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Mutanen Iwellemmedan

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Mutanen Iwellemmedan
Hangen nesa na Faransa game da wani mutumin Abzinawa daga Timbuktu, c.1890s.

Iwellemmedan ( Iwəlləmədǎn ), ya kuma rubuta Iullemmeden, Aulliminden, Ouilliminden, Lullemmeden, da Iwellemmeden, suna ɗaya daga cikin manyan ƙungiyoyin Abzinawa bakwai ko ƙungiyoyi (waɗanda ake kira " ƙungiyoyin Drum "). Ƙungiyoyinsu suna da ƙaura daga tarihi kuma suna hulɗa da wasu ƙabilun. Iwellemmeden suna zaune a yanki mai fadi daga gabas da arewa ta tsakiyar Mali, ta kwarin Azawagh, zuwa arewa maso yammacin Nijar da kudu zuwa arewacin Najeriya . Duk da kuma yake sau ɗaya ƙungiya guda da yawa na Abzinawa da dangi, al'ummomin ƙasa, da ƙungiyoyin ƙawance, tun ƙarni na 18 sun kasu kashi Kel Ataram (yamma) da Kel Dinnik (gabas) ƙungiyoyi. Bayan bin mulkin mallaka da 'yanci, yankuna na Iwellemmedan sun tsallaka kan iyakar Mali / Niger, kuma hanyoyinda suke bi na zamani sun yada al'ummomin Iwellemmedan zuwa Burkina Faso da Najeriya . [1] Suna magana da bambancin Tawellemmet na harshen Tamasheq kodayake wasu dangogin na yanzu ko na gargajiya suna magana da wasu bambancin Tamasheq da yarukan Songhai da yarukan Larabci.

Raba[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Yankunan da adadi masu yawa na Buzaye ke rayuwa

Asalin rarrabuwa cikin Kel Ataram ("mutanen yamma") da Kel Dinnik ("mutanen gabas") ya koma aƙalla 1800, kuma wataƙila ƙarni ɗaya da ta gabata. [1] Ƙungiyar ta ci gaba da rarrabuwar kai a ƙarƙashin mulkin mallaka, tare da baiwa toan Jamhuriyar Nijar gabas ta ba wa jami’inta “shugaba”, amma bayan shekara ta 1916, an sake raba ɓangaren yamma tsakanin manyan shugabannin masarautar Faransa. Rabuwa da gabas da yamma Iwellemmedan ya kasance a cikin lokacin mulkin mallaka.

Hannun yamma na Iwellemmedan shine Kel Ataram da ke tsakiyar garin Ménaka na Mali. Bangarorin 'yanci "marasa kyauta (galibi" maraboutic "ko" Imajeghen "ƙabilun da suka gaji shugabancin addini na gari) sun haɗa da Tahabanaten da Ighatafan . [2]

Babban mahimmin ɓangaren gabas na ƙungiyar shine Kel Dinnik (var. Kel Dinnig ), wani lokaci ana kiransa "Ouilliminden Kel Dinnik", kuma ya kasance a cikin Azawagh, kusa da Tchin-Tabaraden da Tahoua . Manyan abubuwan da suke "kyauta" / "Imajeghen" sun haɗa da Irreulen, Lisawan, Tiggirmat, Tellemidez, da Ikhekheren . Dangin Kel Nan mai 'yanci / mai martaba shine asalin gargajiyar Amenokal, babban shugaban hadaddiyar ƙungiyar da shugabannin dangi suka zaba. [3]

Dukkan ƙungiyoyin biyu makiyaya ne, wadanda tsarin hijirar su ya kaisu arewa zuwa Sahara a lokacin kankanin lokacin damina, da kuma kudu har Najeriya da Burkina Faso a lokacin rani. Kamar dukkan kungiyoyin Abzinawa, an kirkiresu ne daga wasu manya-manyan masu fada a ji, wadanda suke mu'amala da aminci daga dangi da yawa, wasu daga cikinsu sun iyakance ga takamaiman jarumai. Ƴan gidan da ke mulki suna jagorantar manyan ƙungiyoyi, kuma suna yin ƙaura lokaci-lokaci, kiwo, kasuwanci, yaƙi, da ayyukan addini. Castananan ƙungiyoyi, da dangin da suka haɗu da rukunin ƙungiyoyin dangi masu 'yanci suna iya zama masu sassaucin ra'ayi kuma ba sa cikin ƙungiyoyin haɗin gwiwa, koda kuwa suzerains ɗinsu na gargajiya mambobi ne na ƙungiyoyi kamar Iwellemmedan. Bugu da kari, manyan kungiyoyin na iya hada da kawancen wadanda ba Buzaye ba, kamar ƙabilun yankin da ke jin larabci. [2]

Tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ƙungiyoyin Abzinawa sun koma kudu zuwa cikin Mali da Nijar yanzu wani lokacin kusan ƙarni na 11 CE, kuma Iwellemmedan an kafa kudu da gabashin Adar Ifoghas a ƙarni na 17 AD. Tarihin baka na gwagwarmaya ya yarda cewa Iwellemmedan ya shiga rikici tare da ƙungiyar Kel Taddemekat, amma bai yarda ba ko an kori Iwellemmedan ne daga abokan Adar Ifoghas ta abokan gaba ko suka ci yankin Kel Taddemekat kudu da yamma na massif. Ba tare da la'akari ba, a tsakiyar karni na 15 miladiyya, Iwellemmedan ya sarrafa yanki daga Tafkin Faguibine da arewacin Timbuktu gabas ta duk yankin da yake yanzu Gao na Mali, zuwa cikin Azawagh na Nijar har zuwa gefen Aïr Massif . [1]

Tsunduma cikin doguwar gwagwarmaya tare da magadan ƙarni na 15 miladiya ta mamayar moroccan daular Songhai, dangin Iwellemmedan Kel Ataram daga karshe suka sanya mulkin kai tsaye a kan Timbuktu, tare da duk kwarin Kogin Neja daga yankin Neja zuwa yankin da ke garin Ka ce, Nijar . An kori Kel Ataram ne kawai daga Timbuktu a cikin 1826 ta haɓakar Daular Fula Macina, amma ta riƙe yawancin yanki zuwa arewacin ta. [1]

A daidai lokacin da turawan mulkin mallaka na Faransa suka faɗaɗa yankunansu a ƙarshen ƙarni na 19, Iwellemmedan sune suka kasance babbar ƙungiyar Abzinawa a duk yammacin Niger da gabashin Mali, har zuwa gabar Kogin Niger, inda suka mamaye mutane da yawa. na ƙauyukan Songhay. Bayan fatattakar su da Faransawa suka yi bayan kwace Timbuktu a cikin 1894, Kel Ataram Amenokal ya yi alkawarin ba da zalunci tare da Faransanci a 1896, kuma a ƙarshe an sami zaman lafiya a 1903. A daidai wannan lokacin, Faransanci sun mai da hankali kan rikicin su da Kel Ifoghas zuwa arewa. A cikin shekaru goma, an canza mukamai, lokacin da Ifoghas suka taimaka don kawar da tashin 1914 – 1916 na Iwellemmedan da dangin da ke kawance a ƙarƙashin Amenokal Fihirun. [1] Juriyarsu ga mamayar Faransa ta jawo musu asara mai yawa, tare da mutuwar da yawa daga cikin mayaƙansu, kuma a ƙarshe sun fi son Kidal na Kel Ifoghas ta ikon mulkin mallaka. Yawancin abubuwa daga ƙarshe Faransanci ya karye daga Iwellemmedan Kel Ataram, wanda ya ƙara raunana ƙungiyar.

Asalin Abzinawan Iwellemmedan na asali yana cikin Nijar. Koyaya, mummunan fari a cikin 1972 da 1982 sun tilasta wa makiyaya Iwellemmedan yin ƙaura zuwa kudu zuwa Najeriya don neman wuraren kiwo don garken dabbobinsu. Yawancin Aulliminden daga ƙarshe sun matsa kusa da yankunan da ke da yawan jama'a. Waɗannan Abzinawa sun zauna a gefen biranen arewacin Najeriya, kuma da yawa ba su dawo ƙasarsu ba. A cikin shekarun 1970, adadi mai yawa na 'yan gudun hijirar Abzinawa, da yawa daga cikinsu Iwellemmedan, sun zauna a sansanonin' yan gudun hijirar da ke kudancin Nijar, galibi Lazert, a gefen arewa maso gabashin Yamai . Bayan lokaci wannan ya zama yanki na dindindin a cikin babban birnin Nijar.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Hélène Claudot-Hawad. Iwellemmeden Kel Ataram (Touaregs) in Encyclopédie Berbère XXV (2003) article 176b : 3822-3828.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Alessandra Giuffrida. "Clerics, Rebels and Refugees: Mobility Strategies and Networks among the Kel Antessar", Journal of North African Studies. Volume 10, Number 3, September 2005.
  3. Kélétigui Abdourahmane Mariko. Les Touaregs Ouelleminden. Karthala, Paris, 1984.