Mutanen Fon

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Mutanen Fon
Fon people
D263- amazone dahoméenne. - L1-Ch5.png
Jimlar yawan jama'a
4-5 million
Harsuna
Fon, French
Kabilu masu alaƙa
Aja, Ewe, other Gbe peoples, Yorubas, Haitians

A Fon mutane, wanda kuma ake kira Fon nu, Agadja ko Dahomey, ne mai Gbe ƙabila. [1] Su ne mafi yawan ƙabilu a cikin Benin waɗanda aka samo musamman a yankin kudanci; ana kuma samun su a kudu maso yammacin Najeriya da Togo . Adadin yawan su ya kai kimanin mutane 3,500,000, kuma suna jin yaren Fon, memba ne na yarukan Gbe .

Tarihin mutanen Fon yana da alaƙa da Dahomey masarauta, ingantacciyar masarauta ta ƙarni na 17 amma ɗayan da ke da tsohuwar alaƙa da mutanen Aja . Mutanen Fon a al'adance al'adu ce ta al'ada kuma suna da ingantaccen tsarin addinin mushirikai. 'Yan kasuwar Turai na farkon ƙarni na 19 sun lura da su game da aikin NNonmiton ko Dahomey Amazons - wanda ya ba matan su damar yin aikin soja, waɗanda shekarun da suka gabata suka yaƙi sojojin mulkin mallaka na Faransa a 1890. [2]

Yawancin Fon a yau suna zaune a ƙauyuka da ƙananan garuruwa a cikin gidajen laka tare da rufin kwano na baƙin ƙarfe. Kayan gini na birni na Mutanen Fon ya haɗa Abomey, da tarihi babban birnin Dahomey a kan abin da aka tarihi kira su da Turawa a matsayin Bawa Coast . Waɗannan biranen sun zama manyan cibiyoyin kasuwanci don cinikin bayi . Wani ɓangare mai mahimmanci na shukar sukari a cikin Faransa West Indies, musamman Haiti da Trinidad, sun kasance tare da bayi waɗanda suka fito daga gaɓar Slave, ta ƙasashen Ewe da Fon.

Asali[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A Gbe harshen yankin. Taswirar Fon (purple) da sauran ƙabilu, a cewar Capo (1998). Tun karni na goma sha bakwai, Fon ya tattara cikin yankin Benin da yankin kudu maso yammacin Najeriya.

Mutanen Fon, kamar sauran ƙabilun da ke makwabtaka da su a Afirka ta Yamma, sun kasance al'adun gargajiya na baka ta hanyar ƙarshen zamanin da, ba tare da tarihin tarihi ba. Dangane da waɗannan tarihin baka da almara, mutanen Fon sun samo asali ne daga Tado na yau, ƙaramin garin Aja yanzu yana kusa da iyakar Togo-Benin. Tsoffin shugabannin su asalinsu ɓangare ne na masu faɗa aji a masarautar Aja ta Allada (ana kuma kiranta masarautar Ardra).

Mutanen Aja sun yi babban rikici, rukuni daya ya byalle kuma waɗannan mutane sun zama mutanen Fon da suka yi kaura zuwa Allada tare da sarki Agasu. 'Ya'yan sarki Agasu sun yi saɓani game da wanda zai gaje shi bayan mutuwarsa, kuma kungiyar ta sake rabuwa, a wannan karon mutanen Fon sun yi kaura tare da dan Agasu Dogbari zuwa arewa zuwa Abomey inda suka kafa daular Dahomey wani lokaci kusan 1620 CE. Mutanen Fon suna zaune a can tun, yayin da masarautar Dahomey ta fadada a kudu maso gabashin Benin ta hanyar cinye masarautun makwabta.

Tarihin baka na Fon ya kara danganta asalin mutanen Fon da yin auratayya tsakanin wannan rukunin ƙungiyar Allada-nu Aja da ke kaura daga kudu tare da mazauna Oyo-nu a Masarautun (Yarbawa). Wadannan Yarbawan an san su da Igede, wanda Ajas ke kira Gedevi. [3] Haɗakar da baƙin haure Aja masu nasara da asalin Yarbawa na asali na tsaunin Abomey don haka ya haifar da sabon al'adu, na Fon.

Kodayake waɗannan al'adun gargajiyar na baka sun wuce ta cikin zuriya, ba su da rikici. Da'awar zuwa ga  asalin daga cikin Allada ba a rubuta a cikin zamani kafofin kafin marigayi karni na sha takwas, da kuma shi ne wata ila a wajen legitimating da da'awar da ci daga Allada da Dahomey a cikin 1720s. Hakanan ana iya fassara waɗannan iƙirarin azaman maganganun kamantawa na tasirin al'adu da siyasa tsakanin masarauta maimakon ainihin dangi.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

"Amazon King Apron", Dahomey : ƙarni na sha tara

Duk da yake nassoshi da rubutaccen tarihi game da mutanen Fon ba su da yawa kafin ƙarni na 17, akwai takardu masu yawa a kansu daga ƙarni na 17, musamman waɗanda baƙin Turai da 'yan kasuwa suka rubuta zuwa yankunan Yammacin Afirka. Waɗannan abubuwan tunawa sun ambaci garuruwa kamar Ouidah da Abomey. Daga cikin rubutun da aka fi yadawa akwai na Archibald Dalzel, wani bawan dillali wanda a 1793 ya rubuta tatsuniyoyi, tarihi da kuma ayyukan cinikin bayi na mutanen Fon a cikin wani littafi mai suna Tarihin Dahomey . [4] Malaman zamanin zamani sun yi tambaya game da gaskiyar Dalzel, kuma yaya littafinsa na farko akan mutanen Fon ya kasance malanta ko kuma malanta.

A ƙarni na 19 da farkon karni na 20, yayin da kasancewar Faransa ta karu sannan kuma lokacin mulkin mallaka ya fara a cikin Benin da yankuna da ke kusa, karin tarihi da litattafai masu nasaba da mutanen Fon sun bayyana, kamar wadanda Édouard Foà, [5] N Savariau, [6] Le Herisse da MJ Herskovits 'nazarin halayyar ɗan adam kan mutanen Fon da aka buga a 1938.

Waɗannan tarihin sun nuna cewa masarautar mutanen Fon ta Dahomey ta fadada a farkon karni na 18, musamman lokacin mulkin Sarki Agaja har zuwa 1740s, har zuwa gabar tekun Atlantika daga babban birninta na Abomey. A wannan lokacin, shekaru 200 bayan Fotigal ta riga ta zauna a yankunan Kongo a gabar Tekun Atlantika na Afirka ta Tsakiya a cikin ƙarni na 16, akwai gonaki da yawa a cikin yankin Caribbean da na Tekun Atlantika na Kudancin Amurka, wanda ya riga ya samar da buƙata mai ƙarfi don bayi daga Turawan fatake. Theasar da aka faɗaɗa na masarautar Dahomey tana da matsayi mai kyau don samar da wannan kasuwancin na ƙetare kuma ana gabatar da tarihin ƙarni na 18 da 19 na mutanen Fon a cikin wannan mahallin.

Bauta, Gwanin Benin[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Mutanen Fon ba su ƙirƙiro da bautar a Afirka ba, kuma ba su da ikon mallaka a kan bautar ko kuma kasuwancin kasuwanci na bawa. Ofungiyar bautar ta daɗe ta faɗi asalin mutanen Fon a cikin masarautar Aja da samuwar masarautar Dahomey. Yankin Sahara da Yankin Bahar Maliya, in ji Herbert Klein - malamin tarihi, ya kasance yana fataucin tsakanin barorin Afirka 5,000 zuwa 10,000 a kowace shekara tsakanin 800 zuwa 1600 CE, tare da yawancin bayin mata da yara ne. A cewar John Donnelly Fage - farfesan tarihi da ya kware a Afirka, "an kafa tattalin arzikin bayi a Yammacin da Kudancin Sudan da kusan karni na sha huɗu aƙalla, kuma hakika ya bazu zuwa yankunan da ke kusa da Senegal da kuma a Lower Guinea ƙarni na goma sha biyar ".

Jirgin kaya tsakanin 1501 da 1867, ta yanki
Yanki Gaba daya suka hau Gaba daya suka sauka
Yankin mutanen Kongo 5.69 miliyan
Gasar Benin Miliyan 2.00
Batun Biafra 1.6 miliyan
Kogin Gold Coast 1.21 miliyan
Kogin Windward Miliyan 0.34
Saliyo 0.39 miliyan
Senegambiya 0.76 miliyan
Mozambik 0.54 miliyan
Brazil (Kudancin Amurka) Miliyan 4.7
Sauran Kudancin Amurka 0.9 miliyan
Caribbean Miliyan 4.1
Amirka ta Arewa Miliyan 0.4
Turai Miliyan 0.01

A ƙarni na 15, masarautar daular Songhay ta arewacin arewacin mutanen Fon, a cikin kwarin Kogin Neja, tuni suna amfani da dubban bayi da aka kama don aikin noma. Buƙatar bautar bayi don samar da noman rake, auduga, man dabino, taba da sauran kayayyaki a cikin gonakin mulkin mallaka na Turai a duniya ya haɓaka sosai tsakanin 1650 da 1850. Bight of Benin tuni ya kasance yana jigilar bayi a ƙarshen karni na 17, kafin mutanen Fon su faɗaɗa masarautarsu don su mallaki layin bakin teku. Sarakunan Fon da 'yan kasuwa, waɗanda aka kafa ikonsu a gabar Tekun Atlantika tsakanin 1700 da 1740, sun shiga wannan kasuwar. Mutanen Fon sun rarrabu kan yadda zasu amsa bukatar bawa. Wasu masana sun ba da shawarar cewa mutanen Fon da masu mulkin Dahomey sun bayyana aniyarsu ta taykaita ko kawo karshen cinikin bayi, in ji Elizabeth Heath, amma shaidun tarihi sun tabbatar da cewa gabar tekun Benin da ta hada da tashar jiragen ruwan masu mulkin Dahomey da mutanen Fon sun zama daya daga cikin manyan masu fitar da bayi.

Masarautar Dahomey, tare da masarautan makwabta na Benin da daular Oyo, sun afkawa bayi ne kuma sun sayar da wadanda suka kamo su cikin bautar ƙasashen. Gasar ga kamammu, bayi da kudaden shiga na gwamnati, tsakanin masarautun Afirka, ya haɓaka haɓakar juna da matsin lamba. An sayar da fursunonin a matsayin bayi ga Turawa daga Bight of Benin (wanda kuma ake kira Slave Coast), daga ƙarni na sha takwas zuwa na sha tara. Mutanen Fon duka wadanda abin ya shafa ne kuma sun cutar da wasu ƙabilun. Wasu kamammun sun fito ne daga yaƙe-yaƙe, amma wasu sun fito ne daga satar tsari a cikin masarautar ko a iyakokin, da kuma ayarin bayi da fatake suka shigo da su daga yankin Afirka ta Yamma. Masarautar Dahomey ta mutanen Fon ce ke kula da tashar jiragen ruwa ta Ouidah, daga inda jiragen ruwa masu yawa na Turawa suke sauka. Koyaya, wannan ba tashar jirgin ruwa kawai ba ce ta yankin kuma ta yi takara tare da tashar jiragen ruwa da wasu masarautun kusa ke sarrafawa akan Bight of Benin da Bight of Biafra .

Mutanen Fon, tare da ƙabilun da ke makwabtaka da su kamar mutanen Ewe, sun sauka a cikin masarautun Faransa don yin aiki a matsayin bayi a gonakin yankin Karibiyan da gaɓar Kudancin Amurka. Da farko ana kiransu Whydah, wanda ke nufin ma'anar "mutanen da Alladah ya sayar". Kalmar Whydah a bisa tsari ta rikide zuwa Rada, sunan al'ummar Afirka ta Yamma da suka shiga jiragen ruwa daga Bight of Benin, kuma yanzu ana samunsu a Haiti, Saint Lucia, Trinidad, Antilles na Faransa da sauran tsibirai da ke kusa da tasirin Faransa. A cikin wasu takaddun mulkin mallaka na Caribbean, ana samun wasu kalmomin maimaita kamar Rara .

'Yan kasuwar bayi da masu mallakar jiragen ruwan tsarin Turawan mulkin mallaka sun karfafa gasa, sun wadatar da masarautu iri daban-daban da makamai, wadanda suka biya tare da bayi, tare da gina kayayyakin more rayuwa kamar tashar jiragen ruwa da kagarai don karfafa kananan masarautu. Koyaya, cinikin bayi a cikin Bight of Benin ba da daɗewa ba ya ƙare yayin da ƙasashen Turai da na Amurka suka zartar da doka wacce ta haramta shigarsu cikin kasuwancin bayi. Al’umma ta karshe a cikin Amurka da ta haramtawa cinikin bayi a hukumance ita ce Imperial Brazil, a cikin 1851. [7] Lokacin da fitowar bayi ta ƙare, sarkin mutanen Fon ya koma fitar da kayan noma zuwa Faransa, musamman dabino, amma yayi amfani da bayi don gudanar da gonakin. Fitar da kayan noma ba ta da riba kamar yadda ake fitarwa bayi a da. Don dawo da kuɗaɗen shiga na ƙasa ya ba da hayar tashar jiragen ruwa a masarautarsa ga Faransawa ta hanyar yarjejeniyar da aka sanya hannu a ƙarshen ƙarni na 19. Faransawa sun fassara yarjejeniyar da cewa satar filaye da tashar jiragen ruwa, yayin da masarautar Dahomey ba ta yarda ba. Rigimar ta haifar da harin Faransa a 1890, da kuma mamaye masarautar a matsayin mulkin mallakar Faransa a 1892. Wannan ya fara mulkin mallaka ga mutanen Fon.

Mulkin mallaka na Faransa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Lokacin mulkin mallaka na Faransa ya nuna ƙarshen mulkin Fon, kodayake Faransa ta riƙe tsarin shuka, wanda suka gada daga masarauta. Bambancin kawai, don haka ya ce Patrick Manning - farfesa ne na Tarihin Duniya wanda ya ƙware kan Afirka, tsawon shekaru saba'in masu zuwa shi ne cewa mulkin mallakar Faransa, maimakon tsohon sarkin mutanen Fon, yanzu ya yanke shawarar yadda rarar (ribar) daga wadannan gonakin za a kashe. Masu kula da mulkin mallaka na Faransa sun yi wasu ingantattun kayan more rayuwa don haɓaka ribar shuka da kayan aiki don biyan bukatun mulkin mallaka na Faransa.

Gwamnatin mulkin mallaka ta Faransa ta yi niyya kan bautar a Benin, sun haramta kame bayi, sun 'yanta bayi da yawa ta hanyar doka, amma sun fuskanci turjiya da gwagwarmaya ta bangaranci daga masu bayi bayi na cikin gida da ke gudanar da gonakinsu. Bautar da ya ci gaba ya haɗa da waɗanda ke da alaƙa da nasaba, waɗanda suka zauna tare a tsakanin iyalai a yankin. Tsarin mulkin mallaka na Fon ya dace da sabon yanayin, ta hanyar shiga cikin masu gudanarwa a cikin mulkin Faransa.

Haraji sababbi ga mutanen mulkin mallaka na Dahomey, wanda Faransanci ya kira impôt, kwatankwacin waɗanda aka riga aka aiwatar a Faransa, an gabatar da su ga dukkan ƙabilu, gami da mutanen Fon, daga masu mulkin mallaka. Biyan waɗannan a kai a kai ana adawa ko kawai an ƙi, wanda ya haifar da arangama, tawaye, kamawa, kalmomin gidan yari da aikin tilastawa. Waɗannan ƙorafe-korafen sun shiga cikin gwagwarmayar kishin ƙasa da mulkin mallaka wanda Fon mutane suka shiga ciki. Faransa ta amince da cin gashin kai ga Dahomey a 1958, da kuma samun cikakken 'yanci a 1960.

Addini[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Wasu mutanen Fon sun musulunta zuwa addinin Krista ko Islama a ƙarƙashin tasirin mishaneri a lokacin mulkin mallaka, a cikin Benin da kuma yankunan Faransa na yammacin Indiya, amma da yawa sun ci gaba da al'adunsu na gargajiya. Yayin da Musulunci ya isa yankin na Benin tsakanin ƙarni na 11 da 13, Kiristanci ya karɓi mulkin Dahomey ne Agonglo wanda ya hau mulki a 1789, da magoya bayan sa na Fon, tare da maraba da mishaneri. A cewar Steven Mailloux, mishaneri sun yi ƙoƙari su haɗu da tsoffin ra'ayoyin mutanen Fon a kan cosmogenesis su zama daidai da Adam-Hauwa'u, kuma Legba su zama Shaidan Kirista, koyarwar da ta haifar da aiki tare maimakon barin su.  

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Fon people, Encyclopædia Britannica, undated, 1.7 million population, Retrieved June 29, 2019
  2. Robin Law (1993), The 'Amazons' of Dahomey, Paideuma: Mitteilungen zur Kulturkunde, Bd. 39 (1993), pages 245-260
  3. http://evenemenciel.travel/en/2012/08/15/the-kingdom-of-abomey/
  4. I. A. Akinjogbin (1966), Archibald Dalzel: Slave Trader and Historian of Dahomey, The Journal of African History, Cambridge University Press, Vol. 7, No. 1 (1966), pages 67-78
  5. Le Dahomey, Édouard Foà (1895), BnF: National Library of France (in French)
  6. L'agriculture au Dahomey N. Savariau (1906), A. Challamel, Marseille, France, Exposition nationale (in French)
  7. CHRONOLOGY - Who banned slavery when? Reuters