Yankin Arewacin Najeriya

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Arewacin Najeriya

Wuri
 10°31′N 7°26′E / 10.52°N 7.43°E / 10.52; 7.43
Bayanan tarihi
Rushewa 27 Mayu 1967
Ta biyo baya Jihar Benue-Plateau, jihar Kano, Kwara, Jihar Arewa ta Tsakiya, North-Western State (en) Fassara da Jihar Arewa maso Gabas

Arewacin Najeriya yanki ne mai cin gashin kanta a Najeriya, wacce ta sha bamban da yankin kudancin kasar, tare da al'adunta na kanta, dangantakar kasashen waje da tsarin tsaro. A shekarar 1962 ta mamaye yankin Arewacin Kamaru na Burtaniya, waɗanda suka zaɓi zama lardi a yankin Arewacin Najeriya.[1]

A shekara ta 1967, an raba Arewacin Nijeriya zuwa Jihar Arewa maso Gabas, Jihar Arewa maso Yamma, Jihar Kano, Jihar Kaduna, Jihar Kwara, da Jihar Binuwai-Plateau, kowanne da Gwamnan ta.[2]

Tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

=== Tarihi === 

Yankin al'adun Nok

Yaren Nok, tsohuwar al'ada ce da ta mamaye mafi yawacin yankin da ake kira Arewacin Najeriya a zamanin baya, ana nuna gadonsa ta hanyar gumakan terracotta da kuma an samu ragowarsu a Sokoto, Kano, Birinin Kudu, Nok da Zaria. Al’adar Kwatarkwashi, al’adar dake da bambanci da Nok wacce ta mamaye yankin zamfara a lardin Sakkwato wasu na ganin tana daga cikin wani yanki na Nok.[ana buƙatar hujja]

Masarautu Goma Sha Hudu[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Masarautu Goma Sha Hudu sun haɗe ɗimbin ɗabi'u da al'adun Arewacin Najeriya zuwa tsarin tarihi na kabilanci. Bakwai daga cikin wadannan masarautu sun samo asali ne daga al'adun Kabara na Hausawa. A cikin karni na 9, yayin da cibiyoyin kasuwancin da ke fafatawa da Kanem-Bornu da Mali sannu a hankali suka haɓaka a yankin Sudan ta Tsakiya, tarin masarautu sun haɗu sun mamaye manyan filayen savannah na ƙasashen Hausa, kayan kasuwancisu na farko sun ha da fatu, zinare, tufa, gishiri, goro . fatar dabba, da Lalli.[3]

Kasashen Hausa Bakwai sun hada da:

Habaka da mamaye Hausawa Bakwai ya haifar da kafuwar wasu jahohi tare da masu mulki da suka samo asali daga wata kwarkwara na uban Hausawa Bayajidda. Don haka ake kiran su Banza Bakwai, ma'ana Shegu Bakwai.[4] Banza Bakwai sun yi amfani da yawancin al'adu da cibiyoyi na Hausa Bakwai amma ana daukansu matsayin wararru ko kuma masarautu irin na Hausa na mutanen da ba asalin Hausawa bane. Waɗannan jahohin sun haɗa da:

Kasar Hausa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Tsakanin al’ummar Hausawa guda 500 zuwa 700, wadanda ake tunanin sun tashi daga Nubia sannu a hankali tare da cudanya da mazauna Arewacin yankin, sun kafa jihohi da dama a Arewacin Najeriya da Gabashin Nijar. Da bacewar Nok da Sokoto, wadanda a baya suka mallaki Tsakiya da Arewacin Najeriya tsakanin 800 BC zuwa 200, Hausawa sun sami damar fitowa a matsayin sabbin masu iko a yankin. Suna da alaƙa da mutanen Kanuri na Kanem-Bornu ( Tafkin Chadi ), Birom, Gwari, Nupe da Jukun.

Sarakunan Hausawa, karkashin daular Mali sun karbi Musulunci a karni na 11. A karni na 12 Hausawa sun zama daya daga cikin manyan kasashen Afirka. Gine-ginen ƙasar Hausa ƙila yana ɗaya daga cikin wadanda ba'a sansu ba amma na daga cikin mafi kyawu a zamanin da. Yawancin masallatai da fadojinsu na farko suna da haske da launuka kuma galibi sun haɗa da sassaƙaƙƙen zane-zane ko ƙayyadaddun alamomin da aka ƙera cikin ƙawa. A shekara ta 1500 Hausawa sun fara amfani da ingantaccen rubutun Larabci da aka fi sani da Ajami don yin rubutu da yarensu; Hausawa sun ajiye rubuce-rubucen tarihi da dama, wanda ya fi shahara shi ne na tarihin Kano.[5]

Daular Fulani da Daular Borno[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Jihadin Shehu Usuman dan Fodio na karni na 18 wacce ta kawo sauyi a zamantakewa da addini da siyasa daga karshe ya hade kasashen Hausa bakwai da sabbin larduna da aka kirkiro a karkashin Daular Sakkwato. Daular Sakkwato ta kasance karkashin jagorancin Amirul Muminin. Karkashin mulkin Dan Fodio, Daular ta kasance mai fuska biyu kuma ta kasu zuwa yankuna biyu kowanne an nada mata sarki. Kowane yanki an ƙara raba shi zuwa Masarautu masu cin gashin kansu a ƙarƙashin sarakunan hausa na gado. Da farko dai Masarautar Bornu ta shiga cikin Halifancin Usman dan Fodio na Sokoto, amma bayan wasu shekaru ta balle.[5]

Mulkin mallaka[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Da farko, shigar Turawan Ingila Arewacin Najeriya ya shafi kasuwanci ne, kuma ya ta’allaka ne a kan fadada Kamfanin Royal Niger Company, wanda yankunan cikinsa suka bazu zuwa arewa daga inda kogin Neja da Benue suka hade a Lokoja da tsaunin Patti. Kamfanin turawa na Royal Niger Company daga farko bata nuna wani barazana kai tsaye ga daular Sokoto ko kuma jahohin Arewacin Najeriya ba. Hakan ya sauya, lokacin da Frederick Lugard da Taubman Goldie suka gindaya wani gagarumin shiri na tabbatar da zaman lafiya a tsakanin garin Niger da kuma hada ta da sauran daular Burtaniya.[6]

Tarihin Yankin Mulkin Mallaka na Arewacin Najeriya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Taswirar Najeriya, 1909

  Frederick Lugard ya yi shelar mallakar Arewacin Najeriya a Ida a ranar 1 ga Janairun, 1897. Tushen mallakar ta samo asali daga Yarjejeniyar Berlin ta 1885 wacce ta bada Arewacin Najeriya karkashin ikon mallakar Birtaniyya, dangane da iko da suke da shi a Kudancin Najeriya. Ba da jimawa ba aka yi ta kaiwa Daular Sakkwato hari wacce ta kasance mai ƙarfi. Masarautar Kwantagora da Ilorin su ne na farko da turawan Ingila suka mamaye. A watan Fabrairun 1903, aka kwace babban katangar Kano, masarautar Kano, Sokoto da sauran da garuruwa karkashin Halifancinta daga baya suka mika wuya.[7]

A ranar 13 ga watan Maris 1903, Babbar yankin Shura ta Halifanci Shehu daga ƙarshe ta amince da buƙatun Lugard kuma ta ayyana Sarauniya Victoria a matsayin mamallakiyar Halifancin Shehu da dukannin sauran ƙasashenta.[6]

Gwamna Lugard, da 'yan kayan aiki kadan, ya mallake yankin tare da amincewar sarakunan yankin ta hanyar siyasar mulkin ta fakaice, wadda ya bunkasa ta zama sahihiyar ka'idar siyasa. Yankin da ta kunshi yankin Arewacin Najeriya ta hada da yankin Okun-Yoruba na Kabba, Ogidi, Ijumu, Gbede, Yagba, da kuma, kasar Ebira, kasar Igala da aka kera tare a karkashin Lardin Kabba. Yankunan Ifelodun, Offa, Omuaran, Ifelodun da Irepodun, da kuma Yarabawa, an tsara su zuwa lardin Ilorin. Lugard ya bar yankin ne bayan wasu shekaru, inda ya koma aiki a Hong Kong, amma daga karshe aka dawo da shi aiki a Najeriya, inda a shekarar 1914 ya nemi hadewar yankin Arewacin Najeriya da Kudancin Najeriya, wanda ya samar da Yankin Mulkin Mallaka ta Najeriya.[6]

Tashe-tashen hankali akan samun 'yancin kai daga yankunan daban daban na Kudancin Najeriya, duk da haka, ya haifar da rarrabuwar kawuna a cikin 1940s. Kundin tsarin mulkin Richards da aka shelanta a shekarar 1945, ya bai wa yankin Arewa ikon mulki, wanda ta hada da fannin huldar kasashen waje da manufofin shiga.[8]

'Yanci[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Yankin Arewacin Najeriya ta samu 'yancin mulkinta a ranar 15 ga Maris 1957 inda Sir Ahmadu Bello ya zama firayim ministan ta na farko. Jam’iyyar Peoples Congress karkashin Bello ce ta mamaye majalisa yayin da Northern Elements Progressive Union ta zamo babbar jam’iyyar adawa.[9]

A shekarar 1967, Arewacin Najeriya ta samu wargajewa a sanadiyyar rabe-rabe.

Gwamnati da siyasa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An shirya Gwamnatin Arewacin Najeriya don koyi da tsarin Westminster. Firimiya zai kasance shugaban gwamnati kuma ya jagoranci al’amuran yau da kullum na gwamnati, yayin da Gwamnan Arewacin Najeriya zai kasance mataimakinsa kuma babban kwamandan ofishin jakadancin.[ana buƙatar hujja]

Karamar Majalisar ta kunshi zababbun wakilai daga larduna daban-daban na kasar. Majalissar dokokin da ake kira House of Chefs, wacce ke kama da majalisar sarakunan Biritaniya, wanda ya kunshi sarakunan da ba zabarsu akayi ba na kananan hukumomi daban-daban na lardunan kasa.[10]

A shekarar 1967, gwamnatin mulkin soja ta tarayya ta Janar Yakubu Gowon ta wargaza yankuna hudu da a lokacin suke matsayin Tarayyar Najeriya, inda ta samar da sabbin jihohi goma sha biyu. Arewacin Najeriya ya kasu zuwa Arewa-maso-Gabas, Arewa maso Yamma, Jihar Kano, Jihar Kaduna, Jihar Kwara, da Jihar Benue-Plateau, kowa da kowa yana da Gwamna da gwamnatinsa.[11]

Gwamna[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Template:Main Babban Kwamishina ko kuma Gwamnan Arewacin Najeriya, asalinsa Babban Kwamishinan Kare Arewacin Najeriya ne, bayan 1914 Laftanar Gwamna, Babban Kwamishina, ko Gwamna-Janar na Lardunan Arewacin Najeriya, ya kasance mataimakin gwamnan Arewacin Najeriya, yana gudanar da aikin mulkin Turawa na Burtaniya. a matsayin wakilin Masarautar Burtaniya.[ana buƙatar hujja]

An fara kafa ofishin Babban Kwamishinan ne a ranar 1 ga watan Janairun 1897, ta hanyar haƙƙin mallaka na Sarauniya Victoria. Bayan tafiyar Turawan Ingila a 1960, an ci gaba da nada Gwamna har zuwa 1967 a matsayin wakilin sabuwar gwamnati a Legas.[ana buƙatar hujja]

Gwamnan ya jagoranci duk wasu harkokin bukukuwa tare da nada ‘yan majalisar dokoki ta kasa, majalisar sarakunan Arewacin Najeriya.

Shugaban Majalisar Sarakunan[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

 

  • Alhaji <i id="mw2g">Haruna</i> , CMG, Sarkin Gwandu

Shugabannin Majalisar[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

 

  • Richard Dohew, 1954 - ?
  • Alhajia' Umarure Gwandupe 

Labarin kasa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Tudu mafi tsawo a Arewacin Najeriya shine Chappal Waddi kimanin mita 2,419 m (7,936 ft). Manyan kogunan su ne kogunan Neja da kogin Benuwai da ta hade a lardin Kabba inda ya ke bi ta kudu daga karshe ya shiga Tekun Atlantika .[ana buƙatar hujja]

Fadadan kwarin Neja da kogin Benue sun mamaye yankunan kudancin yankin. A kudu maso gabas na kogin Benue, tuddai da tsaunuka wanda suka zama Tudun Mambilla sun samar da tudu mafi girma a Arewacin Najeriya. Wannan fili yana kan iyaka da Kamaru, wannan ƙasa ta montane wani yanki ne na tsaunukan Bamenda a cikin Kamaru.[10]

Babban yankin Savannah na Babban Filin Ƙasar Hausata mamaye yawancin sauran lardin. wannan yanki na fuskantar ruwan sama tsakanin inci 20 zuwa 60 (508 da 1,524 mm) a kowace shekara. Yankunan savannah guda uku sune gandun daji na Guinea-savanna mosaic, Sudan savannah, da Sahel savannah.[12] Ginin gandun daji-savanna mosaic fili ne na dogayen ciyawa waɗanda bishiyoyi ke katsewa. Sudan savannah iri daya ce amma tare da gajerun ciyawa da gajarta bishiyoyi. Sahel savannah ya ƙunshi facin ciyawa da yashi, waɗanda ake samu a arewa maso gabas. A yankin Sahel, ruwan sama bai wuce inci 20 ba (508 mm) a kowace shekara kuma hamadar Sahara tana mamayewa. A cikin busasshiyar arewa maso gabas na ƙasar akwai tafkin Chadi, wanda Arewacin Najeriya ya raba da Nijar, Chadi da Kamaru.[13]

Yankin Kudu maso Yammacin yankin ya hada da Ogidi, Iyamoye, Iyara wanda ke da dazuzzukan dazuzzukan da ke tsaka da tazarar yankunan guinea savannah (kuma suna iyaka da dazuzzukan yankin kudu maso yamma kuma ana raba irin wannan yanayin ruwan sama kuma ana ba da su ga noman tsabar kuɗi kamar kofi). da koko).[14]

Rabe-rabe[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Arewacin Najeriya ta rabu zuwa larduna goma sha uku:   Kano, wacce ita ce lardi mafi girma daga cikin larduna ta fuskar yawan jama'a da tattalin arziki, tana yankin Arewa ta Tsakiyar kasar nan. Hukumar ‘yan asali na Jihar Kano, reshen Masarautar fula Kano, ta gaji dadadden masana’antun kasuwanci da suka haifar da kasuwanci tsakanin Sahara da Arewacin Afirka.[15]

Lardin Zariya gida ne ga birnin Kaduna, babban birni mai cin gashin kansa wanda ke matsayin babban birnin kasar kuma gida ne ga cibiyoyi na kasa.

Tattalin Arziki[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Masana’antar gyada da auduga a lardin Kano ne suka samar da muhimmiyar hanyar samun kudaden shiga ga Arewacin Najeriya. Aikin hakar gwal a lardin Filato, hakar karafa a lardin Benue, da sauran masana'antun karafa a lardin Sakkwato, sun samar masana'antar hakar ma'adinai iri-iri na yankin.[16]

Masana'antar siminti a Sokoto da Bauchi da masana'antar sarrafa fata a Kano ne suka zama muhimman bangaren masana'antu.

Mutane[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Arewacin Najeriya ko da yake yanki ne na kabilanci da addini, yanki ne da musulmi ke da rinjaye. Hausa, Fulani da Nupe sun mamaye yawancin yankunan Arewa maso Yamma da Gabashin Kasar. Hausa, Fulani sune asalin Musulmai.

Haka zalika kadan daga cikin al’ummar Hausawa sun yi riko da tsohon addinin Maguzanci.[17]

Galibin mutanen Nupe da Kanuri sun kasance Musulmai ne. Kiristoci kwarara na nan a daga arewa, sun koma kiristanci bayan turawan mulkin mallaka na kasar.

Abubuwan da suka shafi haƙƙin ɗan adam[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Hare-haren da Fulani makiyaya suka kai a kauyukan Arewa ya yi sanadin mutuwar mutane 6000 tun daga shekarar 2015, kamar yadda asusun Barnabas ya bayyana.[18] Fulani su ma sun sha fama da kashe-kashen gilla da manoman Kirista ke yi musu da dabbobinsu. Akwai maharan daga bangarorin biyu na wadannan rikice-rikice.[19]

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. "Northern States – Arewa House". Retrieved 2021-05-19.
  2. "Northern Region, Nigeria (1960 - 1967)". www.crwflags.com. Retrieved 2021-05-19.
  3. Ibrahim Ado-Kurawa. "Brief History of Kano 999 to 2003". Kano State Government. Archived from the original on 2010-05-01. Retrieved 2010-09-12.
  4. "Hausa | Encyclopedia.com". www.encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 2021-05-19.
  5. 5.0 5.1 "Kano Chronicle," ed. Palmer, pp. 70-72.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 "Arewa Center for Regional Development (ACRD)". www.arewaonline-ng.com. Retrieved 2021-05-19.
  7. IPROJECTMASTER, Project Topics and Materials for Final Year Students | Download Free Projects from. "LITERATURE IN NORTHERN NIGERIA: LANGUAGE AND POPULAR CULTURE". www.iprojectmaster.com. Retrieved 2021-05-19
  8. IPROJECT, Final Year Research Project Topics & Materials In PDF & Doc | iproject from. "LITERATURE IN NORTHERN NIGERIA: LANGUAGE AND POPULAR CULTURE English L..."iproject.com.ng. Retrieved 2021-05-19.
  9. "Alhaji Sir Ahmadu Bello". biography.yourdictionary.com. Retrieved 2021-05-19.
  10. 10.0 10.1 "Northern Region, Nigeria | What is it | Encyclopedia". Blog. Retrieved 2021-05-19.
  11. "Yakubu Gowon | head of state of Nigeria". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2021-05-19.
  12. Empty citation (help)
  13. Alhassan, Y.J; Utono, M.S (2021). "Economic Analysis of the Characteristics Of Extensive System Of Poultry Farming Interprises In Northwestern Nigeria". International Journal of Agricultural Research and Review. Spring Journals. 9 (3): 017–025. ISSN 2360-7971.
  14. "What is it Northern Region, Nigeria. Encyclopedia". en.what-this.com. Retrieved 2021-05-19.
  15. "Northern Region, Nigeria | What is it | Encyclopedia". Blog. Retrieved 2021-05-19.
  16. Alhassan, Y. J; Umar, A (2021). "Assessment of the Role of Bio-Based Fertilizers in Promoting Organic Farming in Northwestern Nigeria". Journal of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Rural Development. Spring Journals. 9 (3): 40–46. ISSN 2360-798X.
  17. nationsonline.org, klaus kästle-. "Islamic world, countries with a cultural Islamic population - Nations Online Project". www.nationsonline.org. Retrieved 2021-05-19.
  18. "Baroness Cox fact-finding mission to Nigeria reveals mass killing of Christians by extremists". Barnabas Fund.
  19. "Nigeria to launch major security operation after wave of violence between Muslim herders and Christian farmers". The Telegraph.

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