pocket, facing the camera
Hoton Joyce mai shekaru shida, 1888

An haifi Joyce a ranar 2 ga watan Fabrairu 1882 a 41 Brighton Square, Rathgar, Dublin, Ireland, [2] ga John Stanislaus Joyce da Mary Jane "May" (née Murray). Shi ne babba cikin ’yan’uwa goma da suka tsira. An yi masa baftisma da suna James Augustine Joyce [lower-alpha 1] bisa ga ibadar Cocin Roman Katolika a cikin majami'ar St Joseph na kusa a Terenure a ranar 5 ga watan Fabrairu 1882 ta Rev. John O'Mulloy karfinsu. [lower-alpha 2] Iyayen Ubangijinsa su ne Philip da Ellen McCann. [7] Iyalin John Stanislaus Joyce sun fito ne daga Fermoy a County Cork, inda suka mallaki karamin gishiri da ayyukan lemun tsami. Kakan mahaifin Joyce, James Augustine, ya auri Ellen O'Connell, 'yar John O'Connell, wani mai ba da shawara na Cork wanda ya mallaki kasuwancin drapery da sauran kadarori a Cork City. Iyalin Ellen sun yi iƙirarin kasancewa tare da shugaban siyasa Daniel O'Connell, wanda ya taimaka wajen tabbatar da 'yantar da Katolika ga Irish a cikin 1829. [7] Kakan dangin Joyce, Seán Mór Seoighe ya kasance mason dutse daga Connemara. [7]

An nada mahaifin Joyce mai karɓar kuɗi ta Kamfanin Dublin a 1887. Iyalin sun ƙaura zuwa ƙaramin garin Bray, 12 miles (19 km) daga Dublin. Wani kare ya kai wa Joyce hari a daidai wannan lokacin, wanda ya kai ga tsoron karnuka na tsawon rayuwarsa. [10] [lower-alpha 3] Daga baya ya fara jin tsoron tsawa, [12] wanda ya samu ta wurin wata inna mai camfi wacce ta siffanta su da alamar fushin Allah. [13] [lower-alpha 4]

A cikin 1891, Joyce mai shekaru tara ya rubuta waƙar " Et Tu, Healy" akan mutuwar Charles Stewart Parnell wanda mahaifinsa ya buga kuma ya rarraba wa abokai. Waƙar ta bayyana ra'ayoyin dattijon Joyce, wanda ya fusata a fili na cin amanar Parnell ta Ikilisiyar Katolika ta Irish, Jam'iyyar 'Yan Majalisun Irish, da Jam'iyyar Liberal ta Burtaniya wanda ya haifar da gazawar haɗin gwiwa don tabbatar da Dokar Gida ta Irish. a majalisar dokokin Burtaniya. [10] Wannan ma'anar cin amana, musamman ta coci, ya bar ra'ayi mai ɗorewa wanda Joyce ya bayyana a rayuwarsa da fasaha. [10]

A wannan shekarar, iyalinsa suka fara shiga cikin talauci, saboda shaye-shayen mahaifinsa da rashin kula da kuɗi. [19] An buga sunan John Joyce a cikin Stubbs' Gazette, baƙar fata na masu bashi da masu fatara, a cikin Nuwamba 1891, kuma an dakatar da shi na ɗan lokaci daga aiki. [20] A cikin watan Janairu 1893, an kore shi tare da rage fensho. [21]

Joyce ya fara karatunsa a 1888 a Kwalejin Clongwees Wood, makarantar kwana ta Jesuit kusa da Clane, County Kildare, amma dole ne ya tafi a 1891 lokacin da mahaifinsa ya kasa biyan kuɗin. [1] Ya yi karatu a gida kuma ya halarci Makarantar Brothers O'Connell a takaice a titin North Richmond, Dublin. Mahaifin Joyce ya sami damar ganawa da firist na Jesuit John Conmee, wanda ya san iyali. Conmee ya shirya don Joyce da ɗan'uwansa Stanislaus su halarci makarantar Jesuits 'Dublin, Kwalejin Belvedere, ba tare da kudade ba daga 1893. [1] A cikin 1895, Joyce, yanzu tana da shekaru 13, takwarorinsa sun zaba don shiga cikin Sodality of Our Lady. Joyce ya shafe shekaru biyar a Belvedere, tsarinsa na basira wanda ya jagoranci ka'idodin ilimin Jesuit da aka shimfida a cikin Ratio Studiorum (Shirin Nazarin). [11] Ya nuna basirarsa ta rubuce-rubuce ta hanyar lashe matsayi na farko don rubutun Ingilishi a cikin shekaru biyu na ƙarshe [11] kafin ya kammala karatunsa a 1898. [12]












Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

picture of the Newman House
Newman House, Dublin, wanda shine Kwalejin Jami'a a lokacin Joyce. [13]
  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Ellmann 1982.
  2. Bowker 2012.
  3. Costello 1992, p. 53.
  4. Ellmann 1982, p. 21.
  5. Ellmann 1982, p. 30.
  6. Costello 1992, p. 81.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Jackson & Costello 1998.
  8. Spielberg 1964, pp. 42–44.
  9. Ellmann 1982, pp. 513–514: Vignette cited from Power, Arthur (n.d.). From an Old Waterford House. London. p. 71.
  10. 10.0 10.1 McCaffrey 2006.
  11. 11.0 11.1 Sullivan 1958.
  12. Manglaviti 2000.
  13. NIAH n.d.


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