Mutanen Kanuri

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Kanuri people
Ali Modu Sherrff crop 2007.jpg
Ali Modu Sheriff, a Kanuri politician and Former governor of Borno State, Nigeria, 2007
Jimlar yawan jama'a
15,512,000 (2021 estimate)
Yankuna masu yawan jama'a
Nigeria, southeast Niger, western Chad and northern Cameroon western Sudan and southeast Libya
Flag of Nigeria.svg Nigeria
         
11,720,000 (2021)
Does not include Mangari[1]
Flag of Chad.svg Cadi 2,620,000 (2021)
most of which are Kanembu subgroup[1]
Flag of Niger.svg Nijar 1,540000 (2021)
Includes Mangari, Tumari, Bla Bla[1]
Flag of Cameroon.svg Kameru 1,300,000 (2021)[1]
Flag of Sudan.svg Sudan 1,100,000 (2021)[1]
Flag of Libya.svg Libya 140,000( 2021)[1]
Harsuna
Kanuri language
Addini
Islam
Kabilu masu alaƙa

Kanembu people, Zaghawa, Shuwa,

Fulani, Baggara

Mutanen Kanuri (Kanouri, Kanowri, da Yerwa, Bare Bari da sauran sunaye masu yawa) ƙabilu ne na Afirka waɗanda ke zaune a mafi yawan ƙasashen tsohuwar Kanem da daular Bornu a Nijar, Najeriya, Sudan, Libya da Kamaru. Wadanda galibi ake kira Kanuri sun haɗa da ƙananan ƙungiyoyi da ƙungiyoyin yare, da yawa daga cikinsu wadanda suke da bambanci da Kanuri. Yawancinsu suna gano asalinsu zuwa layin mulkin masarautar Kanem-Bornu, da kuma jihohin abokan cinikinta ko lardunan. Ya bambanta da makwabtan makiyaya na Toubou ko Zaghawa, kungiyoyin Kanuri a al'adance suna zaman kashe wando, yin noma, kamun kifin Chadi, da tsunduma cikin kasuwanci da sarrafa gishiri.

Bayan Fage[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Mutanen Kanuri sun haɗa da ƙananan rukuni da yawa, da kuma tantance su da sunaye daban-daban a wasu yankuna. Yaren Kanuri shine babban yare na Daular Bornu kuma har yanzu shine babban yare a kudu maso gabashin Niger, arewa maso gabashin Nigeria da arewacin Kamaru, amma a Chadi an iyakance shi ga handfulan masu magana a cikin biranen. [2]

Mafi yawan mutanen Kanuri suna zaune a kusurwar arewa maso gabashin Najeriya, inda masarautar Bornu ta samo asali ne daga daular Kanem-Bornu, wacce aka kafa tun kafin 1000 CE. Kimanin masu magana da Kanuri miliyan 3 ke zaune a Nijeriya, ba tare da wasu masu magana da yaren Manga ko Mangari 200,000 ba. [3] Mutanen Nga a cikin jihar Bauchi sun gano asalinsu daga ƙabilar Kanuri.

A kudu maso gabashin Nijar, inda suka fi yawa a cikin masu yawan tayar da zaune tsaye, Kanuri ana kiransu Bare Bari (sunan Hausawa). Yawan Kanuri dubu dari hudu a Nijar ya haɗa da rukunin Manga ko Mangari, wanda yawansu ya kai 100,000 (1997) a yankin gabashin Zinder, waɗanda ke ɗaukar kansu kamar sun bambanta da Bare Bari .

Kimanin mambobi 40,000 (1998) na ƙungiyar Tumari, wani lokacin ana kiranta Kanembu a Nijar, wasu keɓaɓɓun ƙungiyoyin Kanuri ne da ke zaune a yankin N'guigmi, kuma sun bambanta da mutanen Kanembu na ƙasar Chadi. [4] A cikin mashigar Kaour ta gabashin Nijar, Kanuri ya kara kasu kashi biyu zuwa Bla Bla subgroup, yawan su yakai 20,000 (2003), kuma sune mafi rinjaye a cikin ƙabilar gishiri da masana'antar kasuwanci ta Bilma. [5]

Kanuri yana magana da ire-iren Kanuri, ɗayan yarukan Nilo-Saharan . Rarrabawar sun haɗa da yarukan Manga, Tumari, da Bilma na Kanuri ta Tsakiya da yaren Kanembu da ya bambanta. [6]

Gado da al'adun addini da al'adun jihar Kanem-Bornu, mutanen Kanuri galibi Musulmin Sunni ne.

A Chadi, masu magana da Kanembu sun banbanta kansu da manyan kabilun Kanuri. Kanembu suna tsakiya a lardin Lac da kuma lardin Kanem na kudu. Kodayake Kanuri shine babban yare na Daular Bornu, a cikin Chadi, masu magana da Kanuri sun iyakance ga kaɗan daga masu magana a cikin biranen. Kanuri ya kasance babban harshe a kudu maso gabashin Nijar, arewa maso gabashin Najeriya da arewacin Kamaru.

A farkon 1980s, Kanembu ya kasance mafi yawan ɓangare na yawan lardin Lac, amma wasu Kanembu suma sun rayu a Chari-Baguirmi Prefecture . Da zarar asalin ƙabilar Masarautar Kanem-Borno, waɗanda ƙasashe a wani lokaci sun haɗa da arewa maso gabashin Najeriya da kudancin Libya, Kanembu ta riƙe alaƙa fiye da kan iyakar Chadi. Misali, dangin dangi da na kasuwanci sun hada su da Kanuri na arewa maso gabashin Najeriya. A cikin Chadi, Kanembu da yawa na lardin Lac da Kanem suna da alaƙa da Alifa na Mao, gwamnan yankin a zamanin mulkin mallaka. [2]

Asalin mutanen makiyaya ne, Kanuri suna ɗaya daga cikin ƙungiyoyin Nilo-Sahara da yawa waɗanda ke da asalin Sahara ta Tsakiya, suka fara fadada a yankin Tafkin Chadi a karshen karni na 7, kuma suka shagaltar da 'yan asalin Nilo-Saharan da Chadic (Afro-Asiatic) ) masu magana. A al'adar Kanuri, Sef, ɗan Dhu Ifazan na Yemen, ya isa Kanem a ƙarni na tara kuma ya haɗu da mutane zuwa daular Sayfawa . Wannan al'adar, wataƙila samfurin ne daga tasirin Islama na gaba, wanda ke nuna alaƙar da asalin Larabawa a zamanin Islama. Tabbacin shaidar asalin statean asali a yankin Tafkin Chadi ya faro ne zuwa kusan 800 KZ a Zilum.

Addini[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Amfani da karin magana a bayyane ya ke a cikin addinin Kanuri na Islama inda ake amfani da su don taimakawa wajen fahimtar abubuwan da ke faruwa a zamantakewa da kuma koyar da ma'anonin abubuwa. Waɗannan karin magana an ƙirƙira su ne da tsofaffin maza masu hikima tare da mahangar ra'ayi dangane da halin da ake ciki da kuma wane darasi da ake ƙoƙarin koyarwa. Misalai galibi suna magana ne akan abubuwan da aka samo a rayuwar yau da kullun. Koyaya, ana amfani da abubuwan da aka yi amfani da su a cikin karin magana ta yadda za su koyar da halaye na zamantakewa, imani ko gogewa. Sau da yawa ana gina karin magana a kusa da ayyukan da ake buƙata waɗanda ake aiwatarwa a cikin rayuwar yau da kullun, amma ana sanya su don a sauƙaƙe su gani kuma a yi amfani da su ga wasu, yanayi mai tsanani. Za'a iya amfani da karin magana na Kanuri a matsayin wata hanya ta tsoratarwa ko gargaɗi ga mutane game da ayyukan wauta ko haɗari, amma kuma na iya zama mai sauƙin zuciya da ƙarfafawa.

Kanuri sun zama musulmai a karni na 11.[ana buƙatar hujja] Kanem ya zama cibiyar karatun musulmai kuma Kanuri ba da daɗewa ba ya mallaki duk yankin da ke kewaye da Tafkin Chadi da kuma daula mai ƙarfi da ake kira Kanem Empire, wacce ta kai tsayi a ƙarni na sha shida da sha bakwai lokacin da suke mulkin yawancin Afirka ta Tsakiya.

Yankunan gargajiya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bayan faɗuwar Daular Bornu da kuma Scramble for Africa a cikin ƙarni na 19, Kanuri ya kasu kashi biyu karkashin mulkin Masarautun Burtaniya, Faransa da Jamus.

Duk da asarar da Kanuri ta yi, Shehu na Bornu ya ci gaba a matsayin shugaban Masarautar Bornu. Wannan jihar ta Kanuri / Kanembu ta gargajiya tana kula da tsarin al'adar mutanen Kanuri da ke zaune a Maiduguri, Jihar Borno, Najeriya amma ta amince da Kanuri miliyan 4 a ƙasashe maƙwabta. Shehun ("Sheik") na Bornu ya zaro ikonsa daga jihar da aka kafa kafin 1000 CE, masarautar Kanem-Bornu.

Layin mulki na yanzu, daular al-Kanemi, ya samo asali ne daga hawan Muhammad al-Amin al-Kanemi a farkon karni na 19, tare da raba daular Sayfawa da ta yi mulki daga kusan 1300 CE. Shehu na 19, Mustafa Ibn Umar El-Kanemi, ya mutu a watan Fabrairun 2009, [7] kuma Abubakar Ibn Umar Garbai El-Kanemi ya gaje shi. [8]

Shugabannin siyasa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A Najeriya, shahararrun shugabannin Kanuri bayan samun ‘yanci sun haɗa da‘ yan siyasa Kashim Ibrahim, Ibrahim Imam, Zannah Bukar Dipcharima, Shettima Ali Monguno, Abba Habib, Muhammad Ngileruma, Baba Gana Kingibe, tsohon shugaban GNPP Waziri Ibrahim, da tsohon shugaban mulkin soja, Sani Abacha . A Nijar, shugabannin siyasa na Kanuri sun haɗa da tsohon Firayim Ministan Nijar Mamane Oumarou, da tsohon Shugaban Nijar, Mamadou Tandja.

Yankin Kanuri a Najeriya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tutar mutanen Kanuri.

Wata takamaiman ƙaramin Ƙungiyoyin kishin ƙasa da ya fito a cikin 1950s, wanda ke kan Bornu. Wasu '' Pan-Kanuri '' masu kishin ƙasa sun yi da'awar yanki na 532,460 square kilometres (205,580 sq mi) don yankin abin da suka kira "Babban Kanowra", gami da lardunan Lac da Kanem na zamani a Chadi, Yankin Arewa mai Nisa a Kamaru da Yankunan Diffa da Zinder a Nijar da darfur a Sudan . [9]

A cikin 1954, aka kafa kungiyar 'Yan Matasa ta Borno (BYM) kuma suka taka rawa a matsayin babbar jam'iyyar siyasa mai yanki har zuwa karshen mulkin mallaka, duk da cewa ta samu' yanci. [10] [11]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Majiya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • "Kanuri" . Encyclopædia Britannica . 2009. Encyclopædia Britannica akan layi. An shiga 2 Afrilu 2009.
  • Fuchs, Peter (1989). Fachi: Sahara-Stadt der Kanuri . 2 vol.., Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag Wiesbaden
  • Fuchs, Peter (1983). Fachi: Das Brot der Wüste . Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag Wiesbaden
  • Lange, Dierk. "Ethnogenesis daga cikin yankin Chadi: Wasu Tunani kan Tarihin Kanem-Borno", Paideuma: Mitteilungen zur Kulturkunde 39 (1993), 261-277. JSTOR 40341665 .
  • Malone, Martin J. "Society-Kanuari" . Atlas na Attaura . Jami'ar Kent a Canterbury da Jami'ar Durham (Ingila, Ingila). (Babu kwanan wata. ) An shiga 5 Yuli 2019. An adana 4 Mayu 1997.
  • "Kanuri" . Afrikanische Sprachen. Rüdiger Köppe Verlag akan layi (27 Nuwamba Nuwamba 2008).

Hanyoyin haɗin waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 "Estimate of Kanuri Population (UNESCO ICH Experts)". Retrieved 7 February 2021.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Thomas Collelo, ed.
  3. Ethnologue Nigeria overview.
  4. Ethnologue KRT.
  5. Ethnologue BMS.
  6. Kanuri language.
  7. Nigeria: Five Jostle for Shehu's Throne - Yar'Adua, Sultan, Governors Attend Funeral.
  8. The intrigues, power play behind the emergence of new Shehu of Borno.
  9. Minahan, J. (1996).
  10. Billy J. Dudley.
  11. Richard L. Sklar.