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Pythagoras

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Pythagoras
Rayuwa
Cikakken suna Πυθαγόρας
Haihuwa Samos (en) Fassara, 6 century "BCE"
ƙasa Samos (en) Fassara
Mazauni Crotone (en) Fassara
Mutuwa Metapontum, 490s "BCE"
Ƴan uwa
Mahaifi Mnesarchus
Abokiyar zama Theano (en) Fassara
Yara
Karatu
Harsuna Ancient Greek (en) Fassara
Malamai Anaximander (en) Fassara
Themistoclea (en) Fassara
Hermodamas (en) Fassara
Pherecydes of Syros (en) Fassara
Thales na Miletus
Ɗalibai
Sana'a
Sana'a masanin lissafi, mai falsafa, ɗan siyasa, marubuci, musicologist (en) Fassara da music theorist (en) Fassara
Muhimman ayyuka Pythagorean theorem (en) Fassara
Pythagorean triple (en) Fassara
Platonic solid (en) Fassara
Wanda ya ja hankalinsa Pherecydes of Syros (en) Fassara, Anaximander (en) Fassara, Thales na Miletus da Zoroaster
Fafutuka Pythagoreanism
Western philosophy (en) Fassara
Imani
Addini Pythagoreanism
Formella 23, euclid da pythagoras ko geometry da lissafi, luca della robbia

Pythagoras (lafazi: /fitagoras/), da tsohon yaren Girka Πυθαγόρας, masanin falsafa ne na kasar Girnka, masanin lissafi ne kuma wanda ya kirkiri lissafin Pythagoreanism Koyarwarsa na addini da siyasa sunyi fice a yankin Magna Graecia kuma yayi tasiri akan falsafar masana irinsu Plato, Aristotle, sannan kuma tasu ne hakan ya yadu Yammacin Turai baki daya. Mahaifinsa shine Mnesarchus, wani mai hako arzikin kasa a tsiribirin Samos. Masana na zamanin nan sunyi sabani akan ilimi da tasirin Pythagoras, amma sun amince da cewa, a tsakanin shekarar 530 BC, yayi kaura zuwa garin Croton da ke a kudancin Italiya, inda ya kafa wata makaranta wanda dalibansa suna rantsuwa a cikin sirri cewa zasu rika yin rayuwa mai sauki ta zuhudu. Wannan rayuwa ya kunshi haramcin daga wasu nau'oin abinci, wanda a gargajiyance ance sun hada da haramcin cin nama, duk da cewa malaman zamani sunyi kokwanto akan hana cin nama baki daya daga gare shi.

Anfi alakanta koyarwar Pythagoras da metempsychosis, ko kuma "kaurar ruhi", wanda ke cewa kowacce rai bata mutuwa baki daya, cewa a gabannin mutuwa, ruhin zai koma cikin wani sabon jikin. Watakila ma ya koyar da musica universalis, wanda ke cewa, duniyoyi suna motsi ne dangane da dabarun lissafi ( mathematical equations), kuma suna fitar da wani sauti na waka. Masana sunyi sabani akan cewa ko Pythagoras ne ya kirkiro numerological da koyarwar waka wanda ake alakanta su da shi, ko kuwa daga cikin mabiyansa ne suka kirkiro koyarwar, musamman Philolaus na Croton. Bayan cin nasara da Croton tayi ga a cikin karni na 510 BC, mabiya Pythagoras sun shiga rikici tare da magoya bayan dimukradiyya, kuma an kone wuraren taro na Pythagoras da mutanensa. Watakila acikin tsakiyar rikicin ne Pythagoras ya mutu, ko kuma ya tsira zuwa Metapontum inda ya mutu a can.

A zamunan baya, ana jinjinawa Pythagoras dangane da nasarorin bincike na kimiyya da lissafi, irin su Pythagorean theorem, Pythagorean tuning, five regular solids, Theory of Proportions, sphericity of the Earth da kuma gano yanayin safiya da yammaci a duniyar Venus. An sanar cewa shine wanda ya fara kiran kansa a matsayin masanin falsafa wato (masoyin hikima).[1]

Pythagoras yayi koyar da Plato, wanda acikin zantukan shi, musamman Timaeus, ya nuna koyarwar Pythagoras. Hikimomin Pythagoras dangane da lissafi yayi tasiri akan Fasahar Kasar Girka na zamunan baya. An cigaba da daukar Pythagoras a matsayin mashahuran masana falsafa a daukakin shekarun tsakiyar zamunai, sannan falsafarsa sunyi tasiri sosai akan masana, irin su Nicolaus Copernicus, Johannes Kepler, da kuma Isaac Newton. An cigaba da amfani da tamburan pythagoras a daukakin zamanin European esotericism na yau, sannan koyarwarsa, kamar yadda aka zayyano a wakar, Ovid sunyi tasiri ga mabiya akidar cin ganyayyaki kawai (vegetarianism).

Labaran tarihin rayuwarsa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Babu wani ainihin takamaimen tarihi akan yadda Pythagoras yayi rayuwa,[2][3][4] sannan kuma babu wani tabbataccen abu da aka sani game da rayuwarsa.[5][6][7] Tarihin kuruciyar Pythagoras 'yan kadan ne, masu harshen damo, kuma mafi yawanci a matsayin almara suke.[4][8][9] Tarihin farkon koyarwar Pythagoras suma sun kasance a matsayin wakokin almara suke, watakila Xenophanes ya rubuta bayan mutuwarsa, wanda sunyi rayuwa tare. Acikin wakar Xenophanes ya bayyana pythagoras a lokacinda yake kare hakkin wani kare wanda aka buga, cewa ya gano acikin kukan karen muryar wani tsohon abokinsa da ya bata.[9][10][11][12] Alcmaeon na Croton wani likita wanda yayi rayuwa kusan lokaci daya da Pythagoras yana nan, kuma yayi amfani da koyarwar Pythagoras da dama acikin rubuce rubucensa.[13] kuma yayi ikirarin cewa ya san Pythagoras sosai.[13] Watakila mawaki, Heraclitus wanda aka haifa a wasu 'yan miloli kusa da teku da ke kusanci da garin Samos ya rayu a lokaci daya da Pythagoras.[14] Yana yi wa Pythagoras izgili cewa mayaudari ne mai wayau,[8][14] yana cewa "Pythagoras, dan dan Mnesarchus, ya koyi bincike fiye da kowanne mutum, sannan ya zaba daga cikin wadannan rubuce-rubuce abubuwan da suka kara masa hikima - ya koyi mafi yawanci, fasaha ta karya".[8][14]

Zanen hoton Pythagoras na almara daga wani sassaka na karni na 17

Mawakin Girka Ion of Chios (c. 480 – c. 421 BC) da kuma Empedocles na Acragas (c. 493 – c. 432 BC) , dukkaninsu sun nuna qaunarsu ga Pythagoras a cikin wakokinsu.[15] Kwatancen sufar Pythagoras da yayi kusa da gaskiya shine na masanin tarihi Herodotus na Halicamassus (c. 484 – c. 420 BC),[16] wanda ya bayyana shi a matsayin "baya cikin wadanda basuyi fice ba" acikin mutanen kirki na kasar Girka,[17] sannan kuma ya sanar cewa, Pythagoras ya koya wa dalibansa yadda zasu more rayuwa na har abada.[16] Akwai kokwanto akan gaskiyar ayyukan Herodotus.[18][19][20][21][22] Rubucw-rubucen da masanin falsafa kuma dalibin Pythagoras Philolaus na Kroton, wanda ya rayu a karni na biyar Kafin zuwan Yesu, sune rubuce-rubuce na kusa-kusa da ke bayani akan wakoki da bayanai da ake alakanta su da Pythagoras.[23] Mahikayi na Tshouwar Athens, Isocrates ya fara bayyana cewa Pythagoras ya ziyarci kasar Misra. Aristotle yayi rubutu akan mabiya Pythagoras amma a yanzu babu rubutun.[24] Watakila an ajiye wasu daga cikin rubuce rubucen acikin Protrepticus. Daliban Aristotle irin su, Dicaearchus, Aristoxenus da kuma Heraclides Ponticus suma sunyi rubutu akan wannan babin.[25]

Wannan Muƙalar guntuwa ce: tana buƙatar a inganta ta, kuna iya gyara ta.



Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Cicero, Tusculan Disputations, 5.3.8–9 (citing Heraclides Ponticus fr. 88 Wehrli), Diogenes Laërtius 1.12, 8.8, Iamblichus VP 58. Burkert attempted to discredit this ancient tradition, but it has been defended by C. J. De Vogel, Pythagoras and Early Pythagoreanism (1966), pp. 97–102, and C. Riedweg, Pythagoras: His Life, Teaching, And Influence (2005), p. 92.
  2. Joost-Gaugier 2006, p. 11.
  3. Celenza 2010, p. 796.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Ferguson 2008, p. 4.
  5. Ferguson 2008, pp. 3–5.
  6. Gregory 2015, pp. 21–23.
  7. Copleston 2003, p. 29.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 Kahn 2001, p. 2.
  9. 9.0 9.1 Burkert 1985, p. 299.
  10. Joost-Gaugier 2006, p. 12.
  11. Diogenes Laërtius, viii. 36
  12. Copleston 2003, p. 31.
  13. 13.0 13.1 Joost-Gaugier 2006, pp. 12–13.
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 Joost-Gaugier 2006, p. 13.
  15. Joost-Gaugier 2006, pp. 14–15.
  16. 16.0 16.1 Joost-Gaugier 2006, p. 16.
  17. 4. 95.
  18. Samfuri:Harvp
  19. Samfuri:Harvp
  20. Samfuri:Harvp
  21. Samfuri:Harvp
  22. Samfuri:Harvp
  23. Joost-Gaugier 2006, p. 88.
  24. He alludes to it himself, Met. i. 5. p. 986. 12, ed. Bekker.
  25. Burkert 1972, p. 109.