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Mutanen Soninke

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Mutanen Soninke

Yankuna masu yawan jama'a
Burkina Faso, Gambiya, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Mali, Muritaniya, Nijar, Senegal da Gine
Addini
Musulunci
Soninke
Hoton mutumin Soninke (1890)
Jimlar yawan jama'a
Sama da miliyan 2.0
Yankuna masu yawan jama'a
 Mali 2,124,000(9.8%) [1]
 Senegal 225,154 (1.4%) [2]
Muritaniya 378.000
 Gambia 142,606 (8.2%) [3]
Harsuna
Harshen Soninke, Farasanci
Addini
Mafi rinjayen Ahlus Sunna
Kabilu masu alaƙa
Mutanen Jakhanke, mutanen Mandinka, mutanen Bambara, mutanen Yalunka, sauran mutanen Mandé

Mutanen Soninke ƙabila ce ta yammacin Afirka da ke magana da harshen Mande a Mali, Fouta Djallon, kudancin Mauritania, gabashin Senegal, Guinea da Gambia.[4] Suna magana da yaren Soninke, wanda kuma ake kira Serakhulle ko harshen Azer, wanda shine ɗayan yarukan Mande.[5] Mutanen Soninke sune suka kafa tsohuwar daular Ghana ko Wagadou c. 300–1240 CE, Ƙungiyoyin Soninke sun haɗa da Maraka da Wangara. Lokacin da aka lalata daular Ghana, ƴan kasashen waje sun kawo Soninkes zuwa Mali, Mauritania, Senegal, Gambia, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Guinée-Conakry, Jamhuriyar Ghana ta zamani, da kuma Guinea-Bissau inda wasu 'yan kasuwa suka yi kasuwanci. aka kira Wangara.[6]

Galibin Musulmai, Soninke na daya daga cikin kabilun farko daga yammacin Afirka da suka musulunta a kusan ƙarni na 10.[7] An kiyasta yawan mutanen Soninke na wannan zamani sun haura miliyan biyu.[8] Ayyukan al'adun mutanen Soninke suna kama da mutanen Mandé, da na Imraguen na Mauritania. Sun hada da al'adun Musulunci na auratayya,[9] kaciya,[10] da kuma daidaita zamantakewa.[11][12]

Kabilanci[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ana kuma kiran mutanen Soninke da Aswanik, Dafing, Dafi, Dyakanke, Gadyaga, Maraka, Maraxa, Marka, Marka Soninké, Saracole, Sarakolé, Sarakollé, Sarakule, Sarawule, Saraxole, Seraculah, Serahuli, Serakhulle, Silabe, Soniake, Soninkés. , Sonninké, Toubakai, Wakore.[13]

Suna nufin kansu da kalmar "Soninké", wanda shine ainihin kalmar "Soninko",[14] to amma kuma ana kiran su "Sarakholés" ta Wolofs, "Marakas" ta Bambaras, "Wangara" ta Mandinka, "Wakoré". " ta Songhais, ko ma "Toubakai". "Marka" shine sunan da aka san su a Mali a yankin Kayes, Koulikoro, Sikasso, Ségou, Mopti da Burkina Faso a cikin na Dafina.[15]

Kalmar "Serakhulle," ko da yake sau da yawa ana da'awar cewa kalmar Wolof ce, an yi amfani da ita ga Soninke aƙalla a ƙarni na 16 kuma al'ummomi suna amfani da kalmar har zuwa Gambiya da ƙasar Hausa. Jahankas, rukuni na rukuni, suna magana da kansu kamar yadda ake cire Serakhulle. A tarihi, kalmar "Soninke" tana ɗauke da ma'anoni mara kyau a cikin Futa Djallon da Senegambia, don haka mafi yawan amfani da kalmar "Serakhulle."[16]

Tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Diobé, mai mulkin Soninke zamanin mulkin mallaka na garin Bakel, tare da masu ba shi shawara (1887-1888)
mayaka na Soninke

Shaidun archaeological sun nuna cewa yankunan da ake samun mutanen Soninke suna zama a zamanin da. An gina waɗannan ƙauyuka na dutse a kan tudun dutsen Tichit-Walata da tsaunin Tagant na Kudancin Mauritania. Ko da yake babu wasu bayanai da suka tsira da suka nuna ko wace ƙabila ce waɗannan mutanen, mazauna wannan yanki a tsakanin 2500 KZ da 600 KZ suna da alaƙa da Soninke da Mande mafi girma. Wata muhimmiyar al'ummar noma da makiyaya ta samu ci gaba a wannan zamanin kafin tarihi.[17][18][19][20][21]

Bisa ga al'adar baka ta Soninke, kakan Soninke shine Dinga, wani lokaci ana cewa ya fito daga Gabas ta Tsakiya (ko da yake irin wannan labarin ba zai yuwu ba, kamar yadda alamar "Tsakiya ta Tsakiya" ta zo bayan Mande ya Musulunta),[22][23][24][25] 'ya'yan sun hada da Dyabe Sisse, wanda ya kafa masarautar Wagadu mai babban birnin Kumbi.[26] Wata al’adar Soninke ta nuna cewa sun yi hijira daga Aswan, Masar.[27] Duk da haka ka'idodin asalin ƙasashen waje kusan gaba ɗaya suna shakka / watsi da masana kuma an yi imani da su sakamakon tasirin al'adun Eurasiatic daga baya (Wato Larabawa da Faransanci).[24][25] Shaidar archaeological tana goyan bayan juyin halitta na Daular Ghana da sauran jihohin Mande daga tushe a gabanin al'adun Soninke na gida kamar na Dhar Tichitt, maimakon daga Arewacin Afirka ko Gabas ta Tsakiya.[21][28]

Rubuce-rubucen farko game da Soninke sun fito ne daga malaman tarihin Musulunci na farko. Soninke, bisa ga waɗannan bayanan, su ne waɗanda suka kafa tsohuwar daular Ghana (kada a ruɗe su da Ghana ta zamani), wanda ake kira daular Wagadu.[17] Wannan daular dai ta samo asali ne tun a karni na 5 AD kuma ta ruguje da ita kusan karni na 12,[17] bayan da musulmi suka fara mamaye wannan yanki a karni na 10.[18][29]

Ƙididdiga da rarrabawa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Taswirar cibiyoyin yawan jama'ar Soninke a Mali

A wannan zamani, jimillar mutanen Soninke ya haura miliyan biyu.[8] Ana samun mutanen Soninke a ko'ina cikin Afirka ta Yamma da kuma a Faransa, saboda gudun hijirar da suka yi a lokacin da Senegal da Mali ke cikin daular Faransa ta mulkin mallaka.[5]

Yawancin mutanen Soninke ana samun su ne a kwarin kogin Senegal na sama da kuma kan iyakar Mali-Senegal-Mauritania tsakanin Nara da Nioro du Sahel. Hijira a ƙarƙashin mulkin mallaka na Faransa ya sa Soninke da yawa suka gina al'ummomi a Dakar, wasu biranen Afirka da Faransa. Al'ummar Soninke sune farkon mazauna Faransa, al'ummarsu tana cikin Paris da kuma a kudancin Faransanci, kuma harshensu shine yare na farko da ake magana da shi tsakanin yawancin al'ummomin musulmi na Faransa.[5] Har ila yau, akwai Soninke da yawa da ke zaune a birane a fadin Afirka ta Tsakiya, yawan mutanen da suka hada da sababbin bakin haure da kuma zuriyar hijira tun daga shekarun 1800, kamar kwamfutocin da ke wakiltar 'yan kasuwa na Faransa da na mulkin mallaka a yankin.[30]

Cibiyoyin kasuwanci karkashin jagorancin kungiyoyin 'yan kasuwa na Wangara, sun yada al'adun Soninke a cikin mafi yawan Mali da Senegal, kudancin Mauritania, arewacin Burkina Faso, da kuma wasu sassan Gambia, da Guinea-Bissau. Al'ummomin 'yan kasuwa na Maraka-Soninke da gonaki (wanda ke tsakiyar arewacin birnin Segou, Mali) sun kasance tushen tattalin arziki a ƙarƙashin daular Bambara, kuma sun gina hanyoyin kasuwanci a yankin yammacin Afirka.

Addini[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Mutanen Soninke sun kasance hanyar kasuwanci ta bakin teku tsakanin mutanen Berber na yankin Maghreb da sauran dauloli a yammacin Afirka. A cikin tarihinsu na farko, sun taimaka musanya gishiri daga arewaci da gabar tekun yamma don zinare da aka samu a cikin ƙasa.[31] Wannan sana’ar ta kawo musu ’yan kasuwa Musulmi, musamman Larabawa masu sana’ar sayar da zinari, bayan da Musulunci ya isa Arewacin Afirka. An samo farkon ambaton Daular Ghana ta mutanen Soninke a cikin ayyukan Balarabe na karni na 8 Muḥammad ibn Ibrāhīm al-Fazārī kuma an sami ƙarin cikakkun bayanai a cikin ayyukan wani masanin ƙasa na Larabawa na ƙarni na 11 Al-Bakri.[31]

Sarakuna da 'yan kabilar Soninke na Daular Ghana sun musulunta a karni na 11, kuma tun daga lokacin suke musulmi. Wasu majiyoyin addinin Islama sun nuna cewa musuluntar ya samo asali ne bayan mamaye daular Ghana a shekara ta 1076 da Almoravid ya yi.[7] Mutanen Soninke, kamar sauran al'ummar Mande, suna bin mazhabar Malikiyya ta Sunna.[32]

Al'umma da al'adu[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Wani Mutumin Soninke a cikin 1890, wanda M. Philippe ya zana

Al'ummar Soninke da al'adunta a tarihi suna da al'adu da yawa tare da kabilun makwabta, musamman mutanen Mande. Wannan ya hada da addinin Musulunci, sana'o'i, abinci, ayyukan ibada, tsarin iyali, bukukuwan aure da daidaita zamantakewa.

Tsarin zamantakewa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Al'ummar Soninke, kamar sauran ƙungiyoyi a cikin Mande, an tsara su ta hanyoyi daban-daban na tsarin zamantakewa.[12][33][34]

Ƙungiyoyin Soninke sun haɗa da nau'i na kyauta mai suna Horro ko Horon, nau'in tsarin kati mai suna Namaxala ko Nyaxamalo, da kuma bayi da ake kira Komo.[11][35][36] A cikin rukunin Jaara na mutanen Soninke, mai martaba da ake kira Tunkanlenmu ya kasance wani nau'i.[36][37] Al'ummar Soninke ta zama mai ma'ana sosai bayan karni na 13.[35]

Bayin sun kasance mafi girma, ɗaya a ƙasa a cikin Soninke kamar sauran kabilun Afirka ta Yamma, kuma sun kasance kusan rabin yawan jama'a. Bayin da ke cikin mutanen Soninke an jera su cikin matsayi uku.[38] Bayin ƙauyen gungun masu hidima ne masu gata waɗanda ke zaune ba tare da ƙauyen ba kuma suna karɓar umarni daga sarkin ƙauyen. Bayin gida sun zauna tare da iyali kuma ba a iya siyar da su. Mafi ƙasƙanci a tsakanin bayi shine bayin fatauci waɗanda za'a iya saya da siyarwa. Bayan lokaci, kowane ɗayan waɗannan nau'ikan ya zama na ƙarshe, in ji Daniel Littlefield, farfesa a tarihi.[38]

Sama da bayin akwai jikokin Soninke, waxanda su ma na gado ne, na gado, kuma suna da matsayi na matsayi.[39] Sun haɗa da, alal misali, garanke (masu aikin fata) a ƙasan fune (bard), fune a ƙasan gesere ko jeli (mawaƙa, mawaƙa), da jeli a ƙarƙashin tage ko numu (masu sana'a, ma'aikatan tukwane).[39]

Za a iya haɗa tsarin simintin gyare-gyare da tsarin serf zuwa Mandé 'Nyamakalaw' (a zahiri 'caste'). Shaidun archaeological sun nuna cewa Larabawa da Berbers za su shiga cikin tsarin kasuwanci da sufuri da aka riga aka kafa tare da Afirka ta Yamma (ciniki a cikin zinariya, gishiri, da wasu bayi zuwa wani ɗan ƙaramin abu), ginawa a kan hanyoyin kasuwanci da aka rigaya a baya. zuwa Ghana da yammacin gabar tekun Atlantika ta hanyar tsarin kasuwanci na karni na 11 ya zama mai inganci a cikin karni na 13 da na 14 daular Mali da daular Songhai na karni na 16.[40]

Yayin da aikin bautar ya ƙaru, haka nan tsarin ƙabila ya ƙaru. Tamari ya ba da shawarar cewa wani abin da ke tattare da haɓakar tsarin bautar shine ci gaba da bunƙasa tsarin kabilanci a tsakanin yawancin kabilun Afirka a kusan ƙarni na 13.[40][41] McIntosh ya yarda da Tamari, amma ya bayyana cewa akwai yuwuwar bayyanar tsarin kabilanci ya faru tun da farko a cikin al'ummomin Yammacin Afirka kamar Soninke, Mande, Malinke, Wolof, Serer, da sauransu.[40] Ta ba da ci gaba da yaduwar ɗimbin jama'a a cikin waɗannan al'ummomi zuwa kusan karni na 10, saboda kama bayi, cinikin bayi da kuma riƙe bayi da manyan iyalai suka yi, wata cibiya ce da aka kafa a Yammacin Afirka a wancan lokacin, kuma bautar ta haifar da samfuri don dangantaka mara kyau da zamantakewa. stratification na mutane.[40]

Shaidar harshe ta nuna cewa tsarin rarrabuwar kawuna da ke da alaƙa da tsarin ƙabilanci da bautar da ƙila an raba su tsakanin mutanen Manding da Soninke, da yuwuwar wasu kamar mutanen Dogon na Yammacin Afirka.[42] Duk da haka, bambance-bambancen harshe tsakanin kabilanci da tsarin bayi na Soninke da Manding a daya hannun da kuma kabilun arewacin Afirka kamar kabilar Abzinawa da Moors a daya bangaren, ya nuna cewa wadannan sun samo asali ne daban.[43]

Aure[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Matar Soninke, zane na 1853 na David Boilat

Aure a cikin al'ummar Soninke yana bin tsarin Musulunci. Auren ’yan uwa ya zama ruwan dare kuma an fi so a al’adar Soninke, kamar yadda ake yi da mutanen Fula.[9] Iyaye sun yarda da aure.[9] Wani karin magana na gargajiya yana cewa, "An yi 'yan uwan ​​juna." Al'adar da ke tsakanin 'yan kasuwa Soninke, in ji Saskia Brand, farfesa a fannin ilimin halin dan Adam da ilimin kimiyya, na iya kasancewa yana da alaƙa da imanin al'adun cewa auren 'yan uwan ​​​​yana "taimakawa wajen kiyaye kuɗi a cikin iyali".[9]

Idan iyalan biyu sun yarda, an daura auren (i na tamma laga) a masallaci. Duk wata bayan daurin aure, namiji yakan biyawa dangin matar sadakin sadakin amarya (nakhafa) na abinci da sauran abubuwan da suka kashe. Auren wanda ake kira futtu, an kammala shi ne tare da yarjejeniyar aure da ta ambaci sadaki, kuma ana tare da bikin aure mai suna karikompe.[44]

Sabbin ma'auratan suna da masu ba da shawara. Ana kiran mai ba mutumin shawara khoussoumanta-yougo kuma na macen ana kiransa khoussoumanta-yakhare. Bayan an shafe mako guda ana biki, matan sun hadu domin nuna kyaututtukan da ma'auratan suka samu daga iyayensu galibi daga wajen mahaifiyar matar.[45]

An haramta auren jinsi tsakanin al'umma da kuma layukan kabilanci, in ji Saskia Brand. Amma, a cikin iyalai masu daraja da yawa, maɗaukaki na iya ɗaukar mata daga ɓoyayyen bayi.[9]

Kaciya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Wata mata Soninke da ’yarta a Sélibaby, Mauritania

Soninke suna yin kaciya kuma suna kiransa birou. Kowace rana, yaran da aka yi wa kaciya a shekarar da ta shige, suna shirya tam-tams ga sababbin maza domin su shirya su ta hanyar tunani. A duk lokacin bikin kaciya, yaran da za a yi wa kaciya suna zaune a kusa da "tambour" da ake kira "daïné". Sauran matasan ƙauyen, ƴan mata, mata, maza, da bayi suna zagaya da samarin. A wannan lokacin an kewaye samarin da kyawawan gyale masu suna disa sing.[46] Marubucin Mamadou Soumare ya rubuta "Sama da aikin tiyata na gargajiya, al'adar kaciya ta sa a shaida, jimiri na jiki, zafi, ƙarfin hali, a cikin kalma ɗaya halin yaron."

Kaciyar mata[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Mutanen Soninke sun dade suna yin kaciya (FGM), wanda kuma ake kira kaciyar mata.[10][47] Yawan FGM ya fi yawa a tsakanin Soninke fiye da tsakanin kabilun makwabta kamar mutanen Wolof da sauransu.[10] Ana yin wannan al'ada ta al'ada a matsayin al'ada na yarda da jama'a, kuma wani lokaci ana ɗauka cewa ana buƙata don dalilai na addini.[10] A kasashen Mauritania da Senegal, FGM na yaro ba bisa ka'ida ba ne a cikin dokokin zamani amma ana ci gaba da yin hakan saboda al'adar ta sanya takunkumi ga 'yan mata masu shekaru kasa da daya.[10] Bisa ga rahoton 2009 kan Ayyukan Haƙƙin Dan Adam na Ma'aikatar Harkokin Wajen Amurka, aikin FGM tsakanin Soninke ya haɗa da gurɓata nau'in III mafi haɗari.[48]

Abinci[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Abincin karin kumallo ya hada da fonde, porridge da gero, sukari, madara, da gishiri, da sombi, porridge na shinkafa, gero ko masara. Don abincin rana demba tere da takhaya sun zama ruwan dare, duka sun ƙunshi shinkafa da gyada, kayan abinci na Soninke akai-akai. Dere, stew, shine cakuda gero da wake.[49]

Tattalin Arziki[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Soninke a al'adance suna yin kasuwanci da noma. A lokacin damina, maza da mata duk suna noma. Duk da haka, mata yawanci suna zama a gida don dafa abinci da kuma kula da 'ya'yansu. Suna kuma yin wasu ayyuka, kamar rini kayan auduga.

Yawancin bakin haure na farko a yammacin Afirka a Faransa sun fito ne daga wannan kabila.[50] Soninke wata kabila ce da ke da tasiri a Gambia da Senegal da kuma Mali.

Sanannen mutanen Soninke[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Doussou Bagayoko, mawaƙin Mali
  • Mamadou Bagayoko, dan kwallon kasar Mali
  • Siaka Bagayoko, ɗan wasan ƙwallon ƙafa ta ƙasar Mali
  • Abdoulaye Bathily, masanin tarihi kuma ɗan siyasa ɗan ƙasar Senegal
  • Djegui Bathily, Judoka na Senegal
  • Lassana Bathily, dan kasar Mali
  • Germain Berthé, ɗan wasan ƙwallon ƙafa ta ƙasar Mali
  • Ousmane Berthé, ɗan wasan ƙwallon ƙafa ta ƙasar Mali
  • Khassa Camara, ɗan wasan ƙwallon ƙafa ta Mauritaniya
  • Soninke Camara, mawaƙin Mali
  • Zoumana Camara, ɗan wasan ƙwallon ƙafa ta Faransa
  • Aliou Cissé, kocin kwallon kafa na Senegal
  • Kaya Magan Cissé
  • Papiss Cissé, ɗan wasan ƙwallon ƙafa ta Senegal
  • Lassana Hawa Cissokho, mawaƙin Mali
  • Moussa Diagana, marubuci dan kasar Mauritania
  • Souleymane Diamoutené, ɗan wasan ƙwallon ƙafa ta ƙasar Mali
  • Fousseni Diawara, ɗan wasan ƙwallon ƙafa ta ƙasar Mali
  • Diaby Doua, mawakiyar Mali
  • Cheick Doucoure, ɗan wasan ƙwallon ƙafa ta ƙasar Mali
  • Boukary Dramé, ɗan wasan ƙwallon ƙafa ta Senegal
  • Mamadou Lamine Dramé, ya kasance marabout a ƙarni na 19 wanda ya yi yaƙi da mulkin mallaka na Faransa
  • Demba Ganda Fadiga, mawakin Mali
  • Diadia Fadiga, mawakin kasar Mali
  • Ganda Fadiga, griot na Mali
  • Khalilou Fadiga, dan kwallon Senegal
  • Babou Fofana, ɗan wasan ƙwallon ƙafa ta ƙasar Mali
  • Lamine Gassama, ɗan wasan ƙwallon ƙafa ta Senegal
  • Mamoudou Gassama, bakin haure da ba shi da takardar izini daga Mali
  • Omar Gassama, dan siyasar Gambia
  • Sadio Gassama, dan siyasar kasar Mali
  • Askia Mohammad I, ya kasance sarki a karni na 15 na daular Songhai
  • Bingourou Kamara, ɗan wasan ƙwallon ƙafa ta Senegal
  • Frédéric Kanouté, ɗan wasan ƙwallon ƙafa ta ƙasar Mali
  • Sadio Kanouté, dan kwallon kasar Mali
  • N'Golo Kanté, ɗan wasan ƙwallon ƙafa ta Faransa
  • Ibrahima Kébé, ɗan wasan gani na Senegal
  • Babacar Khoma, dan kwallon Senegal
  • Sékou Koïta, ɗan wasan ƙwallon ƙafa ta ƙasar Mali
  • Mademba Konté, mawaƙin Mali
  • Yimbi Kuma, rapper na Mali
  • Linky LK, mawakin Mali
  • Mamadou Demba Magassa, mawakin kasar Mali
  • Moussa Marega, dan wasan kwallon kafa na kasar Mali
  • Falaye Sacko, dan wasan kwallon kafa na kasar Mali
  • Lamine Sakho, ɗan wasan ƙwallon ƙafa ta Senegal
  • Mamadou Sakho, dan kwallon Faransa
  • Harouna Samaké, dan wasan Malin Kamale N’goni
  • Issaka Samaké, ɗan wasan ƙwallon ƙafa ta ƙasar Mali
  • Soumaila Samaké, ɗan wasan ƙwallon kwando na ƙasar Mali
  • Yéah Samaké, ɗan kasuwan Mali kuma ɗan siyasa
  • Mamadou Samassa, dan kwallon kasar Mali
  • Diadie Samassékou, ɗan wasan ƙwallon ƙafa ta ƙasar Mali
  • Oumou Sangaré, mawaƙin Mali
  • Younousse Sankharé, ɗan wasan ƙwallon ƙafa ta Senegal
  • Landing Savané, ɗan siyasan Senegal
  • Sitapha Savané, ɗan wasan ƙwallon kwando ɗan ƙasar Senegal
  • Djibril Sidibé, ɗan wasan ƙwallon ƙafa ta ƙasar Mali
  • Gabourey Sidibe, 'yar wasan Amurka
  • Mahamadou Sidibé, ɗan wasan ƙwallon ƙafa ta ƙasar Mali
  • Kaidama Sidibé, tsohon Firaministan Mali
  • Tiranké Sidimé, mawaƙin Guinea
  • Muhammed B. Sissoho, Gambiya Soninke Tv & Mai gabatar da jawabi na rediyo
  • Sidney Sokhona, ɗan fim ɗin Mauritaniya
  • Bintou Soumbounou, mawakiyar Mali
  • Maimouna Soumbounou, mawakiyar kasar Mali
  • Fanta Souroukou, mawaƙiyar Mali
  • Youssouf Sabaly, ɗan wasan ƙwallon ƙafa ta Senegal
  • Myriam Soumaré, 'yar wasan guje-guje da tsalle-tsalle ta Faransa
  • Yacouba Sylla, ɗan wasan ƙwallon ƙafa ta ƙasar Mali
  • Abubacarr Tambadou, tsohon ministan shari'a na Gambia
  • Adama Tamboura, dan kwallon kasar Mali
  • Aïce Tamoura, mawaƙin Mali
  • Demba Tandia, mawaƙin Mali
  • Mamadou Tandja, tsohon shugaban kasar Nijar daga 1999 zuwa 2010
  • Sidy Bonco Tangoudia, mawaƙin Mali
  • Djelimady Tounkara, mawaƙin Mali
  • Maakan Tounkara, ɗan wasan ƙwallon hannu na Faransa
  • Mamadou Tounkara, ɗan wasan ƙwallon ƙafa ta ƙasar Sipaniya
  • Bassala Touré, ɗan wasan ƙwallon ƙafa ta ƙasar Mali
  • Halima Kissima Touré, mawakiyar kasar Mali
  • Balemé Kandji Traoré, mawaƙin Mali
  • Molla Wagué, ɗan wasan ƙwallon ƙafa ta ƙasar Mali
  • Moussa Wagué, ɗan wasan ƙwallon ƙafa ta ƙasar Senegal
  • Demba Seck

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

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  4. Ralph A. Austen (1999). In Search of Sunjata: The Mande Oral Epic as History, Literature and Performance. Indiana University Press. p. 143. ISBN 0-253-33452-7.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Andrew Dalby (1998). Dictionary of Languages: The Definitive Reference to More Than 400 Languages. Columbia University Press. p. 574. ISBN 978-0-231-11568-1.
  6. John O. Hunwick (2003). Timbuktu and the Songhay Empire: Al-Saʿdi's Taʾrīkh Al-Sūdān Down to 1613. BRILL Academic. pp. xxviii with footnote 18. ISBN 90-04-12822-0.
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  8. 8.0 8.1 Diagram Group (2013). Encyclopedia of African Peoples. Routledge. p. 825. ISBN 978-1-135-96341-5.
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 Saskia Brand (2001). Mediating Means and Fate: A Socio-Political Analysis of Fertility and Demographic Change in Bamako, Mali. BRILL Academic. pp. 69–71. ISBN 90-04-12033-5.
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 Ouldzeidoune, Nacerdine; Keating, Joseph; Bertrand, Jane; Rice, Janet (2013). "A Description of Female Genital Mutilation and Force-Feeding Practices in Mauritania: Implications for the Protection of Child Rights and Health". PLOS ONE. 8 (4): e60594. Bibcode:2013PLoSO...860594O. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0060594. PMC 3621896. PMID 23593257.
  11. 11.0 11.1 Michael Gomez (2002). Pragmatism in the Age of Jihad: The Precolonial State of Bundu. Cambridge University Press. p. 24. ISBN 978-0-521-52847-4.
  12. 12.0 12.1 Monica Bella (1987), AFRICA STUDIES: THE EXPLORATION OF ALTERNATIVE LAND TENURE AND ORGANIZATIONAL ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE BAKEL SMALL IRRIGATED PERIMETERS Archived 2017-11-18 at the Wayback Machine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, United States Agency for International Development, Quote:"Soninke society is not egalitarian, but rather is stratified into castes.
  13. RAMEAU, BnF
  14. Mamadou Dramé, « Cérémonies et rites chez les Soninké », dans Peuples du Sénégal, Sépia, Saint-Maur, 1996, p. 65
  15. James Stuart Olsen (1996). The Peoples of Africa: An Ethnohistorical Dictionary. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 373. ISBN 978-0313-27-918-8.
  16. Sanneh, Lamin.
  17. 17.0 17.1 17.2 David C. Conrad (2009). Empires of Medieval West Africa: Ghana, Mali, and Songhay. Infobase. pp. 23–25. ISBN 978-1-60413-164-2.
  18. 18.0 18.1 Kevin Shillington (2012). History of Africa. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 88–89. ISBN 978-1-137-00333-1.
  19. Holl, Augustin. "Coping with uncertainty: Neolithic life in the Dhar Tichitt-Walata, Mauritania, ( ca. 4000–2300 BP)". Research Gate. Comptes Rendus Geosciences.
  20. Holl, Augustin (1985-12-01). "Subsistence patterns of the Dhar Tichitt Neolithic, Mauritania". African Archaeological Review (in Turanci). 3 (1): 151–162. doi:10.1007/BF01117458. ISSN 0263-0338. S2CID 162041986.
  21. 21.0 21.1 Holl A (1985). "Background to the Ghana Empire: archaeological investigations on the transition to statehood in the Dhar Tichitt region (Mauritania)". Journal of Anthropological Archaeology. 4 (2): 108. doi:10.1016/0278-4165(85)90005-4.
  22. David C. Conrad (2009). Empires of Medieval West Africa: Ghana, Mali, and Songhay. Infobase. p. 25. ISBN 978-1-60413-164-2.
  23. History in Africa, Volume 10, by Africa Studies Association, p. 60, Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1983
  24. 24.0 24.1 Levtzion and Spaulding.
  25. 25.0 25.1 Mauny, Raymond (1961), Tableau géographique de l'ouest africain au moyen age, d'après les sources écrites, la tradition et l'archéologie, Dakar: Institut français d'Afrique Noire
  26. Levtzion, Nehemia (1973). Ancient Ghana and Mali. New York: Methuen & Co Ltd. pp. 16–18, 21. ISBN 0841904316.
  27. Alexander, Leslie M.; Jr, Walter C. Rucker (9 February 2010). Encyclopedia of African American History [3 volumes]. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9781851097746. Retrieved 25 April 2018 – via Google Books.
  28. Munson, Patrick J. (1980), "Archaeology and the prehistoric origins of the Ghana Empire", The Journal of African History, 21 (4): 457–466, doi:10.1017/s0021853700018685, JSTOR 182004
  29. Soninke people Archived 2016-11-05 at the Wayback Machine, Encyclopædia Britannica, Quote: "The Soninke were the founders of the ancient empire of Ghana, which was destroyed after the invasions of Muslim conquerors in the 10th century".
  30. François Manchuelle (1997). Willing Migrants: Soninke Labor Diasporas, 1848-1960. Ohio University Press. Archived from the original on 2017-10-02.
  31. 31.0 31.1 Kevin Shillington (2012). History of Africa. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 90–92. ISBN 978-1-137-00333-1.
  32. John A. Shoup (2011). Ethnic Groups of Africa and the Middle East: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 183–184. ISBN 978-1-59884-362-0.
  33. Haddy Tunkara-Bah (2016). "Sociocultural factors influencing fertility among the Soninke". African Renaissance. 13 (1–2): 31–44.
  34. Tal Tamari (1991). "The Development of Caste Systems in West Africa". The Journal of African History. Cambridge University Press. 32 (2): 221–250. doi:10.1017/s0021853700025718. JSTOR 182616.
  35. 35.0 35.1 Tal Tamari (1995). David C. Conrad and Barbara E. Frank (ed.). Status and Identity in West Africa: Nyamakalaw of Mande. Indiana University Press. pp. 61–63. ISBN 0-253-11264-8.
  36. 36.0 36.1 Sean Hanretta (2009). Islam and Social Change in French West Africa: History of an Emancipatory Community. Cambridge University Press. pp. 37 with footnote 23. ISBN 978-0-521-89971-0.
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  38. 38.0 38.1 Daniel C. Littlefield (1991). Rice and Slaves. University of Illinois Press. pp. 79 footnote 11. ISBN 978-0-252-06214-8.
  39. 39.0 39.1 Barbara G. Hoffman (2001). Griots at War: Conflict, Conciliation, and Caste in Mande. Indiana University Press. pp. 8, 10–12, 30–31, 35–36, 235–240, 246, 269–270 note 31. ISBN 0-253-10893-4.
  40. 40.0 40.1 40.2 40.3 Susan McIntosh (2001). Christopher R. DeCorse (ed.). West Africa During the Atlantic Slave Trade: Archaeological Perspectives. Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 17–18. ISBN 978-0-7185-0247-8.
  41. Tamari, Tal (1991). "The Development of Caste Systems in West Africa". The Journal of African History. Cambridge University Press. 32 (2): 221–250. doi:10.1017/s0021853700025718.
  42. Tal Tamari (1995). David C. Conrad and Barbara E. Frank (ed.). Status and Identity in West Africa: Nyamakalaw of Mande. Indiana University Press. pp. 65–67, 71–73. ISBN 0-253-11264-8.
  43. Tal Tamari (1995). David C. Conrad and Barbara E. Frank (ed.). Status and Identity in West Africa: Nyamakalaw of Mande. Indiana University Press. pp. 68–69. ISBN 0-253-11264-8.
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Littafi Mai Tsarki[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • (a Turanci) François Manchuelle, Origins of Black African Emigration to France : the Labor Migrations of the Soninke, 1948-1987, Santa Barbara, University of California, 1987 (Thèse)
  • (a Faransanci) M. T. Abéla de la Rivière, Les Sarakolé et leur émigration vers la France, Paris, Université de Paris V, 1977 (Thèse de 3 cycle)
  • (a Faransanci) Amadou Diallo, L’éducation en milieu sooninké dans le cercle de Bakel : 1850-1914, Dakar, Université Cheikh Anta Diop, 1994, 36 p. (Mémoire de DEA)
  • (a Faransanci) Alain Gallay, « La poterie en pays Sarakolé (Mali, Afrique Occidentale) », Journal de la Société des Africanistes, Paris, CNRS, 1970, tome XL, n° 1, p. 7-84
  • (a Faransanci) Joseph Kerharo, « La pharmacopée sénégalaise : note sur quelques traitements médicaux pratiqués par les Sarakolé du Cercle de Bakel », Bulletin et mémoires de la Faculté mixte de médecine et de pharmacie de Dakar, t. XII, 1964, p. 226-229
  • (a Faransanci) Nianguiry Kanté, Contribution à la connaissance de la migration "soninké" en France, Paris, Université de Paris VIII, 1986, 726 p. (Thèse de 3 cycle)
  • (a Faransanci) Michael Samuel, Les Migrations Soninke vers la France, Paris, Université de Paris. (Thèse de 3 cycle)
  • (a Faransanci) Badoua Siguine, La tradition épique des forgerons soninké, Dakar, Université de Dakar, 198?, (Mémoire de Maîtrise)
  • (a Faransanci) Badoua Siguine, Le surnaturel dans les contes soninké, Dakar, Université de Dakar, 1983, 215 p. (Mémoire de Maîtrise)
  • (a Faransanci) Mahamet Timera, Les Soninké en France : d'un histoire à l'autre, Karthala, 1996, 244 p. ISBN
  • (a Faransanci) Louis Léon César Faidherbe, Vocabulaire d'environ 1,500 mots français avec leurs correspondents en ouolof de Saint-Louis, en poular (toucouleur) du Fouta, en soninké (sarakhollé) de Bakel, 1864, Saint-Louis, Imprimerie du Gouvernement, 1864, 70 p.
  • (a Faransanci) Louis Léon César Faidherbe, Langues sénégalaises : wolof, arabe-hassania, soninké, sérère, notions grammaticales, vocabulaires et phrases, E. Leroux, 1887, 267 p.
  • (a Faransanci) Christian Girier, Parlons soninké, l'Harmattan, Paris, 1996, ISBN
  • (a Faransanci) Rhonda L. Hartell, Alphabets de langues africaines, Unesco et Summer Institute of Linguistics, Dakar, 1993;
  • (a Faransanci) Direction de la promotion des langues nationales du Sénégal, Livret d'auto-formation en Soninké, éditions Kalaama-Edicef, 2001.