Mulkin Sealand

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Mulkin Sealand
micronation (en) Fassara, artificial island (en) Fassara da offshore construction (en) Fassara
Bayanai
Farawa 2 Satumba 1967
Sunan hukuma Principality of Sealand
Suna a harshen gida Principality of Sealand
Suna saboda Teku
Demonym (en) Fassara sealander da sealandic
Wanda ya samar Paddy Roy Bates (en) Fassara
Yaren hukuma Turanci
Take E Mare Libertas (en) Fassara
Motto text (en) Fassara e mare libertas, From the sea, Freedom, От морето - свобода da Εκ της Θαλάσσης, Ελευθερία
Nahiya Turai
Ƙasa Birtaniya
Kasancewa a yanki na lokaci UTC±00:00 (en) Fassara
Historic county (en) Fassara Suffolk (en) Fassara
Wuri a ina ko kusa da wace teku North Sea (en) Fassara
Ƙasantuwa a yanayin ƙasa HM Fort Roughs (en) Fassara
Tsarin gwamnati oligarchy (en) Fassara da constitutional monarchy (en) Fassara
Shugaban ƙasa Prince Michael of Sealand (en) Fassara da Paddy Roy Bates (en) Fassara
Kuɗi Coins and postage stamps of Sealand (en) Fassara
Shafin yanar gizo sealandgov.org
Tuta flag of Sealand (en) Fassara
Kan sarki coat of arms of Sealand (en) Fassara
Wuri
Map
 51°53′40″N 1°28′57″E / 51.8944°N 1.4825°E / 51.8944; 1.4825
Ƴantacciyar ƙasaBirtaniya
Constituent country of the United Kingdom (en) FassaraIngila
Region of England (en) FassaraEast of England (en) Fassara
Ceremonial county of England (en) FassaraEssex (en) Fassara
County council area (en) FassaraEssex (en) Fassara
Non-metropolitan district (en) FassaraTendring (en) Fassara
GariHarwich (en) Fassara

Mulkin Sealand / / ˈsiː ˌlænd / ) wani yanki ne wanda yake ikirarin zama ƴantacciyar ƙasa to amma bai samu amincewar sauran ƙasashen duniya ba,[1] wanda ya ayyana kansa ƴar ƙaramar ƙasa akan hasumiyar HM Fort Roughs (wanda kuma aka sani da Hasumiyar Roughs), wani dandamali na bakin teku a cikin Tekun Arewa kusan. 12 kilometres (6.5 nmi) daga gaɓar tekun Suffolk, Ingila. Hasumiyar Roughs wani katafaren Tekun Maunsell ne wanda Birtaniyya ta gina a cikin ruwan duniya a lokacin yakin duniya na biyu. Tun daga 1967, an mamaye ginin Roughs Tower da dangi da abokan aikin Paddy Roy Bates a matsayin kasa mai iko. Bates ya kwace Hasumiyar Roughs daga wasu gungun masu watsa shirye-shiryen radiyon 'yan fashi a shekarar 1967 da nufin ƙafa tasharsa a can. Sojojin haya sun mamaye Sealand a cikin 1978 amma sun sami nasarar daƙile harin. Tun daga 1987, lokacin da Burtaniya ta tsawaita yankin ruwanta zuwa mil 12 na ruwa, dandalin yana cikin yankin Burtaniya.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A cikin 1943, lokacin yakin duniya na biyu, HM Fort Roughs (wani lokaci ana kiransa Hasumiyar Roughs) Masarautar Ingila ce ta gina shi a matsayin ɗaya daga cikin Forts na Maunsell,[2] da farko don kare mahimman hanyoyin jigilar kayayyaki a cikin ɗakunan da ke kusa da jirgin sama na Jamus. Ya ƙunshi gindin ponton mai iyo tare da wani babban tsari na hasumiya mara kyau guda biyu haɗe da bene wanda za'a iya ƙara wasu gine-gine. An ja katangar zuwa wani wuri sama da sandunan yashi na Rough Sands, inda akayi ambaliya da gangan tushe don nutsar da shi a wurin hutunsa na ƙarshe. Wannan kusan 7 nautical miles (13 km) daga bakin tekun Suffolk, a waje da da'awar Burtaniya kuma, don haka, a cikin ruwa na duniya a lokacin. [2] Jami'an Sojojin Ruwa 150-300 ne suka mamaye wurin a duk lokacin yaƙin duniya na biyu; Ma'aikatan cikakken lokaci na ƙarshe da suka bar a cikin 1956. [2] An kori Maunsell Forts a cikin 1950s.[3]

Kafawa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An mamaye Hasumiyar Roughs a cikin Fabrairu da Agusta 1965 ta Jack Moore da 'yarsa Jane, suna tsugunne a madadin tashar 'yan fashin teku mai ban mamaki Radio London .

A ranar 2 ga Satumbar 1967, Manjo Paddy Roy Bates, ɗan ƙasar Biritaniya ne wanda ya mallaki gidan rediyon ɗan fashin teku, ya mamaye sansanin. Bates ya yi niyyar watsa gidan rediyon sa na 'yan fashin teku – mai suna Radio Essex – daga dandamali. Duk da cewa yana da kayan aikin da ake bukata, bai fara watsa shirye-shirye ba. Bates ya ayyana 'yancin kai na Hasumiyar Roughs kuma ya ɗauke ta sarautar Sealand. [4]

A cikin 1968, ma'aikatan Biritaniya sun shiga abin da Bates ya yi iƙirarin cewa ruwan yankinsa ne don yin hidimar buoy ɗin kewayawa kusa da dandamali. Michael Bates (ɗan Paddy Roy Bates) ya yi ƙoƙarin tsoratar da ma'aikatan ta hanyar harbin kashedi daga tsohon katangar. Da yake Bates ɗan Biritaniya ne a lokacin, an gayyace shi zuwa kotu a Ingila bisa tuhumar sa da laifin satar bindigogi biyo bayan lamarin. Amma kamar yadda kotu ta yanke hukuncin cewa dandalin (wanda Bates ke kira yanzu "Sealand") ya kasance a waje da iyakokin Birtaniyya, wanda ya wuce 3 nautical miles (6 km) iyakar ruwan kasar, lamarin ya kasa ci gaba.[5]

A cikin 1975, Bates ya gabatar da kundin tsarin mulki na Sealand, sannan sai tutar ƙasa, taken ƙasa, kuɗi da fasfo.

1978 harin da Sealand Rebel Government[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A watan Agustan 1978, Alexander Achenbach, wanda ya bayyana kansa a matsayin Firayim Minista na Sealand, ya dauki hayar wasu sojojin hayar Jamus da Holland don jagorantar harin da aka kai a Sealand yayin da Bates da matarsa suna cikin Ostiriya da Achenbach ya gayyace su don tattauna batun siyar da Sealand. [6] Achenbach ya yi rashin jituwa da Bates kan shirin mayar da Sealand zuwa otal mai alfarma da gidan caca tare da sauran 'yan kasuwan Jamus da Holland. Sun mamaye dandalin, kuma sun yi garkuwa da ɗan Bates Michael. Michael ya iya sake kwato Sealand kuma ya kama Achenbach da sojojin haya. Achenbach, lauyan Jamus wanda ke da fasfo na Sealand, an tuhume shi da cin amanar kasa a kan Sealand, kuma an tsare shi sai dai idan ya biya DM . 75,000 (fiye da dalar Amurka 35,000 ko £23,000). Daga nan ne Jamus ta aike da jami'in diflomasiyya daga ofishin jakadancinta na Landan zuwa Sealand domin tattaunawa don ganin an sako Achenbach. Roy Bates ya ja tsaki bayan tattaunawar makonni da dama sannan ya yi ikirarin cewa ziyarar jami'in diflomasiyyar ta zama amincewa da Sealand da Jamus ta yi.

Bayan dawo da tsohon, Achenbach da Gernot Pütz sun yi shelar gwamnati a gudun hijira, wani lokaci ana kiranta da gwamnatin 'yan tawayen Sealand ko kuma gwamnatin 'yan tawayen Sealandic, a Jamus. A cikin 1987, Burtaniya ta tsawaita yankin ruwanta zuwa mil 12 na ruwa. Sealand yanzu yana zaune a cikin ruwa da aka amince da shi a matsayin Burtaniya.

Sealand a baya an sayar da " fasfo na fantasy " (kamar yadda Majalisar Tarayyar Turai ta kira), waɗanda ba su da inganci don balaguron ƙasa. [7] A cikin 1997, dangin Bates sun soke duk fasfo na Sealand, ciki har da waɗanda su da kansu suka bayar a cikin shekaru 22 da suka gabata, saboda fahimtar cewa zoben satar kuɗi na duniya ya bayyana, ta hanyar yin amfani da siyar da fasfo ɗin Sealand na bogi don ba da kuɗin magani. fataucin mutane da safarar kudade daga kasashen Rasha da Iraki. Jagororin aikin da ke da hedkwata a Madrid amma kuma suna da alaka da kungiyoyi daban-daban a Jamus, ciki har da gwamnatin ‘yan tawayen da ke gudun hijira da Achenbach ta kafa bayan yunkurin juyin mulki a shekarar 1978, sun yi amfani da fasfo din diflomasiyya na bogi na Sealand da lambobi. An bayar da rahoton cewa sun sayar da fasfo din Tealand na bogi 4,000 ga ‘yan kasar Hong Kong kan kimanin dala 1,000 kowanne. Michael Bates ya bayyana a ƙarshen 2016 cewa Sealand yana karɓar ɗaruruwan aikace-aikacen fasfo kowace rana. A cikin 2015, Bates ya tabbatar da cewa yawan mutanen Sealand "kamar mutane biyu ne".

2006 wuta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Sealand watanni da yawa bayan gobarar

A yammacin ranar 23 ga watan Yunin 2006, babban dandali na Hasumiyar Roughs ta kama wuta saboda lalurar lantarki. Jirgin sama mai saukar ungulu na Rundunar Sojojin Sama ya tura mutum guda zuwa Asibitin Ipswich, kai tsaye daga hasumiya. Kwale-kwalen ceto na Harwich ya tsaya kusa da Hasumiyar Roughs har sai da wata gobarar yankin ta kashe gobarar. An gyara duk lalacewar ta Nuwamba 2006.

Ƙoƙarin tallace-tallace[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A cikin Janairu 2007, The Pirate Bay, index of online index of dijital abun ciki na nisha kafofin watsa labarai da software kafa ta Swedish tunani tank Piratbyrån, yunƙurin sayan Sealand bayan mafi tsanani haƙƙin haƙƙin mallaka a Sweden tilasta su neman tushe na ayyuka a wasu wurare. Tsakanin 2007 da 2010, an ba da Sealand don siyarwa ta hanyar kamfanin InmoNaranja na Sipaniya, [8] akan farashin € 750. miliyan ( £ 600 miliyan, dalar Amurka 906 miliyan).

Mutuwar wanda ya kafa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Roy Bates ya mutu yana da shekaru 91 a ranar 9 ga Oktoba 2012; ya kasance yana fama da cutar Alzheimer shekaru da yawa. Ɗansa Michael ya karɓi aikin Sealand, ko da yake ya ci gaba da zama a Suffolk, inda shi da 'ya'yansa maza ke gudanar da kasuwancin kamun kifi na iyali mai suna 'Ya'yan itacen Teku. Joan Bates, matar Roy Bates, ta mutu a gidan kula da tsofaffi na Essex yana da shekaru 86 akan 10 Maris 2016.

Matsayin doka[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Taswirar Sealand da Burtaniya, tare da iƙirarin ruwa na yanki na 3 and 12 nautical miles (6 and 22 km) nuna.

A cikin 1987, Burtaniya ta tsawaita yankin ruwanta daga 3 to 12 nautical miles (6 to 22 km) . Sealand yanzu yana cikin yankin ruwan Burtaniya. A ra'ayin masanin shari'a John Gibson, babu kadan don samun damar cewa Sealand za a amince da ita a matsayin kasa saboda kasancewarta tsarin mutum. [9]

Sealand tana riƙe da Guinness World Record don "ƙananan yanki don yin da'awar matsayin ƙasa".

Ganewa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Simon Sellars na The Ostiraliya da Red Bull sun bayyana Sealand a matsayin ƙasa mafi ƙanƙanta a duniya, amma Sealand ba a hukumance ta amince da kowace ƙasa mai cikakken iko ba. Duk da haka, gwamnatin Sealand ta yi iƙirarin cewa Jamus ta amince da ita, kamar yadda ƙarshen ya taɓa aika jami'in diflomasiyya zuwa Sealand.

Gudanarwa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Michael Bates

Ba tare da la'akari da matsayinta na doka ba, dangin Bates ne ke sarrafa Sealand kamar dai wata hukuma ce da aka sani kuma su ne sarakunanta na gado. Roy Bates ya sanya kansa a matsayin "Prince Roy" da matarsa "Princess Joan". Iyalin Bates sun kira ɗansu a matsayin " Prince Regent " tsakanin 1999 da mutuwar Roy a 2012. A cikin wannan rawar, a fili ya yi aiki a matsayin "Shugaban Gwamnati" na Sealand da kuma "Shugaban Gwamnati".

A taron micronations wanda Jami'ar Sunderland ta shirya a 2004, ɗan Michael Bates James ya wakilci Sealand. A halin yanzu, ɗaya ko fiye da masu kula da su ke wakiltar Michael Bates, wanda da kansa ke zaune a Essex, Ingila.

Ayyukan kasuwanci[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Sealand ya shiga cikin ayyukan kasuwanci da yawa, ciki har da bayar da tsabar kudi da tambarin aikawasiku da kuma kafa wurin karbar bakuncin Intanet a bakin teku, ko " data Haven ". Hakanan masarautar tana siyar da manyan mukamai a shagonta na kan layi, kamar Lord and Baron. Wasu sanannun mutane waɗanda suka mallaki lakabi daga Sealand sun haɗa da Ed Sheeran, masu gabatar da shirye-shiryen BBC Terry Wogan da Ben Fogle .

A cikin 2000, an ƙirƙiri tallan tallace-tallace a duniya game da Sealand bayan kafa sabon mahaluƙi da ake kira HavenCo, wurin adana bayanai, wanda ya karɓi iko da Hasumiyar Roughs kanta. Ryan Lackey, Abokin haɗin gwiwar Haven kuma babban ɗan takara a ƙasar, ya bar HavenCo a ƙarƙashin yanayi mai ban tsoro a cikin 2002, yana nuna rashin jituwa tare da dangin Bates game da sarrafa kamfanin. Gidan yanar gizon HavenCo ya tafi layi a cikin 2008.

Wasanni[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ƙungiyar ƙwallon ƙafa ta Sealand tare da dangin Bates

Hukumar Kwallon Kafa ta Sealand (SNFA) ta kasance memba memba na Hukumar Nouvelle Fédération-Board, hukumar da ta dakatar da wasan kwallon kafa ga jihohin da ba a amince da su ba da kuma jihohin da ba mambobin FIFA ba, wanda ya zama mara aiki a cikin 2013 kuma ya maye gurbinsa da Kungiyar Kungiyoyin Kwallon Kafa masu zaman kansu ( CONIFA). SNFA tana gudanar da ƙungiyar ƙwallon ƙafa ta Sealand . A cikin 2004 ƙungiyar ƙwallon ƙafa ta ƙasa ta buga wasanta na farko na ƙasa da ƙasa da ƙungiyar ƙwallon ƙafa ta ƙasar tsibiri, inda suka tashi 2–2.

A cikin 2004, mai hawan dutse Slader Oviatt ya ɗauki tutar Sealandic zuwa saman Muztagh Ata . Har ila yau a cikin 2007, Michael Martelle ya wakilci Shugabancin Sealand a gasar cin kofin duniya na Kung Fu, wanda aka gudanar a birnin Quebec, Kanada; dauke da nadi na Athleta Principalitas Bellatorius (Principal Martial Arts Athlete da Champion).

A cikin 2008, Sealand ta shirya taron wasan skateboarding tare da Coci da Gabas ta Red Bull .

A cikin 2009, Sealand ta sanar da farfado da Hukumar Kwallon Kafa ta Sealand da niyyar yin gasa a gasar cin kofin duniya ta Viva a nan gaba. An nada marubuci ɗan Scotland Neil Forsyth a matsayin Shugaban Ƙungiyar. Sealand sun buga wasa na biyu a tarihin su da Chagos Islands a ranar 5 ga Mayu 2012, sun sha kashi 3–1. Kungiyar ta hada da dan wasan kwaikwayo Ralf Little da tsohon dan wasan Bolton Wanderers Simon Charlton . Kungiyar ta buga wasanta na baya-bayan nan a shekarar 2014, kuma tun daga wannan lokacin ba su da aiki amma sun yi nuni da komawa a lokuta da dama a shafukan sada zumunta.

A cikin 2009 da 2010, Sealand ta aika ƙungiyoyi don yin wasa a wasu gasa na ƙarshe na ƙungiyar frisbee a Burtaniya, Ireland da Netherlands. Sun zo na 11 a Burtaniya a cikin 2010.

A ranar 22 ga Mayu 2013, ɗan hawan dutse Kenton Cool ya sanya tutar Sealand a koli na Dutsen Everest .

A cikin 2015, dan tseren Simon Messenger ya yi tseren tseren rabin tsere a Sealand a matsayin wani bangare na kalubalensa na "zagaye a duniya a cikin gudu 80".

A ranar 20 ga Agusta 2018, ɗan wasan ninkaya Richard Royal ya ninkaya 12 km (7.5 mi) daga Sealand zuwa babban yankin, yana ƙarewa cikin sa'o'i 3 29 mins. Royal ya ziyarci dandalin kafin yin iyo, yana samun tambarin fasfo dinsa. Ya shiga ruwan daga kujerar bosun, yana nuna alamar fara iyo, ya karasa bakin tekun Felixstowe . Daga baya Michael Bates ya ba Royal lambar yabo ta Sealand Knighthood. A ranar 18 ga Agusta 2018, kwanaki biyu kafin wasan Royal, wani mutum mai suna Nick Glendinning ya zama farkon wanda ya fara yin iyo daga Sealand zuwa babban yankin ta hanyar yin iyo daga Hasumiyar Roughs zuwa Bawdsey . Ya kammala tafiyar cikin kasa da sa'o'i biyar kacal. Glendinning ya yi iƙirarin cewa lokacin guduwarsa ya zo daidai, amma Royal bai yarda ba, yana mai mai da martani ga kalaman Gendinning cewa, "Babu yadda za a yi a duniya cewa hakan ya kasance kwatsam". 

An kafa kungiyar kwallon kafa ta Amurka mai suna Sealand Seahawks a cikin 2021, tana sanar da wasa a Ireland da Kudancin Dublin Panthers a ranar 19 ga Fabrairu 2022. Seahawks sun ci wasan da ci 42–13. A cikin Satumba 2022, The Seahawks sun ɗauki ƙungiyoyi da yawa zuwa Montpellier, Faransa don buga wasan da Faransa Royal Roosters, yayin da wata ƙungiyar tsofaffi ta ɗauki Servals de Clermont-Ferrand.

Nassoshi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Hanyoyin haɗi na waje[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. MacEacheran, Mike. "Sealand: A peculiar 'nation' off England's coast". www.bbc.com (in Turanci). Archived from the original on 1 January 2022. Retrieved 2021-12-30.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Zumerchik, John (2008). Seas and Waterways of the World: An Encyclopedia of History, Uses, and Issues. ABC-CLIO Ltd. p. 563. ISBN 978-1-85109-711-1. Archived from the original on 24 June 2021. Retrieved 12 January 2021.
  3. "The Maunsell Sea Forts". HeritageDaily – Archaeology News (in Turanci). 2020-05-20. Archived from the original on 28 November 2020. Retrieved 2021-05-13.
  4. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Micronations
  5. Edwards, Chris; Parkes, James (19 October 2000). "Radio Essex" and "Britains Better Music Station" Archived 17 Satumba 2014 at the Wayback Machine. Off Shore Echoes. Retrieved 11 May 2011
  6. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Criminal 2021
  7. Council of the European Union – Schengen Visa Working Party – Table of travel documents, p. 36
  8. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named bbc_sealand
  9. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named ward