Mustafa Kamal Atatürk

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Mustafa Kamal Atatürk
1. President of Turkey (en) Fassara

29 Oktoba 1923 - 10 Nuwamba, 1938 - İsmet İnönü (en) Fassara
Chairman of the Cabinet of the Executive Ministers of Turkey (en) Fassara

3 Mayu 1920 - 24 ga Janairu, 1921
← no value - Fevzi Çakmak (en) Fassara
Prime Minister of Turkey (en) Fassara

3 Mayu 1920 - 24 ga Janairu, 1921
Member of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey (en) Fassara

Rayuwa
Cikakken suna Ali Rıza oğlu Mustafa
Haihuwa Thessaloniki (en) Fassara, 1881
ƙasa Turkiyya
Daular Usmaniyya
Mazauni Thessaloniki (en) Fassara
Şahinbey (en) Fassara
Harshen uwa Turkanci
Mutuwa Dolmabahçe Palace (en) Fassara, 10 Nuwamba, 1938
Makwanci Anıtkabir (en) Fassara
Ethnography Museum of Ankara (en) Fassara
Yanayin mutuwa Sababi na ainihi (Cirrhosis)
Ƴan uwa
Mahaifi Ali Rıza Efendi
Mahaifiya Zübeyde Hanım
Abokiyar zama Latife Uşaki (en) Fassara  (29 ga Janairu, 1923 -  5 ga Augusta, 1925)
Yara
Ahali Makbule Atadan (en) Fassara
Karatu
Makaranta Ottoman Military College (en) Fassara 11 ga Janairu, 1905)
Monastir Military High School (en) Fassara
(1896 -
Turkish Military Academy (en) Fassara
(13 ga Maris, 1899 - 1902)
Harsuna Turkanci
Ottoman Turkish (en) Fassara
Faransanci
Sana'a
Sana'a ɗan siyasa, hafsa, statesperson (en) Fassara, marubuci, revolutionary (en) Fassara da army officer (en) Fassara
Tsayi 174 cm
Wurin aiki Ankara
Kyaututtuka
Ayyanawa daga
Mamba Vatan ve Hürriyet (en) Fassara
Committee of Union and Progress (en) Fassara
Aikin soja
Fannin soja Turkish Land Forces (en) Fassara
Digiri Mareşal (en) Fassara
Ya faɗaci 31 March Incident (en) Fassara
Italo-Turkish War (en) Fassara
Balkan Wars (en) Fassara
Gallipoli campaign (en) Fassara
Caucasus campaign (en) Fassara
Sinai and Palestine campaign (en) Fassara
Turkish War of Independence (en) Fassara
Imani
Jam'iyar siyasa Republican People's Party (en) Fassara
IMDb nm1130855
Mustafa Kamal Atatürk
Mustafa Kamal Atatürk

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, ko kuma Mustafa Kemal Pasha [lower-alpha 1] har zuwa 1921, da Ghazi Mustafa Kemal [lower-alpha 2] daga 1921 har zuwa 1934 ( c. 1881 [lower-alpha 3] - 10 Nuwamba 1938) ya kasance babban malamin Turkiyya, ɗan siyasa mai juyi, marubuci, kuma uban kafa Jamhuriyar Turkiyya, wanda ya zama shugabanta na farko daga 1923 har zuwa mutuwarsa a 1938. Ya gudanar da gyare-gyare na ci gaba, wanda ya zamanantar da Turkiyya ta zama kasa mai cin gashin kanta, mai masana'antu. [1] [2] A akida mai kishin addini kuma mai kishin kasa, manufofinsa da ka'idojin zamantakewa da siyasa sun zama sunan Kemalism. [1] Saboda nasarorin da ya samu na soja da na siyasa, ana daukar Atatürk a matsayin daya daga cikin manyan shugabannin siyasa na karni na 20. [3]

Atatürk ya yi fice saboda rawar da ya taka wajen tabbatar da nasarar da Turkiyya ta samu a yakin Gallipoli (1915) a lokacin yakin duniya na daya. [4] Bayan shan kaye da rugujewar Daular Usmaniyya, ya jagoranci kungiyar gwagwarmaya ta Turkiyya, wadda ta yi fatali da rabe-raben da Turkiyya ta yi tsakanin kasashen kawancen da suka ci nasara. Ya kafa gwamnatin wucin gadi a Ankara babban birnin kasar Turkiyya a yau (wanda aka fi sani da Ingilishi a lokacin da ake kira Angora), ya yi galaba a kan sojojin da kawancen kasashen duniya suka tura, inda ya samu nasara daga abin da daga baya ake kira yakin 'yancin kai na Turkiyya. Daga nan ya ci gaba da kawar da rugujewar daular Usmaniyya tare da shelanta kafuwar Jamhuriyar Turkiyya a madadinta.

Mustafa Kamal Atatürk 1921

A matsayinsa na shugaban sabuwar jamhuriyar Turkiyya, Atatürk ya kaddamar da wani shiri mai tsauri na siyasa, tattalin arziki, da gyare-gyaren al'adu da manufar gina kasa ta zamani, mai ci gaba da zaman kanta. Ya sanya karatun firamare kyauta kuma ya zama wajibi, inda ya bude dubban sabbin makarantu a fadin kasar nan. Har ila yau, ya gabatar da haruffan Turkanci na Latin, wanda ya maye gurbin tsoffin haruffan Turkanci na Ottoman. Matan Turkiyya sun sami daidaiton hakkin jama'a da na siyasa a lokacin shugabancin Atatürk. [5] Musamman mata an baiwa mata ‘yancin kada kuri’a a zaben kananan hukumomi bisa doka mai lamba. 1580 a ranar 3 ga watan Afrilu 1930 da ƴan shekaru baya, a cikin 1934, cikakkiyar zaɓe ta duniya. [6]

Mustafa Kamal Atatürk
Mustafa Kamal Atatürk 1917

Gwamnatinsa ta aiwatar da manufofin Turkification, tare da ƙoƙarin samar da daidaito, haɗin kai kuma sama da dukkanin al'ummar da ba ruwansu da addini karkashin tutar Turkiyya. [7] A karkashin Atatürk, an nemi 'yan tsiraru a Turkiyya da su yi magana da Turkawa a bainar jama'a, amma kuma an ba su damar kula da nasu harsunan a lokaci guda; An ba da umarnin toponyms da ƴan tsiraru waɗanda ba na Turkiyya ba da su sami sunan sunan Baturke kamar yadda aka fassara a Turanci. Majalisar dokokin Turkiyya ta ba shi sunan Atatürk a shekara ta 1934, wanda ke nufin "Uban Turkawa" saboda irin rawar da ya taka wajen gina jamhuriyar Turkiyya ta zamani. Ya rasu a ranar 10 ga watan Nuwamba 1938 a Fadar Dolmabahce da ke Istanbul, yana da shekaru 57; An karrama shi a matsayin shugaban kasa ta hannun firaminista İsmet İnönü na tsawon lokaci kuma an karrama shi da state funeral.

Kamal Atatürk
Mustafa Kamal Atatürk

A cikin 1981, shekaru ɗari na haifuwar Atatürk, Majalisar Dinkin Duniya da UNESCO sun girmama tunawa da shi, wanda ya ayyana shi Shekarar Atatürk a Duniya kuma ya amince da kuduri kan karni na Atatürk, yana bayyana shi a matsayin "shugaban gwagwarmaya na farko da aka yi wa adawa da shi. mulkin mallaka da mulkin mallaka" da kuma "mai ban mamaki mai inganta fahimtar juna tsakanin al'ummomi da zaman lafiya mai dorewa tsakanin al'ummomin duniya da kuma cewa ya yi aiki a duk tsawon rayuwarsa don ci gaba da jituwa da haɗin gwiwa tsakanin al'ummomi ba tare da bambanci ba". Ana kuma yabawa Atatürk saboda zaman lafiyarsa a manufofin ketare mai ra'ayin duniya da kuma abokantaka da kasashe makwabta irin su Iran, Yugoslavia, Iraki, da Girka, da kuma samar da yarjejeniyar Balkan wadda ta bijirewa hare-haren wuce gona da iri na Fascist Italiya da Tsarist. Bulgaria. [8]

Suna[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Mustafa Kamal Atatürk

An haifi Atatürk Mustafa. Sunansa na biyu Kemal (ma'ana "kammala" ko "balaga" a Larabci) malamin lissafinsa Captain Üsküplü Mustafa Efendi ne ya ba shi suna. A cewar Afet İnan, malaminsa ya ba da wannan suna "a cikin sha'awar iyawar [Atatürk] da balaga." [9] A cewar wasu majiyoyin, malamin nasa ya so ya bambanta Atatürk da wani dalibi wanda shi ma ake kira Mustafa. [10] [11] Andrew Mango ya nuna cewa watakila ya zabi sunan da kansa a matsayin girmamawa ga mawaki Namık Kemal. [12] A cewar Alkan, Atatürk da alama ya rungumi sunan Kemal a shekarun da ya yi soja.

Bayan samun sunan Atatürk a katin shaidarsa na farko a 1934, sunan da aka ba shi ya bayyana a matsayin Kemal Atatürk, yayin da sunan Mustafa ya ɓace gaba ɗaya. A cikin Fabrairu 1935, Atatürk ya fara amfani da sunan da ake zaton "na asali" Kamâl. A cewar Tarama Dergisi (1934), kamal yana nufin “kariya”, “gida”, “sojoji”, da kuma “garkuwa”. A ranar 4 ga Fabrairun 1935, kamfanin dillancin labarai na gwamnati Anadolu Agency ya ba da bayanin kamar haka:

In the light of our information, the name 'Kamâl' that Atatürk bears is not an Arabic word, nor does it have the meaning by the Arabic word kemal ['maturity', 'perfection']. Atatürk's [original] personal name, which is being retained, is 'Kamâl', the Turkish meaning of which is army and fortification. As the circumflex accent on the final a softens the k the pronunciation closely approximates that of the Arabic 'Kemal'. That is the full extent of the resemblance.

— Anadolu Agency

Duk da haka, Atatürk ya koma tsohuwar rubutun Kemal daga Mayu 1937 zuwa gaba. Don yin sauƙi mai sauƙi, ya guje wa amfani da sunan gwargwadon iyawarsa, ko dai ta hanyar rashin amfani da shi kwata-kwata ko kuma ta sanya hannu a kan takardu a matsayin 'K. Atatürk'. Ba a taɓa yin bayani a hukumance ba. Duk da haka, a bayyane yake cewa batun sunan Atatürk yana da alaƙa da sake fasalin harshen Turkiyya.

Gidan da aka haifi Atatürk a birnin Salonika na Ottoman (Thessaloniki a Girka a yau), yanzu gidan kayan gargajiya .
Gidan kakannin kakannin Atatürk da aka sake ginawa, a kauyen Ottoman na Kocacık ( Kodžadžik a Arewacin Macedonia a yau)


Ƙuruciya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Daya ne kawai daga cikin ’yan’uwan Mustafa, wata ‘yar’uwa mai suna Makbule (Atadan) ta tsira da rayukansu. ta rasu a shekara ta alif 1956.

A cewar wasu kafofin, ita Bayahudiya ce (Scholem,a shekarar 2007) ko Bulgarian (Tončeva,a shekarar 2009). [13]

Mahaifiyarsa ta so ya koyi sana’a, amma ba tare da tuntubarsu ba, Atatürk ya yi jarrabawar shiga makarantar Soja ta Salonica ( Selanik Askeri Rüştiyesi ) a shekara ta alif 1893. A cikin shekarata alif 1896, ya shiga Makarantar Soja ta Monastir (a Bitola ta zamani, Arewacin Macedonia ). A ranar 14 ga watan Maris shekarata alif 1899, [14] ya yi rajista a Kwalejin Sojan Ottoman da ke unguwar Pangaltı [15] a cikin gundumar Şişli na babban birnin Ottoman Constantinople ( Istanbul na zamani) kuma ya kammala karatunsa a shekarata alif 1902. Daga baya ya sauke karatu daga Kwalejin Soja ta Ottoman a Konstantinoful a ranar 11 ga watan Janairun shekarata alif 1905. [14]

Ƙuruciya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An haifi Atatürk ko dai a unguwar Ahmet Subaşı ko kuma a wani gida (wanda aka kiyaye shi azaman gidan kayan gargajiya) a Titin Islahhane (yanzu titin Apostolou Pavlou) a unguwar Koca Kasım Pasha a cikin Salonica (Selanik), Daular Usmaniyya (Thessaloniki a halin yanzu-) ranar Girka ). Iyayensa su ne Ali Rıza Efendi, wani jami'in soja dan asalin Kodžadžik, magatakarda kuma mai sayar da katako, da Zübeyde Hanım. Daya ne kawai daga cikin ’yan’uwan Mustafa, wata ‘yar’uwa mai suna Makbule (Atadan) ta tsira da rayukansu. ta rasu a shekara ta 1956.

Da'awa da ka'idoji game da zuriyar Atatürk sun bambanta sosai kuma sun bambanta. [13] A cewar Andrew Mango, danginsa musulmi ne, masu magana da Turanci kuma masu matsakaicin matsayi. Ana kyautata zaton mahaifinsa Ali Rıza dan kasar Albaniya ne daga wasu marubuta; [16] [17] [18] duk da haka, a cewar Falih Rıfkı Atay, Vamık D. Volkan, Norman Itzkowitz, Müjgân Cunbur, Numan Kartal da Hasan İzzettin Dinamo, kakannin Ali Rıza Turkawa ne, daga ƙarshe sun fito daga Söke a lardin Aydı. Anatoliya. [19] [20] [21] [22]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. In this Ottoman Turkish style name, the given name is Mustafa Kemal, the title is Pasha, and there is no family name.
  2. In this Ottoman Turkish style name, the given name is Mustafa Kemal, the title is Ghazi, and there is no family name.
  3. His birthday is unknown. 19 May–the day he landed to Samsun in 1919 to start the nationalist resistance–is considered his symbolic birthday. It was also claimed that he was born in 1880. See Personal life of Atatürk § Birth date
  1. 1.0 1.1 (Bruce ed.). Missing or empty |title= (help)
  2. Harold Courtenay Armstrong Gray Wolf, Mustafa Kemal: An Intimate Study of a Dictator. page 225
  3. EINSTEIN AND ATATURK (Part 1), National Geographic Society Newsroom
  4. Zürcher, Turkey: a modern history, 142
  5. Mastering Modern World History by Norman Lowe, second edition
  6. Türkiye'nin 75 yılı, Tempo Yayıncılık, İstanbul, 1998, pp. 48, 59, 250
  7. Empty citation (help)
  8. "Balkan Pact and Turkey" by Assoc.
  9. Afet İnan, Atatürk hakkında hâtıralar ve belgeler, Türk Tarih Kurumu Basımevi, 1959, p. 8.
  10. Ali Fuat Cebesoy, Sınıf arkadaşım Atatürk: okul ve genç subaylık hâtıraları, İnkılâp ve Aka Kitabevleri, 1967, p. 6.
  11. Empty citation (help)
  12. Mango, Atatürk, p. 37.
  13. 13.0 13.1 Empty citation (help) Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Zadrozna" defined multiple times with different content
  14. 14.0 14.1 T. C. Genelkurmay Harp Tarihi Başkanlığı Yayınları, Türk İstiklâl Harbine Katılan Tümen ve Daha Üst Kademelerdeki Komutanların Biyografileri, Ankara: Genkurmay Başkanlığı Basımevi, 1972, p. 1. (in Turkish)
  15. Falih Rıfkı Atay, Çankaya: Atatürk'ün doğumundan ölümüne kadar, İstanbul: Betaş, 1984, p. 29. (in Turkish)
  16. Mango, Andrew, Atatürk: the biography of the founder of modern Turkey, (Overlook TP, 2002), p. 27.
  17. Jackh, Ernest, The Rising Crescent, (Goemaere Press, 2007), p. 31, Turkish mother and Albanian father
  18. Isaac Frederick Marcosson, Turbulent Years, Ayer Publishing, 1969, p. 144.
  19. Falih Rıfkı Atay, Çankaya: Atatürk'ün doğumundan ölümüne kadar, İstanbul: Betaş, 1984, p. 17. (in Turkish)
  20. Cunbur, Müjgân.
  21. Kartal, Numan.
  22. Dinamo, Hasan İzzettin.