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Philippe Leclerc de Hauteclocque

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Philippe Leclerc de Hauteclocque
commanding officer (en) Fassara

18 ga Augusta, 1945 -
commanding officer (en) Fassara

20 ga Faburairu, 1945 -
divisional general (en) Fassara

25 Mayu 1943 - 31 ga Maris, 1946
commanding officer (en) Fassara

25 Nuwamba, 1940 -
Commissioner-General (en) Fassara

29 ga Augusta, 1940 - 12 Nuwamba, 1940
Richard Brunot (en) Fassara - Pierre Cournarie (en) Fassara
drill instructor (en) Fassara

24 Mayu 1931 -
commandant (en) Fassara

Rayuwa
Cikakken suna Philippe François Marie de Hauteclocque
Haihuwa Belloy-Saint-Léonard (en) Fassara, 22 Nuwamba, 1902
ƙasa Faransa
Mutuwa Béchar, 28 Nuwamba, 1947
Makwanci Vault of Governors (en) Fassara
Yanayin mutuwa accidental death (en) Fassara (aviation accident (en) Fassara)
Ƴan uwa
Yara
Ƴan uwa
Karatu
Makaranta Lycée privé Sainte-Geneviève (en) Fassara
La Providence (en) Fassara
École Spéciale Militaire de Saint-Cyr (en) Fassara
(1922 - 1924)
Armoured Cavalry Branch Training School (en) Fassara
(1924 - 1925)
École de guerre (en) Fassara
(1 Nuwamba, 1938 - 1939)
Harsuna Faransanci
Sana'a
Sana'a soja
Kyaututtuka
Mamba Académie des sciences d'outre-mer (en) Fassara
5e régiment de cuirassiers (en) Fassara
Q2818637 Fassara
4th Infantry Division (en) Fassara
French Far East Expeditionary Corps (en) Fassara
24e régiment de dragons (en) Fassara
1er régiment de chasseurs d'Afrique (en) Fassara
Régiment de tirailleurs sénégalais du Tchad (en) Fassara
3rd Army Corps (en) Fassara
Sunan mahaifi Leclerc
Aikin soja
Fannin soja French Army (en) Fassara
Digiri Marshal of France (en) Fassara
capitaine (en) Fassara
chef d'escadron (en) Fassara
colonel (en) Fassara
brigadier general (en) Fassara
divisional general (en) Fassara
army general (en) Fassara
second lieutenant (en) Fassara
marshall lieutenant (en) Fassara
commanding officer (en) Fassara
général de corps d'armée (en) Fassara
Ya faɗaci Yakin Duniya na II
Operation Masterdom (en) Fassara
Rif War (en) Fassara
Imani
Addini Catholic (en) Fassara
IMDb nm4207352

Philippe François Marie Leclerc de Hauteclocque [lower-alpha 1] [lower-alpha 2] (22 Nuwamba 1902 - 28 ga Nuwamba 1947)Janar ne na Faransanci a lokacin Yaƙin Duniya na Biyu.Ya zama Marshal na Faransa bayan mutuwarsa a cikin 1952,kuma an san shi a Faransa kawai a matsayin le maréchal Leclerc ko kawai Leclerc .

Ɗan gidan aristocratic,Hauteclocque ya sauke karatu daga École spéciale militaire de Saint-Cyr,makarantar soja ta Faransa,a 1924.Bayan ya yi aiki tare da Faransanci na Ruhr da kuma a Maroko,ya koma Saint-Cyr a matsayin malami.An ba shi kyautar croix de guerre des théâtres d'opérations extérieures don jagorantar goumiers a harin da aka kai kan kogo da kwaruruka a Bou Amdoun a ranar 11 ga Agusta 1933.A lokacin yakin duniya na biyu ya yi yakin Faransa.Ya kasance daya daga cikin na farko da suka bijirewa gwamnatinsa ta Armistice don yin hanyarsa ta zuwa Burtaniya don yin yaki da Faransanci mai 'yanci a karkashin Janar Charles de Gaulle,tare da yin amfani da nom de guerre na Leclerc don kada matarsa da 'ya'yansa su kasance cikin haɗari idan ya kasance.suna ya bayyana a cikin takardun. An tura shi zuwa Afirka Equatorial na Faransa,inda ya tara shugabannin yankin don yakar 'yan tawayen Faransa mai 'yanci,ya kuma jagoranci wata rundunar yaki da Gabon,wadda shugabanninta ke goyon bayan gwamnatin Faransa.Daga Chadi ya jagoranci kai hare-hare zuwa Libya Italiya.Bayan da dakarunsa suka kwace Kufra,ya sa mutanensa suka rantse da rantsuwar da aka fi sani da suna Serment de Koufra a yau,inda suka yi alkawarin ci gaba da yaki har sai tutarsu ta tashi a kan babban cocin Strasbourg.

Dakarun da ke karkashinsa,wadanda aka fi sani da L Force,sun yi yakin neman zabe a kasar Libya a shekarar 1943,sun rufe gefen tekun na Sojoji na takwas a lokacin da suka shiga kasar Tunusiya,kuma sun shiga cikin harin da aka kai kan layin Mareth . Daga nan aka canza L Force zuwa 2e Division Blindée,kodayake galibi ana kiranta da La Division Leclerc.Ya yi yaƙi a ƙarƙashin umarnin Leclerc a yakin Normandy,kuma ya shiga cikin 'yantar da Paris da Strasbourg.

Bayan karshen yakin duniya na biyu a Turai a watan Mayun 1945,an ba shi umarni na Rundunar Yakin Gabas ta Tsakiya( Corps expéditionnaire français en Extrême-Orient, CEFEO).Ya wakilci Faransa a mika wuya daular Japan a Tokyo Bay a ranar 2 ga Satumba 1945.Nan da nan ya fahimci wajabcin warware rikicin siyasa a Indochina,amma ya sake kasancewa a gaban 'yan kasarsa,kuma an kira shi zuwa Faransa a 1946.An kashe shi a wani hatsarin jirgin sama a Aljeriya a shekara ta 1947.

Rayuwar farko[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Gidan kayan gargajiya na Hauteclocque

An haifi Philippe François Marie de Hauteclocque a ranar 22 ga Nuwamba 1902 a Belloy-Saint-Léonard a sashen Somme,Faransa.Shi ne na biyar cikin yara shida na Adrien de Hauteclocque, comte de Hauteclocque (1864 – 1945),da Marie-Thérèse van der Cruisse de Waziers (1870 – 1956).An ambaci sunan Philippe don girmama wani kakan da sojojin Croatia suka kashe a hidimar masarautar Habsburg a lokacin Yaƙin Shekaru Talatin a 1635.[2]

Hauteclocque ya fito ne daga tsohuwar layin masu martaba na ƙasa .Kakanninsa kai tsaye sun yi aiki a Crusade na biyar a kan Masar,da kuma a Crusade na takwas na Saint Louis da Tunisia a 1270.Sun kuma yi yaƙi a Yaƙin Saint-Omer a 1340 da Yaƙin Fontenoy a 1745.Iyalin sun yi nasarar tsira daga juyin juya halin Faransa .Membobi uku na iyali sun yi hidima a Grande Armée na Napoleon kuma na huɗu,wanda ya yi fama da rashin lafiya, ya yi hidima a cikin jirgin.[2] Ɗan na uku,Constantin,wanda ya yi aiki a Yaƙin Rasha na Napoleon,Sarki Louis XVIII ne ya ƙirƙira shi a matsayin chevalier,da Papal ɗin Paparoma Pius IX a 1857. Constantin yana da 'ya'ya maza biyu.Babban, Alfred François Marie (1822-1902), ya mutu bai haihu ba.Ƙananan, Gustave François Marie Joseph (1829-1914), ya zama sanannen Masanin ilimin Masar. [2][3]

Shi kuma Gustave yana da ‘ya’ya maza uku.Na farko, Henry (1862-1914),na uku,Wallerand (1866-1914),ya zama hafsoshi a cikin sojojin Faransa,suna aiki a lokacin yakin mulkin mallaka,ciki har da yaki da Samory a Sudan. An kashe su duka a farkon yakin duniya na farko.Dan na biyu shine Adrien,wanda ya shiga cikin watan Agusta 1914 a matsayin soja a cikin 11e Régiment de Chasseurs à Cheval [fr],tsarin mulkin da dansa Guy yake a cikinsa . Daga baya aka ba Adrien izini,kuma sau biyu ana ba shi kyautar Croix de Guerre don gallantry.Ya tsira daga yakin,kuma ya gaji sarautar iyali da dukiya a Belloy-Saint-Léonard.[2][3]

Farkon aikin soja[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Philippe de Hauteclocque yana karatun gida har sai ya kasance 13,lokacin da aka tura shi zuwa L'école de la Providence,makarantar Jesuit a Amiens .[3]A cikin 1920,yana ɗan shekara 17,ya tafi Lycée privé Sainte-Geneviève,wanda aka sani da Ginette, makarantar share fage a Versailles .[3] Daga nan ya shiga École spéciale militaire de Saint-Cyr,makarantar sojan Faransa. Kowane aji yana da suna; Nasa shine Metz et Strasbourg bayan garuruwan Alsace da Lorraine sun koma Faransa ta yarjejeniyar Versailles .Ya sauke karatu a ranar 1 ga Oktoba 1924, kuma an ba shi mukamin babban laftanar sojan Faransa .[3]Bayan ya zaɓi reshen sojan doki,sai ya halarci makarantar sojan doki a Saumur,wanda daga nan ne ya sauke karatu a ajinsa a ranar 8 ga Agusta 1925.[3]

Babban ɗan'uwan Hauteclocque Guy ya auri Madeleine de Gargan,'yar Baron de Gargan.Philippe ya zama mai yawan ziyartar gidan Gargan,kuma ƙanwar Madeleine Thérèse ta burge shi.Su biyun sun yi zawarcin lokacin yana Saint-Cyr.A cikin al'adar tsofaffin iyalai masu daraja,Count Adrien ya tambayi Baron de Gargan izinin Philippe ya auri Thérèse.An yi bikin aure a Cocin St Joan na Arc a Rouen a ranar 10 ga Agusta 1925. Don kyautar bikin aure,Adrien ya ba su gidan caca a cikin Tailly . Suna da 'ya'ya shida: [3] Henri (1926-1952),wanda aka kashe a yakin Indochina na farko ; Hubert (1927-),wanda ya yi aiki a matsayin magajin garin Tailly daga 2001 zuwa 2008;Charles (1929-);Jeanne (1931-);Michel (1933–2014); da Bénédicte (1936-).Philippe da Thérèse sun yi hayar wata ’yar gwamnatin Ostiriya,kuma suna magana da Jamusanci a gaban ’ya’yansu don inganta harshensu.[3]

Bayan kammala karatunsa daga Saumur, Hauteclocque ya shiga tsarinsa, 5e Régiment de Cuirassiers [fr], wanda a lokacin yana aiki a Trier a matsayin wani ɓangare na mamayar Franco-Belgian na Ruhr .Aikin Garrison bai yarda da shi ba, don haka ya ba da kansa don hidima tare da 8e Régiment de Spahis Marocains [fr], tushen a Taza a Maroko.An kara masa girma zuwa laftanar a watan Oktoba 1926. A cikin 1927,an sanya shi a matsayin malami a Makarantar Soja ta Dar El-Beida a Meknes,makarantar soja ta Faransa Maroko. A nan, ya sadu da Paul de Langlade [fr],tsohon sojan yakin duniya na farko yana da shekara takwas da haihuwa,wanda daga baya zai ba da kai don yin hidima a karkashin umarninsa.A cikin 1929, an haɗa shi da 38e Goum Mixte Marocains,rukunin Goumier na Moroccan a M'Zizel a cikin tsaunukan Atlas .[3] Ya ga an dauki mataki a yakin da ake yi da mayakan Ait Hammou. A wani mataki, an harbi dawakai biyu daga karkashinsa.[2] Bayan haka, an buga shi zuwa 1er Régiment de Chasseurs d'Afrique [fr] , babban rundunan sojan doki na Armée d'Afrique,da ke Rabat .[3]

A cikin Fabrairu 1931, Hauteclocque ya koma Saint-Cyr a matsayin malami,amma yana so ya koma hidima mai aiki.Alokacin hutun bazara a cikin 1933,ya tashi zuwa kudu zuwa Afirka,inda ya ba da rahoto ga Général de brigade Henri Giraud a ranar 11 ga Yuli.Giraud ya aika shi cikin filin a matsayin jami'in haɗin gwiwa tare da goum . An ba shi lambar yabo ta croix de guerre des théâtres d'opérations extérieures don jagorantar goumiers a harin da aka kai kan kogo da kwaruruka a Bou Amdoun a ranar 11 ga Agusta. [3] Babban Kwamandan a Maroko, Général de division Antoine Huré, ya ji cewa Hauteclocque bai kamata ya kasance a can ba, kuma ya rike kyautar har tsawon shekaru uku.Wasu sun ji daban,kuma an ba Hauteclocque shiga da wuri a cikin kwas don haɓakawa ga capitaine .Ya sanya na hudu a cikin aji, kuma an kara masa girma a ranar 25 ga Disamba 1934.[2] Ƙaddamarwa ya kasance a hankali a cikin yakin tsakanin sojojin Faransa,musamman ma a cikin sojan doki,kuma shi ne kawai na biyu a cikin ajin Saint-Cyr zuwa.kai wannan matsayi.Yawancin sun jira har zuwa 1936.[3]An kuma yi shi Chevalier de la Légion d'Honneur .

Ko da yake sun kasance Katolika masu aminci,Hauteclocque da Thérèse sun yi rajista ga Action Française,mujallar wata ƙungiyar siyasa ta dama mai suna iri ɗaya,duk da hukuncin da Paparoma ya yi a kansa,kuma ya ci gaba da yin haka ko da bayan Thérèse ya ƙi amincewa .[3]Sabanin haka,dan uwansa Xavier de Hauteclocque [fr] ɗan jarida ne da ya sami lambar yabo wanda ya ba da rahoto game da haɓakar Jam'iyyar Nazi a Jamus,ya ziyarci sansanin taro a Dachau, kuma ya rubuta game da Daren Dogon Wuka.Xavier ya mutu a cikin Afrilu 1935,yana da tabbacin cewa 'yan Nazi sun kashe shi guba. [3] Bayan yakin duniya na biyu,Hauteclocque ya lalata kwafinsa na Action Française .[4]

Hauteclocque ya karya ƙafarsa a wurare biyu a faɗuwar dokinsa a 1936.Ya shaida wa kamfaninsa cewa laifinsa ne na hawa kafadar hanya.Bayan haka ya yawaita tafiya da sanda.Bayan wani mummunan hatsarin da ya shafi rasa hanyarsa a lokacin motsa jiki da kuma makale a filin da aka killace da igiya,ya gaya musu cewa idan kun yi wani abu na wauta,yana da kyau ku yarda. [2][3]

A cikin Nuwamba 1938,Hauteclocque ya shiga École supérieure de guerre,Kwalejin ma'aikatan Sojojin Faransa, a matsayin wani ɓangare na aji na 60th.Bayan kammala karatunsa a watan Yuli 1939,an umarce shi da ya kai rahoto ga 4e Division d'Infanterie [fr] (4e DI)a matsayin shugaban ma'aikata.[3]

  1. Samfuri:IPA-fr
  2. Born Philippe François Marie de Hauteclocque, he was authorized to add his war pseudonym Leclerc to his name after the war.[1]
  1. Government of the French Republic (17 November 1945). "Decree on a change of name". gallica.bnf.fr (in Faransanci). Retrieved 23 September 2020.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 Clayton 1992.
  3. 3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 3.14 3.15 Moore 2011.
  4. Vézinet 1974.