Nazarin Ingilishi

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Wikidata.svgNazarin Ingilishi
academic discipline (en) Fassara da academic major (en) Fassara
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na modern languages (en) Fassara
Gudanarwan anglicist (en) Fassara
Studies (en) Fassara Turanci da English literature (en) Fassara

Nazarin Ingilishi (wanda galibi ake kira Ingilishi kawai) horo ne na ilimi da ake koyarwa a firamare, sakandare, da kuma karatun gaba da sakandare a ƙasashen da ke magana da Ingilishi ; ba za a ruɗe shi da koyar da Ingilishi a matsayin harshen waje ba, wanda horo ne na musamman. Ya ƙunshi yin nazari da bincika rubutun da aka ƙirƙira a cikin adabin Ingilishi. Nazarin Ingilishi sun haɗa da: nazarin adabi (musamman litattafai, wasan kwaikwayo, gajerun labarai, da waƙoƙi ), yawancinsu sun fito ne daga ƙasar Biritaniya, Amurka, da Ireland (kodayake ana iya yin nazarin adabin Ingilishi daga kowace ƙasa, da na gida ko adabin kasa yawanci an nanata shi a kowace ƙasa da aka bayar); Turanci abun da ke ciki, ciki har da rubuce-rubuce maƙala, Gajerun labaru, kuma shayari; Fasahar yaren Ingilishi, gami da nazarin nahawu, amfani, da salo, da ilimin zamantakewa na Ingilishi, gami da nazarin maganganun rubutu da magana a cikin yaren Ingilishi, tarihin yaren Ingilishi, koyon Ingilishi da koyarwa, da nazarin Ingilishi na Duniya. Turanci harsuna ( ginin kalma, ilimin halittar jiki, imin sautin harshe, phonology, da dai sauransu) ne yawanci  ana bi da shi azaman horo na musamman, wanda aka koyar a sashen ilimin harsuna.

Rarraba horo tsakanin babban adabi ko daidaiton amfani shine dalili ɗaya don rarrabuwar Ƙungiyar Harsunan Zamani ta Arewacin Amurka (MLA) zuwa ƙungiyoyi biyu. A jami'o'i a ƙasashen da ba a magana da Ingilishi, wannan sashin sau da yawa yana rufe duk fannonin karatun Ingilishi, gami da ilimin harshe: an nuna wannan, alal misali, a cikin tsari da ayyukan ƙungiyar Turai don Nazarin Turanci (ESSE).

Abu ne gama gari ga sassan Ingilishi don ba da darussan da malanta a fannonin yaren Ingilishi, adabi (gami da sukar adabi da ka'idar adabi ), magana ta jama'a da rubuce-rubuce, magana, karatun abun da ke ciki, rubuce-rubucen kirkira, philology da etymology, aikin jarida, shayari, wallafe-wallafe, rubuce-rubuce, karatun yanki (musamman karatun Amurka ), falsafar harshe, wasan kwaikwayo da rubuce-rubuce, rubutun allo, karatun sadarwa, sadarwa na fasaha , nazarin al'adu, mahimmin ƙa'ida, karatun jinsi, karatun ƙabila, karatun nakasa, dijital kafofin watsa labaru, da kuma lantarki wallafe-wallafe, film nazarin da sauran kafofin watsa labaru, da karatu, da kuma daban-daban da darussa a cikin m arts da kuma al'adu, da sauransu. A mafi yawan ƙasashe masu magana da Ingilishi, binciken a duk matakan ilimi na matani da aka samar cikin yarukan da ba Ingilishi ba yana faruwa a wasu sassan, kamar sassan yaren waje ko na adabi na kwatanta.

Filayen[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  Duba kuma Adabi da harsuna, tare da Jerin fannonin ilimi sune kamar haka:

  • Turanci harsuna
  • Ilimin zamantakewa na Ingilishi
  • Binciken tattaunawa a Turanci
  • Turanci Stylistics (ilimin harsuna)
  • Ingilishi Duniya
  • Tarihin yaren Ingilishi
  • Nazarin abun da ke ciki
  • Rhetoric
  • Sadarwar fasaha
  • Koyon harshen Ingilishi da koyarwa
  • Adabin Ingilishi
    • Adabin Amurka, gami da:
      • Adabin Baƙin Afirka
      • Adabin yahudawan Amurka
      • Adabin kudu
    • Adabin Australiya
    • Adabin Burtaniya (wallafe -wallafen wasu yankuna na Burtaniya na iya rubutawa cikin yarukan Celtic )
    • Adabin Kanada (adadi mai yawa na adabin Kanada shima an rubuta shi cikin Faransanci )
    • Adabin Irish
    • Adabin New Zealand
    • Adabin Scottish
    • Adabin Welsh
    • Adabin Afirka ta Kudu (ban da ayyukan da aka rubuta cikin wasu yaruka)
    • Adabin Ingilishi na Indiya.

Turanci Babba[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Babban Ingilishi (a madadin "maida hankali na Ingilishi," "BA cikin Ingilishi") kalma ce a cikin Amurka da wasu ƙananan ƙasashe don digiri na farko na jami'a wanda aka mai da hankali kan karatu, yin nazari, da rubuta rubutu a cikin yaren Ingilishi . Hakanan ana iya amfani da kalmar don bayyana ɗalibin da ke neman irin wannan matakin.

Ɗaliban da suka fi girma cikin Ingilishi suna yin bimbini, yin nazari, da fassara adabi da fim, suna gabatar da binciken su cikin bayyananniyar rubutu . Koda yake rubuce-rubucen neman taimako ba sa neman manyan Ingilishi musamman, digiri a cikin Ingilishi yana ba da ƙwarewar tunani mai mahimmanci ga fannoni da yawa na aiki, gami da rubutu, gyara, bugawa, koyarwa, bincike, talla, hulɗar jama'a, doka, da kuɗi.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tarihin karatun Ingilishi a jami'ar zamani a Turai da Amurka ya fara a rabi na biyu na ƙarni na sha tara. Da farko, karatun Ingilishi ya ƙunshi abubuwa da yawa na motley: aikin yin magana, nazarin lafazi da nahawu, abin da ya ƙunshi waka, da yaba adabi (galibi marubuta daga Ingila, tun da aka ƙara adabin Amurka da nazarin harshe a cikin karni na ashirin). [1] A cikin Jamus da wasu ƙasashen Turai da yawa, ilimin falsafa na Ingilishi, ƙaƙƙarfan tunani da sha'awar sha'awar karanta rubutun zamani, ya zama fifikon masanin kimiyya, amma ƙasashen da ke magana da Ingilishi sun nisanta kansu da yanayin ilimin falsafa jim kaɗan bayan Yaƙin Duniya na ɗaya [2] A ƙarshen wannan tsari, sassan Ingilishi sun kasance suna mai da hankali kan aikinsu kan nau'ikan koyarwar rubutu daban -daban (ƙwararru, ƙwararru, mai mahimmanci) da fassarar rubutun adabi, da koyar da malami cikin Ingilishi sun dawo daga sakacin da ya sha saboda ƙarin ilimin kimiyya. -abubuwan da aka tsara. [3] A yau, sassan Ingilishi a cikin ƙasashe masu magana da yaren sun sake tantance matsayin su a matsayin masu kula da horo na musamman saboda Ingilishi yana da ƙarancin 'yan asalin masu magana da' yan asalin kuma dole ne a raba su tare da miliyoyin masu magana da marubuta daga wasu ƙasashe waɗanda Ingilishi hanya ce mai mahimmanci don sadarwa da nuna fasaha.

Adabin Ingilishi ya zama abin karatu a jami'o'in Faransa a zaman wani ɓangare na adabin waje (kwatanci) a ƙarni na sha tara. An kafa kujerar adabin waje a Kwalejin de France a shekara ta 1841. An fara koyar da Ingilishi da kansa daga wasu harsuna da adabi a Jami'ar Lille da Jami'ar Lyons kuma daga baya a cikin Sorbonne. Waɗannan jami'o'in uku sune manyan cibiyoyin karatun Ingilishi na farko a Faransa. Malami na farko kuma daga baya farfesa na nazarin Turanci zai zama kamar Auguste Angellier. Bayan ya shafe shekaru da yawa yana koyar da Faransanci a Ingila a cikin shekara ta 1860s da 1870s, ya zama malami a cikin karatun Turanci a Jami'ar Lille a shekara ta 1881 kuma farfesa na Ingilishi a shekara ta 1893. A Faransa a zamanin yau, adabi, wayewar kai, ilimin harshe da yaren magana da rubutu duk suna da mahimmanci a karatun Ingilishi a jami'o'i. [4]

Manyan Ingilishi sun shahara a kwalejojin Amurka a farkon rabin shekara ta 1970. Ya ba da dama ga ɗalibai su haɓaka ƙwaƙƙwaran ƙwarewa a cikin karatun nazari tare da manufar inganta rubuce -rubucen su, da kuma motsa jiki a cikin maganganu da maganganu masu gamsarwa waɗanda a al'adance kawai ana koyar da su a cikin karatun gargajiya kuma yana samuwa ga kaɗan saboda shingen harshe da karancin furofesoshi waɗanda za su iya shiga ɗalibai cikin himma. A wajen Amurka (wanda ya samo asali daga Scotland sannan ya shiga cikin duniyar masu magana da Ingilishi) babban Ingilishi ya zama sananne a ƙarshen rabin ƙarni na 19 a lokacin lokacin da aka girgiza imanin addini ta fuskar binciken kimiyya. [5] An yi tunanin adabi[ana buƙatar hujja] da aiki a matsayin mai maye gurbin addini a riƙe da ci gaba na al'adu, da kuma Turanci Major haka bayar da dalibai da damar zana halin kirki, mai da'a, da kuma falsafa halaye da ma'anonin mazan nazarin daga aukaka kuma mafi fadi tushen wallafe -wallafen fiye da na tsoffin tsoffin Helenanci da Latin .

Tun daga shekara ta 2000, akwai tambayoyi game da takamaiman aikin sassan Ingilishi a kwalejin da jami'ar Amurka ta zamani.  ] Rashin bayyananniyar ƙa'idar horo da kuma ƙarin amfani mai amfani a cikin jama'ar Amurka yana kawo ƙalubale ga waɗancan rukunin ilimi har yanzu galibi suna mai da hankali kan littafin da aka buga da rarrabuwa na gargajiya a cikin lokutan tarihi da adabi na ƙasa, da kuma yin watsi da wuraren da ba a bayyana su ba. a matsayin rubuce -rubuce masu sana'a, abun da ke ciki, da sadarwa da yawa. [6]

Dabarun da aka samu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A baya digirin ilimi a cikin Ingilishi yawanci yana nufin zurfafa nazarin manyan adabin Biritaniya da Amurka . Yanzu, duk da haka, Manyan Ingilishi ya ƙunshi manyan batutuwa da yawa waɗanda ke shimfiɗa kan fannoni da yawa. Yayin da buƙatun Manyan Ingilishi sun bambanta daga jami'a zuwa jami'a, yawancin sassan Ingilishi suna jaddada ƙwarewa guda uku: nazarin adabi, tsari wanda ke buƙatar dabaru da bincike mai zurfi; kerawa da hasashe tare da la'akari da samar da rubutu mai kyau; da fahimtar al'adu daban -daban, wayewa, da salon adabi daga lokuta daban -daban. Kwarewar da aka samu daga karatun Ingilishi sun haɗa da samun kayan aikin da ba za su rasa ƙima ba, fahimtar kafofin watsa labarai masu canzawa koyaushe, don bayyana duniyar ku, da ƙari. Manyan Malaman Ingilishi na iya tsammanin ɗaukar darussan kwaleji a rubuce -rubuce na ilimi, rubuce -rubuce na kirkira, ka'idar adabi, adabin Biritaniya da Amurka, adabin al'adu da yawa, nau'ikan adabi da yawa (kamar waƙoƙi, wasan kwaikwayo, da karatun fim ), da kuma batutuwa da yawa na zaɓuɓɓuka iri -iri kamar su. a matsayin tarihi, darussa a cikin kimiyyar zamantakewa, da karatu cikin yaren waje. Har zuwa ƙarshen karatun waɗannan fannoni, ɗaliban Manyan Ingilishi suna samun ƙwarewa a rubuce -rubuce na ƙwararru tare da alaƙa da magana, nazarin adabi, godiya ga bambancin al'adu, da ikon bayyana ra'ayoyinsu a rubuce da gamsarwa.

Misalan Darussa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yawancin darussan Ingilishi sun faɗa cikin manyan fannoni na ko dai karatun tushen Adabi, wanda ke mai da hankali kan marubutan gargajiya da lokutan lokaci, ko karatun Rhetorical, waɗanda ke mai da hankali kan dabarun sadarwa a shirye-shiryen ƙwarewa a fannoni daban-daban na ƙwararru. Yayin da takamaiman buƙatun kammala karatun ya bambanta daga jami'a zuwa jami'a, ɗalibai na iya tsammanin yin nazarin wasu darussan masu zuwa.

Darussa a cikin Rubuce-Rubuce da Haɗin gwiwa : kamar Ilimin Ilimi da Rubutu na ƙwararru, wanda ke ƙarfafa rubuce -rubucen nazari da horar da ɗalibai don samar da hujjoji bayyanannu, haɗin kai.

Darussan a cikin adabin Burtaniya : Darussan na iya mai da hankali kan lokutan lokaci, marubuta, nau'ikan, ko motsi na adabi. Misalai sun haɗa da Bala'i na Shakespeare, Tarihi da Ka'idar wasan kwaikwayo na Burtaniya, Adabin Ingilishi na Tsakiya, da Littafin Victoria.

Darussan a cikin adabin Amurka : Dangane da jami'a, waɗannan darussan ko dai za a iya rushe su ta hanyar lokaci, kamar Gothic Fiction na ƙarni na sha tara; marubuta, kamar azuzuwan a kan Hawthorne, Hemingway, ko Frost ; ko makarantun adabi da ƙungiyoyi, kamar Halitta ko Ƙasa .

Darussa a cikin Adabin Al'adu da Daban-daban : Ana ƙara fahimtar darajar kawo ɗimbin al'adu da rabe -raben ra'ayoyi zuwa nazarin adabin Ingilishi a cikin jami'o'i da yawa. Misalai sun haɗa da Litattafan Al'adu da yawa a cikin Ingila ta Tsakiya, Labaran Latina, da Nazarin Adabin Yahudawa.

Darussan Rhetorical : Mayar da hankali kan dabarun jayayya mai gamsarwa a cikin rubutaccen tsari, da ƙwarewa waɗanda suka haɗa da nazarin rubutun da aka rubuta.

Damar Aiki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Babba a cikin Ingilishi yana buɗe dama iri -iri na aiki ga ɗaliban da suka kammala karatun koleji suna shiga kasuwar aiki. Tun da dalibai da suka kammala karatunsu da wani English digiri ake horar da su tambaye probing tambayoyi game da manyan jikin texts sa'an nan zuwa kirkiro, bincika, da kuma amsa tambayoyi da waɗanda a cikin jiwuwa, m litattafan -skills muhimmanci ga kowane yawan yabo-English majors sun yawa a zabi daga bayan kammala karatun. Mafi kyawun zaɓin aiki don manyan Ingilishi shine rubuce -rubuce, wallafe -wallafe, aikin jarida, ƙwararren masanin kimiyyar ɗan adam, da koyarwa.

A Makarantar Sakandare[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Birtaniya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yawancin yaran Burtaniya suna ɗaukar Harshen Ingilishi da Adabin Ingilishi azaman darussan GCSE, kuma da yawa suna ci gaba da nazarin waɗannan a matakin . Akwai ci gaba da zama muhawara a cikin koyarwa al'umma game da dacewar na Shakespeare na zamani matasa, wasu jayayya don ƙarin zamani texts, da kuma wasu riqi cikin falalan da litattafansu . Duba kuma Matsayin O.

Ontario, Kanada[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Dalibai a makarantar sakandare suna da takamaiman buƙatun darussan da dole ne su cika kafin su kammala karatu. Dangane da karatun Ingilishi, ɗalibai dole ne su ɗauki cikakkiyar ƙima huɗu cikin Ingilishi, ɗaya a kowane matakin aji. Hakanan, ɗaliban makarantar sakandare ta Ontario kuma dole ne su ci jarrabawar Karatu.

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Adabin Amurka (horo na ilimi)
  • Litattafai
  • Turanci a matsayin yare na biyu
  • Ingilishi na ilimi

Nassoshi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • O'Hara, Shelly. Me Zaku Iya Yi da Manjo a Turanci. Hoboken: Wiley Publishing Inc., 2005. ISBN 0-7645-7605-4
  • Jami'ar Chicago Darussan da Shirye -shiryen Nazarin Kwalejin 2006-2008. [1]
  • de Vane, William Clyde. Babban Turanci. Turanci Turanci, Vol. 3, Na 1 (Oktoba, 1941), shafi na. 47-52 [2]
  • Akan Tarihin Manyan Ingilishi, [3]

Hanyoyin waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. For a survey of these developments, see Gerald Graff, Professing Literature. An Institutional History (Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1987).
  2. Richard Utz, "Englische Philologie vs. English Studies: A Foundational Conflict," in: Das Potential europäischer Philologien: Geschichte, Leistung, Funktion, ed. Christoph König (Göttingen: Wallstein, 2009), pp. 34-44.
  3. Bruce McComiskey, ed., English Studies. An Introduction to the Discipline (Urbana, IL: NCTE, 2006), esp. pp. 44-48, "The New English Studies."
  4. Imelda Bonel-Elliott (2000), “English Studies in France” in: Engler, Balz and Haas, Renate, European English Studies: Contributions Towards a History of the Discipline. Leicester: The English Association for ESSE, pp. 69-88.
  5. "Literature and Science" (Matthew Arnold [1882])
  6. Richard Utz, "The Trouble with English," Chronicle of Higher Education, 13 January 2013 (http://chronicle.com/blogs/conversation/2013/01/03/the-trouble-with-english/); and "Quo vadis, English Studies," Philologie im Netz 69 (2014): 93-100 (http://web.fu-berlin.de/phin/phin69/p69t8.htm)