Korama

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Wikidata.svgKorama
Potok pod jezerom 1.jpg
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na natural watercourse (en) Fassara da
Award received (en) Fassara biotope of the year (en) Fassara
Aubach (Wiehl) in North Rhine-Westphalia, Jamus
Rocky rafi a Italiya
Ruwa mai sanyi a Enäjärvi, Pori, Finland
Gudun kusa da Montriond a kudu maso gabashin Faransa

Korama nau'in ruwa ne tare da saman ruwa yana gudana a cikin gado da bankunan tashar . Ana gudanar da kwararar rafi ta hanyar bayanai guda uku - ruwan saman, ruwan karkashin kasa da kuma ruwan ƙasa. Ruwa da ruwa na ƙarƙashin ƙasa suna canzawa sosai tsakanin lokutan ruwan sama. Ruwa na ƙasa, a gefe guda, yana da shigarwar da ba ta da yawa kuma ana sarrafa ta sosai ta tsarin ruwan sama na dogon lokaci. Ruwa ya ƙunshi saman ƙasa, ƙarƙashin ƙasa da ruwa mai gudana wanda ke amsa yanayin ƙasa, geomorphological, hydrological da biotic controls. [1]

Dangane da inda suke ko wasu halaye, ana iya ambaton rafi da sunaye iri -iri na yanki ko na yanki. Dogayen manyan rafuffuka galibi ana kiran su da koguna .

Kõramu suna da muhimmanci kamar yadda conduits a cikin ruwa sake zagayowar, kida a ruwan karkashin kasa recharge, kuma farfajiyoyi ga kifi da kuma namun dajin hijirarsa. Mazaunin halittu da ke kusa da rafi ana kiranta yankin rafi. Ganin matsayi na gudana Holocene nau'i nau'i, kõguna taka muhimmiyar corridor rawa a haɗa da fragmented habitats kuma haka a kare rabe-raben halittu . Nazarin rafuffuka da hanyoyin ruwa gabaɗaya an san su da ilimin halittar ruwa kuma shine babban ɓangaren yanayin muhalli .

Nau'ika[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Wani kogi mai dutse a cikin Spearfish Canyon, Dakota ta Kudu, Amurka
Creek babbling through Benvoulin, Canada, wetlands
Wyming Brook a cikin Sheffield, UK
Ƙananan rafi a cikin tafkin Parramatta, Sydney
Ƙananan rafi a cikin gundumar Macon, Illinois, Amurka

Koramar Brook[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Wani korama ne mai ƙanƙanta da rafi, musamman wanda ruwan bazara ko seep ke ciyar da shi. Shi ne yawanci kananan da kuma sauƙi forded . Rafi yana halin rashin zurfinsa.

Koramar Creek[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Rafi Creek ( /k r iː k / ) ko crick ( /k r ɪ k / ):

  • A kasar Ostiraliya, Kanada, New Zealand, da Amurka, rafi (kunkuntar) wanda ya yi ƙasa da kogi; ƙaramin sashin kogin; rafi. [7] Wani lokacin kewaya ta hanyar kera motoci kuma yana iya zama na lokaci -lokaci.
  • A cikin sassan Maryland, New England, UK da Indiya, mashigar ruwa, yawanci a cikin ruwan gishiri ko fadama na mangrove, ko tsakanin daɗaɗɗen da ya zubar da tsohon magudanar gishiri ko fadama (misali. Port Creek da ke raba tsibirin Portsea da babban yankin). A cikin wadannan lokuta, rafi ne tidal rafi, cikin shakka daga cikin seawater ta cikin creek tashar a low kuma high tide.

Kogi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Babban rafi wanda yake natural, wanda zai iya zama hanyar ruwa .

Runnel[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tasha ce na linzami tsakanin tsaka -tsaki ko sanduna a bakin tekun bakin teku ko ambaliyar kogi, ko tsakanin mashaya da tudu. Har ila yau ana kiranta swale .

Hanyoyin ruwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Cibiyar hanyar ruwa shine rafi mai ba da gudummawa, ko rafi wanda baya isa ga madaidaicin ruwa kamar tafki ko teku, amma ya shiga wani kogi (kogin iyaye). Wani lokaci kuma ana kiran reshe ko cokali mai yatsa. [8]

Mai rarrabawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Rarrabawa, ko tashar rarrabawa, korama ne wanda ke fita kuma yana gudana daga babban tashar rafi. Rarrabawa abu ne na kowa na kogin delta . An san abin da ake kira rabewar kogi . Sau da yawa ana samun abubuwan rarrabawa inda rafi ke kusanto tafki ko teku . Hakanan suna iya faruwa a cikin ƙasa, akan magoya bayan alluvial, ko kuma inda rafin da ke ƙarƙashin ruwa ke rarrafe yayin da yake gab da haɗuwa da babban rafi. Kalmomin gama gari don ba da sunan rabe-raben kogi a cikin ƙasashe masu magana da Ingilishi hannu ne da tashoshi .

Sauran sunaye[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Akwai adadin sunayen korama dangane da yankuna daban daban na duniya.

Ƙasar Ingila[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Ana amfani da kalmar Allt a tsaunukan Scotland .[ana buƙatar hujja]
  • Ana amfani da Beck a cikin Lincolnshire zuwa Cumbria a cikin yankunan da Danes da Norwegian suka mamaye.
  • Ana amfani da Bourne ko winterbourne a cikin allurar ƙasa ta Kudancin Ingila don koguna na yau da kullun. Lokacin dindindin, su magudanan ruwa ne .
  • Brook .
  • Kuna da ake amfani a Scotland da kuma North East England .
  • Ana ganin Gill ko ghyll a arewacin Ingila da Kent da Surrey wanda tsohon Norse yayi tasiri. Ana amfani da bambance -bambancen "ghyll" a cikin Gundumar Lake kuma da alama ya kasance ƙirƙira William Wordsworth .
  • Ana amfani da Nant a Wales.
  • Rivulet kalma ce da aka ci karo da ita a cikin littattafan zamanin Victoria.
  • Gudun ruwa
  • Ana amfani da Syke a cikin ƙasan Scotland da Cumbria don rafi na yanayi.

Amurka ta Arewa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Ana amfani da reshe a wajen sunan koramu a cikin Maryland da Virginia.
  • Creek ya zama ruwan dare a duk faɗin Amurka, da Australia.
  • Hakanan ana amfani da Falls don ambaton rafuffuka a cikin Maryland, don rafuffuka/koguna waɗanda ke da ruwa a kansu, koda kuwa irin wannan faduwar tana da ƙaramin digo a tsaye. Little Gunpowder Falls da Jones Falls a zahiri koguna ne masu suna ta wannan hanyar, ta musamman ga Maryland.[ana buƙatar hujja]
  • Kashe a New York, Pennsylvania, Delaware, da New Jersey sun fito ne daga kalmar yaren Dutch wanda ke nufin "kogi" ko "tashar ruwa", kuma ana iya amfani dashi don ma'anar UK 'creek'.
  • Gudun a Ohio, Maryland, Michigan, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Virginia, ko West Virginia na iya zama sunan rafi.
  • Gudu a Florida shine sunan da aka baiwa rafuffukan da ke fitowa daga ƙananan maɓuɓɓugar ruwa . River da ake amfani da kõguna daga fi girma marẽmari kamar Azurfa River da kuma Rainbow River .
  • Stream da rafin ana amfani da Midwestern jihohi, Mid-Atlantic jihohi, da kuma New England . [9]

Sauran kalmomin[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Mashaya
Shoal ɗin da ke tasowa a cikin rafi yayin da ake ajiye ɗigon ruwa yayin da halin yanzu ke raguwa ko kuma yana hana shi ta hanyar motsi a wurin haɗuwa.
Bifurcation
Ƙarfafa cikin rafi biyu ko fiye.
Tasha
A ciki halitta da m yashewa cewa daukawa rafi ta kwarara.
Rikicewa
Matsayin da magudanan ruwa biyu suka haɗu. Idan ƙungiyoyin biyu suna da girman daidai gwargwado, ana iya kiran haɗuwa da cokali mai yatsa.
Bakin magudanar ruwa
(wanda kuma aka sani da magudanar ruwa a Amurka) Yankin ƙasar inda ruwa ke gudana cikin rafi. Babban tafkin magudanar ruwa kamar Kogin Amazon ya ƙunshi ƙananan ramuka da yawa. [10]
Madatsar ruwa
Ƙasashen da ke kusa da rafin da zai iya yin ambaliya lokacin da rafi ya cika bankunansa.
Tashar gaging
Wurin da ke kan hanyar rafi ko kogi, da ake amfani da shi don yin nuni ko sa ido kan ruwa. [10]
Ruwa
Bangaren rafi ko kogi kusa da tushen sa. Kalmar an fi amfani da ita a cikin jam’i inda babu tushen ma’ana guda ɗaya. [10]
Knickpoint
Ma'anar akan bayanin rafi inda canjin kwatsam a rafi ke faruwa.
Baki
Matsayin da rafin ke fitarwa, wataƙila ta hanyar raƙuman ruwa ko delta, zuwa cikin ruwa mai ɗorewa kamar tafki ko teku .
Pool
Wani sashi inda ruwan yake da zurfi kuma yana tafiya a hankali.
Rapids
Rikici, mai saurin gudu na rafi ko kogi.
Yi rusa
Wani sashi inda kwarara ke da zurfi kuma mafi tashin hankali .
Kogi
Babban rafi na halitta, wanda zai iya zama hanyar ruwa . [10]
Gudu
Wani sashi mai gudana mai gudana na rafi.
Source
Guguwar da rafin ya samo asali, ko kuma wani asalin asalin rafi.
Bazara
A batu a wanda wani rafi fita daga wani boye mana ta hanyar unconsolidated sediments ko ta hanyar kogwanni. Ruwa na iya, musamman tare da kogo, yana gudana daga ƙarƙashin ƙasa don wani ɓangaren tafarkin sa, da ƙarƙashin ƙasa don wani ɓangaren tafarkin sa. [10]
Gado gado
Ƙasan rafi.
Hanyar rafi
Rafi, hanyoyin ambaliyar ruwa, da kuma canjin canjin canjin
Gudun ruwa
Ruwa yana motsawa ta tashar rafi. [10]
Thalweg
Sashin tsayin rafin, ko layin da ke shiga mafi zurfi a cikin tashar a kowane mataki daga tushe zuwa baki.
Waterfall ko cascade
Faduwar ruwa in da rafi ke hayewa zuwa kwatsam kwatsam da ake kira knickpoint; wasu knickpoints an kafa ta yashewa lokacin da ruwa gudana a kan wani musamman resistant sashen dutsen, ya bi ta hanyar daya kasa haka. Ruwa yana kashe kuzarin motsa jiki a cikin '' ƙoƙarin '' kawar da maƙarƙashiya.
Wurin da aka jika
Layin da saman rafin ya hadu da bangon tashar.

Tushe[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ƙananan rafin haraji, Diamond Ridge, Alaska, Amurka
Creek a Perisher Ski Resort, Ostiraliya

Koguna suna samun yawancin ruwan su daga hazo a cikin ruwan sama da dusar ƙanƙara . Yawancin wannan ruwa yana sake shiga sararin samaniya ta hanyar ƙazantawa daga ƙasa da gabobin ruwa, ko ta hanyar ƙaƙƙarfar tsirrai. Wasu daga cikin ruwan na ci gaba da nutsewa cikin ƙasa ta hanyar kutsawa kuma ya zama ruwan ƙasa, wanda galibin su ke shiga rafuffuka. An kulle wasu ruwan da aka kwarara na ɗan lokaci a cikin filayen dusar ƙanƙara da kankara, don a sake su daga baya ta hanyar ƙaura ko narkewa. Sauran ruwan yana gudana daga ƙasa kamar kwararar ruwa, wanda rabonsa ya bambanta gwargwadon dalilai da yawa, kamar iska, zafi, ciyayi, nau'in dutse, da taimako. Wannan gudu yana farawa ne a matsayin wani fim mai bakin ciki da ake kira goge goge, haɗe tare da cibiyar sadarwa na kankanin rills, tare suka zama ruwan famfo; lokacin da wannan ruwa ya tattara a cikin tashar, rafi yana da haihuwa. Wasu ramuka na iya farawa daga tafkuna ko tabkuna.

Ruwa a Southbury, Connecticut, Amurka

Halaye[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Matsayu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Don samun cancanta a matsayin korama, jikin ruwa dole ne ya kasance mai maimaitawa ko na shekara -shekara. Maɓuɓɓuka masu maimaitawa ( tsaka -tsaki ) suna da ruwa a cikin tashar don aƙalla rabin shekara. Ruwa na oda na farko shine rafi wanda baya da wani rafi mai maimaitawa ko na shekara -shekara yana ciyarwa a ciki. Lokacin da rafuffukan oda biyu na farko suka haɗu, suna samar da rafin oda na biyu. Lokacin da rafuffukan oda na biyu suka haɗu, suna samar da rafi na uku. Koramu na ƙaramar oda don haɗawa da rafi mafi girma ba ya canza tsari na babban rafi. Don haka, idan rafin umarni na farko ya haɗu da rafi na biyu, zai kasance rafin oda na biyu. Ba sai rafin oda na biyu ya haɗu da wani rafin na biyu ba don ya zama rafi na uku.

Gangara/tudu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A gangara/tudu da wani rafi ne mai muhimmanci factor a kayyade ta harafin da aka gaba ɗaya ƙaddara da ta tushe matakin na yashewa. Matsayin tushe na zaizayar ƙasa shine inda kogin ya shiga cikin teku, tafki ko kandami, ko ya shiga cikin shimfidar da yake da ɗan ƙaramin ƙarfi, kuma ana iya amfani da shi musamman akan kowane keɓaɓɓen rafi.

Dangane da yanayin ƙasa, korama zai rushe ta cikin gadonsa don cimma matakin rushewar ƙasa a duk lokacin da yake tafiya. Idan wannan matakin tushe ya yi ƙasa, to rafin zai yanke cikin hanzari ta hanyar madaidaiciyar madaidaiciya kuma yana da madaidaiciyar madaidaiciya, kuma idan matakin tushe yana da girman gaske, to rafin zai samar da fili da ambaliyar ruwa.

kwanoni[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Meanders ko kwana na nufin canje-canje hanyoyin gudun ruwa a sanadiyar na wani rafi sa da yashewa da kuma shaida na banki kayan. Waɗannan su ne yawanci serpentine a cikin tsari. Yawanci, a kan lokaci masu ma'ana suna yin ƙaura zuwa ƙasa.

Idan wani abu mai jurewa yana jinkirin ko dakatar da motsin ƙasa na kwanoni meander, rafi na iya ɓarkewa ta wuyansa tsakanin kafafu biyu na meander don zama madaidaiciya na ɗan lokaci, yana barin jikin ruwa mai siffar baka wanda ake kira tafkin oxbow ko bayou . Haka ma ambaliyar ruwa na iya sa a yanke gandun daji ta wannan hanyar.

Bayanan martaba[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yawanci, ana cewa koramu suna da keɓaɓɓen bayanin martaba, suna farawa da madaidaicin gradients, babu ambaliyar ruwa, da ɗan canza canjin tashoshi, daga ƙarshe suna canzawa zuwa rafuffuka tare da ƙarancin gradients, faffadan ambaliyar ruwa, da manyan masu ma'ana. Wani lokaci ana kiran matakin farko da rafi "matashi" ko "bai balaga ba", daga baya kuma ya bayyana rafin "balagagge" ko "tsoho". Koyaya, rafi na iya yin tazara na ɗan nesa kafin ya fada cikin yanayin rafi na "matashi".

Nauyin ruwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An bayyana cewa nauyin korama azaman abu mai ƙarfi wanda rafi ke ɗauka. Ruwa na iya ɗaukar laka, ko alluvium. Yawan nauyin da zai iya ɗauka (iya aiki) haka nan kuma mafi girman abin da zai iya ɗauka (iyawa) duk sun dogara ne akan saurin rafin.

shekararre da wanda ba na shekara ba[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

shekarrarun koramu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kogin shekara -shekara shinewanda ke gudana ba da daɗewa ba duk shekara. :57 Wasu magudanan ruwa na iya samun ci gaba mai gudana kawai a cikin sassan gadon rafi duk shekara yayin shekarun ruwan sama. Koramu masu layin shuɗi sune rafuffuka na shekaru da yawa kuma an yi musu alama akan taswirar taswira tare da madaidaicin layin shuɗi.

Koramu wanda ba na shekara-shekara ba[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ephemeral rafi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Gabaɗaya, koramun da ke kwarara kawai a lokacin da kuma bayan hazo ana kiransu da ƙima . Babu wani rarrabuwar kawuna tsakanin kwararar ruwan sama da rafi na yau da kullun, :58 da wasu rafuffukan ephemeral za a iya rarrabasu azaman tsaka -tsaki - suna kwararowa sai dai su ɓace a cikin yanayin yanayi na yau da kullun amma isasshen kwarara (backups) yana dawo da kasancewar rafi — irin wannan yanayi Ana yin rikodin lokacin da gadajen rafi suka buɗe hanya zuwa mahakar ma'adinai ko wasu dakuna na ƙarƙashin ƙasa. [11]

Dangane da ma’anar fassarar hukumar Amurka, tashoshin raƙuman ruwa masu tsattsauran ra'ayi an tsara su sosai, sabanin rafuffukan rafi, waɗanda ƙila za su iya ko ba su da tashar da aka ayyana, kuma sun dogara galibi akan ambaliyar ruwa, kamar yadda gadon ruwansu ke saman ruwa. tebur . Wani rafi na yau da kullun ba shi da halayen halittu, na ruwa, da na zahiri na ci gaba ko rabe -rabe. [12] Hakanan tashar da ba ta daɗewa tana iya canza halaye daga tsaka-tsaki zuwa na tsawon lokaci. [12]

Rage lokaci -lokaci ko rafi na yanayi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

 

Kogin Australiya, ƙasa a cikin lokacin bazara, yana ɗaukar ruwa kaɗan. Ƙarfi mai ƙarfi na rafin ya yi, a cikin ambaliyar ruwa, ya ƙara ƙazantar da ƙasa a ƙasa. Akwai wurin waha zuwa ƙasa dama da riffle zuwa saman hagu na hoton.

Wanke kan iya cika up sauri a lokacin sosai, kuma akwai iya zama kwatsam torrent na ruwa bayan wani hadiri fara cirewa, kamar a lokacin monsoonal yanayi. Wadannan ambaliyar ruwan sukan kama matafiya da mamaki.[ana buƙatar hujja]

Amurka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin kasar Amurka, ragi na lokaci -lokaci ko ragin yanayi shine wanda ke gudana kawai don sashi na shekara kuma an yi masa alama akan taswirar taswira tare da layin shuɗin shuɗi da ɗigo. :57–58 Wanke ko wankin hamada yawanci busasshe ne a cikin hamada na Kudu maso Yammacin Amurka, wanda ke gudana bayan babban ruwan sama.[ana buƙatar hujja]

Italiya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin kasar Italiya, ana kiran rafi na tsaka -tsaki torrent ( . A cikin cikakken ambaliya kogin na iya zama ko ba zai “yi ƙarfi ba” a cikin ma’anar kalmar, amma za a sami yanayi ɗaya ko fiye wanda a cikinsa za a rage kwarara zuwa ƙasa ko ƙasa. Yawanci rafuka suna da Apennine maimakon tushen Alpine, kuma a lokacin bazara ana ciyar da su da ɗan hazo kuma babu dusar ƙanƙara. A wannan yanayin matsakaicin fitarwa zai kasance a lokacin bazara da kaka. Koyaya, akwai kuma raƙuman ruwan kankara tare da tsarin mulkin daban.[ana buƙatar hujja]

Wasu yankuna[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Hakanan ana iya kiran korama mai shiga tsakani a cikin Latin Amurka, balaguron hunturu a Biritaniya, ko kwari a cikin duniya mai magana da Larabci. A Australia, an intermittent rafi mafi yawa ana kira a creek da alama a kan topographic maps tare da daskararrun blue line.[ana buƙatar hujja]

Wuraren magudanar ruwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Gwargwadon kwarin da ke gudanar daga rafi ana kiranta kwarin magudanar ruwa (wanda kuma aka sani a Arewacin Amurka a matsayin ruwan ruwa kuma, a cikin Ingilishi na Ingilishi, a matsayin rami ). Hakanan ana iya haɗa kwandon ƙaramin faranti. Misali, Rarraba Nahiyar a Arewacin Amurka ya raba galibin ruwan Tekun Atlantika da Tekun Arctic daga mafi girman kwarin Tekun Pacific. Kogin Tekun Atlantika, duk da haka, ana iya ƙara raba shi cikin magudanar Tekun Atlantika da Tekun Mexico. (Wannan rarrabuwa ana kiranta Gabas ta Tsakiya ta Gabas . ) Hakazalika, za a iya raba ramin Tekun Meksiko cikin kwarin Kogin Mississippi da ƙaramin ƙaramin ruwa, kamar kwarin Tombigbee . Ci gaba a cikin wannan jijiya, wani ɓangaren kwarin Kogin Mississippi shine kwarin Kogin Ohio, wanda kuma ya haɗa da kwarin Kogin Kentucky, da sauransu.

Ƙetarewa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Hanyoyin ketarewar korama sune inda hanyoyin ke ratsa koguna ta hanyoyi, bututun mai, hanyoyin jirgin ƙasa, ko wani abu wanda zai iya ƙuntata kwararar rafin a yanayin al'ada ko ambaliyar ruwa. Duk wani tsari akan ko cikin rafi wanda ke haifar da iyakancewa akan motsi kifin ko wasu abubuwan muhalli na iya zama matsala.

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Gudun ruwa
  • Yanke kai
  • Dokar Playfair
  • Tsarin yanayin kogi
  • Bakin dutse

 

Hanyoyin waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Nassoshi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Alexander, L. C., Autrey, B., DeMeester, J., Fritz, K. M., Golden, H. E., Goodrich, D. C., ... & McManus, M. G. (2015). Connectivity of streams and wetlands to downstream waters: review and synthesis of the scientific evidence (Vol. 475). EPA/600/R-14.
  2. "creek". oxforddictionaries.com. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 18 May 2019. British...especially an inlet...(whereas) NZ, North American, Australian...stream or minor tributary.
  3. "(US) creek". English Oxford Living Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 18 May 2019. North American, Australian, NZ...A stream, brook, or minor tributary of a river.
  4. "creek". Dictionary.com. Dictionary.com, LLC. Retrieved 18 May 2019. U.S., Canada, and Australia…a stream smaller than a river.
  5. "creek". Collins Dictionary. Retrieved 18 May 2019. US, Canadian, Australian and New Zealand a small stream or tributary
  6. "creek". Macmillan Dictionary. Springer Nature Limited. Retrieved 18 May 2019. a narrow stream
  7. [2][3][4][5][6]
  8. Bisson, Peter and Wondzell, Steven. "Olympic Experimental State Forest Synthesis of Riparian Research and Monitoring", United States Forest Service, p. 15 (December 1, 2009).
  9. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Watkins
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named USGS_Glossary
  11. Black Creek (Susquehanna River)#Hydrology and climate, 'Black Creek is an ephemeral stream. It used to drain an area between Turtle Creek and the Susquehanna River, but now loses its flow to underground mines via broken bedrock. Its channel is also disrupted by strip mines and rock piles.', 14 Nov 2016.
  12. 12.0 12.1 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named NCaro