Soong Mei-ling

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Simpleicons Interface user-outline.svg Soong Mei-ling
Madame Chiang Kai-Shek.jpg
member of the Constituent National Assembly (en) Fassara

Rayuwa
Haihuwa Pudong (en) Fassara da Shanghai, 5 ga Maris, 1897
ƙasa Qing dynasty (en) Fassara
Republic of China (en) Fassara
Tarayyar Amurka
Mazauni New York
Mutuwa New York, 23 Oktoba 2003
Makwanci Ferncliff Cemetery (en) Fassara
Yanayin mutuwa  (cuta)
Ƴan uwa
Mahaifi Charlie Soong
Mahaifiya Ni Kwei-tseng
Abokiyar zama Chiang Kai-shek  (1927 -  5 ga Afirilu, 1975)
Ahali Soong Ai-ling (en) Fassara, Soong Ching-ling (en) Fassara, T. L. Soong (en) Fassara, Soong Tse-an (en) Fassara da T. V. Soong (en) Fassara
Ƴan uwa
Karatu
Makaranta Wellesley College (en) Fassara 1917)
Piedmont University (en) Fassara
Wesleyan College (en) Fassara
(1912 - 1913)
Harsuna Sinanci
Turanci
Sana'a
Sana'a ɗan/'yar siyasa da public figure (en) Fassara
Kyaututtuka
Imani
Addini Methodism (en) Fassara
Jam'iyar siyasa Kuomintang (en) Fassara
IMDb nm0156976

Soong Mei-ling ko, a bisa doka, Soong May-ling ( Chinese  ; Maris 5, 1898 -23 ga Oktoba, 2003), wanda kuma aka sani da Madame Chiang Kai-shek ko Madame Chiang , fitaccen ƴar siyasan Sin ne wanda ita ce Uwargidan Shugaban Jamhuriyar Sin, matar Janarissimo kuma Shugaba Chiang Kai- shek . Soong ta taka muhimmiyar rawa a siyasar Jamhuriyar Sin kuma ta kasance surukar Sun Yat-sen, wanda ya kafa kuma jagoran Jamhuriyar Sin. Ta kasance mai himma a rayuwar farar hula ta ƙasarta kuma ta riƙe mukamai na girmamawa da aiki da yawa, ciki har da shugabar Jami'ar Fu Jen Katolika . A lokacin Yakin Sinanci da Japan na Biyu, ta tara jama'arta a kan mamayewar Japan; kuma a cikin 1943 sun gudanar da rangadin magana na watanni takwas na Amurka don samun tallafi. Rayuwar ta ta wuce karni uku.

Rayuwar farko[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An haife ta a gidan iyalinta, gidan gargajiya da ake kira Neishidi (內 史 第), a Pudong, Shanghai . An haife ta a ranar 5 ga Maris, 1898, kodayake wasu tarihin rayuwa sun ba da shekarar a matsayin 1897, tunda al'adar China tana ɗaukar mutum ya zama ɗan shekara ɗaya a haihuwa .

Ita ce ta huɗu cikin 'ya'ya shida na Charlie Soong, attajirin ɗan kasuwa kuma tsohon mishan na Methodist daga Hainan, da matarsa Ni Kwei-tseng (倪桂珍; ). 'Yan uwan Mei-ling sun kasance' yar uwa Ai-ling, 'yar'uwa Ching-ling, wacce daga baya ta zama Madame Sun Yat-sen, babban ɗan'uwan Tse-ven, wanda aka fi sani da TV Soong, da kanne Tse-liang (TL) da Tse-an ( TA )

Ilimi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

May-ling a matsayin ɗaliba a Kwalejin Wesleyan c. 1910

A Shanghai, May-ling ta halarci Makarantar 'Yan mata ta McTyeire tare da' yar uwarta, Ching-ling. Mahaifinsu, wanda ya yi karatu a Amurka, ya shirya su ci gaba da karatunsu a Amurka a cikin 1907. May-ling da Ching-ling sun halarci wata makaranta mai zaman kanta a Summit, New Jersey . A cikin 1908, 'yar'uwar Ai-ling alma mater, Kwalejin Wesleyan, ta karɓi Ching-ling, tana ƴar shekara 15 kuma duka' yan uwan biyu sun koma Macon, Jojiya, don shiga Ai-ling. Duk da haka, ba za ta iya samun izinin zama a harabar makarantar a matsayin memba na iyali ba kuma ba za ta iya zama ɗaliba ba saboda ta yi ƙarami.[ana buƙatar hujja] May-ling ta shafe shekara a Demorest, Georgia, tare da abokin Wesleyan na Ai-ling, Blanche Moss, wanda ya yi rajista May-ling a matsayin aji 8 a Kwalejin Piedmont . A cikin 1909, sabon shugaban Wesleyan, William Newman Ainsworth, ya ba ta izinin zama a Wesleyan kuma ya sanya masu koyar da ita. Ta halarci Kwalejin Fairmount a Monteagle, Tennessee a 1910.

An yi rajistar May-ling a matsayin sabon shiga a Wesleyan a cikin 1912 yana ɗan shekara 15. Daga nan ta koma Kwalejin Wellesley bayan shekaru biyu don ta kasance kusa da babban ɗan uwanta, TV, wanda a lokacin yana karatu a Harvard . A lokacin, 'yan uwanta mata biyu sun kammala karatu sun koma Shanghai. Ta sauke karatu daga Wellesley a matsayin ɗaya daga cikin 33 "Durant Scholars" a ranar 19 ga Yuni, 1917, tare da babba a cikin adabin Ingilishi da ƙarami a falsafa . Ta kuma kasance memba na Tau Zeta Epsilon, Wellesley's Arts and Music Society. A sakamakon ilmantar da ita cikin Ingilishi duk rayuwarta, ta yi magana da Ingilishi mai kyau, tare da lafazin kudanci wanda ya taimaka mata haɗi da masu sauraron Amurka.

Madam Chiang[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Hoton bikin aure na Chiang-Soong

Soong Mei-ling ya sadu da Chiang Kai-shek a 1920. Tun yana ɗan shekara goma sha ɗaya dattijon ta, wanda ya riga ya yi aure, kuma ɗan addinin Buddha, mahaifiyar Mei-ling ta yi tsayayya sosai da auren tsakanin su biyun, amma a ƙarshe ta amince bayan Chiang ya nuna shaidar sakin sa kuma ya yi alƙawarin komawa addinin Kirista . Chiang ya fadawa surukar sa ta gaba cewa ba zai iya musulunta nan take ba, domin addini yana bukatar a hankali a hankali, ba a hadiye shi kamar kwaya ba. Sun yi aure a Shanghai a ranar 1 ga Disamba, 1927. Yayin da masu ba da tarihin rayuwa suka ɗauki aure tare da kimantawa daban -daban na haɗin gwiwa, soyayya, siyasa da gasa, ya ɗauki shekaru 48. Ma'auratan ba su da 'ya'ya. A cikin 1928, Chiang ya sanya ta zama memba a kwamitin Yuans. Sun sabunta alkawuran auren su a ranar 24 ga Mayu, 1944 a Cocin St. Bartholomew da ke birnin New York. [1] Polly Smith ya rera Addu'ar Ubangiji a bikin.

Madame Chiang ita ce ta fara sabon motsi na rayuwa kuma ta tsunduma cikin harkokin siyasar kasar Sin. Ta kasance mamba a majalisar dokokin Yuan daga 1930 zuwa 1932 da kuma babban sakataren hukumar kula da zirga-zirgar jiragen sama ta kasar Sin daga 1936 zuwa 1938. A cikin 1945 ta zama memba na Babban Kwamitin Gudanarwa na Kuomintang . Yayin da mijinta ya tashi ya zama Generalissimo kuma jagoran Kuomintang, Madame Chiang ta zama mai fassara ta Ingilishi, sakatare kuma mai ba da shawara. Ita ce gidan tarihinsa, idanunsa, kunnuwansa, kuma gwarzonsa mafi aminci. A lokacin Yaƙin Duniya na Biyu, Madame Chiang ta yi ƙoƙarin tallata aikin Sinawa da gina abin gado ga mijinta a daidai daidai da Franklin D. Roosevelt, Winston Churchill da Joseph Stalin . Tana da ƙwarewa sosai a al'adun Sinawa da na Yammacin Turai, ta shahara a China da ƙasashen waje. Darajarta ta sa Janar Joseph Stilwell ya yi murabus cewa ya kamata a nada ta ministan tsaro.[ana buƙatar hujja]

1934, an ba Soong Mei-ling wani gida a garin Kuling, Mountain Lu . Ita da mijinta Chiang Kai-shek duk suna ƙaunar villa sosai. Chiang Kai-shek ya sanya wa villa suna Mei Lu Villa don alamar kyawun Mountain Lu . Ma'auratan galibi suna zama a wannan ƙauyen a cikin garin Kuling, Mountain Lu a lokacin bazara, don haka ana kiran dutsen da Summer Capital, kuma ana kiran ƙauyen Fadar bazara. [2]

"Warphans"[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Soong Mei-ling a kan murfin The Young Companion, Afrilu 1938, a matsayin Mataimakin Kwamandan Jumhuriyar China Air Force

Duk da cewa da farko Soong Mei-ling ta guji kallon jama'a bayan ta auri Chiang, ba da daɗewa ba ta fara wani babban aikin jin dadin jama'a don kafa makarantu ga marayu na sojojin China. An tsara gidajen marayu da kyau: tare da filayen wasa, otal-otal, wuraren waha, wurin motsa jiki, azuzuwan samfuri, da dakuna. Soong Mei-ling ya shiga cikin aikin sosai har ma ya ɗauki dukkan malaman da kanta. Akwai makarantu guda biyu - daya na samari da na 'yan mata - wanda aka gina a kan wani yanki mai kadada dubu a gindin Dutsen Purple, a Nanjing. Ta ambaci waɗannan yaran a matsayin “kakannin yaƙin” kuma ta mai da su saniyar ware. [3] Makomar yaran sojojin da suka mutu sun zama lamari mafi mahimmanci a China bayan fara yaƙi da Japan a 1937. Domin samar da wadata ga waɗannan yara ta kafa Ƙungiyar Agaji ta Ƙasar Sin ta Ƙasar.

Ziyara zuwa Amurka[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Soong Mei-ling ta

a yi balaguro da dama zuwa Amurka don neman goyan baya ga kokarinƙyakin 'yan kishin kasa. Ta jawo mutane da yawa kamar 30,000 kuma a cikin 1943 ta sanya murfin mujallar TIME a karo na uku. Tun da farko ta fito a kan murfin Oktoba 26, 1931 tare da mijinta kuma a ranar 3 ga Janairu, 1937 tare da mijinta a matsayin " Namiji da Matar Shekara ." [4]

A bisa hujjar nuna tasirin ziyarar ta, a cikin 1943, Rundunar Sojojin Mata ta Amurka ta ɗauki wani rukunin matan Amurkawa don yin aiki tare da Sojojin Sama na Sojojin a matsayin "Air WACs", wanda ake kira "Madame Chiang Kai-Shek Air WAC" naúrar ".

Dukansu Soong Mei-ling da mijinta sun kasance cikin kyakkyawar mu'amala tare da babban editan mujallar Time kuma mai haɗin gwiwa Henry Luce, wanda ya yi ƙoƙarin tattara kuɗi da tallafi daga jama'ar Amurka ga Jamhuriyar China . A ranar 18 ga Fabrairu, 1943, ta zama 'yar kasar Sin ta farko kuma mace ta biyu da ta yi jawabi ga dukkan majalisun dokokin majalisar dokokin Amurka . Bayan faduwar gwamnatin mijinta a yakin basasar kasar Sin a shekarar 1949, Madame Chiang ta bi mijinta zuwa Taiwan, yayin da 'yar uwarta Soong Ching-ling ta zauna a babban yankin kasar Sin, tana mai goyon bayan ' yan gurguzu . Madame Chiang ta ci gaba da taka rawar gani a duniya. Ta kasance Majiɓinci ga Kwamitin Red Cross na Ƙasa, shugabar girmamawa ta Asusun Tallafawa Ƙasar Burtaniya ga Asusun China, kuma memba mai daraja ta farko ta Ƙungiyar Tunawa da Hakkokin 'Yan Adam.

Rayuwa ta baya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Soong Mei-ling da Chiang Kai-shek a Taipei, Taiwan a 1955.

Bayan rasuwar mijinta a shekarar 1975, Madame Chiang ta ɗauka ƙaramin martaba. An fara gano ta da cutar sankarar mama a 1975 kuma za ta yi mastectomies biyu a Taiwan . Ita ma ta cire tumbin da aka cire a cikin 1991. [5]

Chang Hsien-yi ta yi iƙirarin cewa Soong Mei-ling da jami'an sojan da ke biyayya gare ta sun hanzarta haɓaka makaman nukiliya har ma sun kafa madaidaicin umarni don cimma burinsu.

Babban ɗansa Chiang Ching-kuo, wanda ya yi aure a baya, wanda Madame Chiang ta yi mu'amala mai ƙarfi tsakaninsa. A cikin 1975, ta yi ƙaura daga Taiwan zuwa gidan iyayenta na kadada 36 (hectare 14.6) a Lattingtown, New York, inda ta adana hoton marigayiyar mijinta cikin cikakkiyar rigar soja a cikin falonta. Ta ci gaba da zama a Wolfeboro, New Hampshire, inda ta yi hutu a lokacin bazara. Madame Chiang ta koma Taiwan bayan rasuwar Chiang Ching-kuo a 1988, don samun tallafi tsakanin tsoffin kawayenta. Koyaya, magajin Chiang Ching-kuo, Lee Teng-hui, ya nuna ƙwarewar siyasa fiye da ita, kuma ya haɗa matsayinsa. Ta sake komawa Amurka kuma ta fito ba -zata a bainar jama'a a 1995 lokacin da ta halarci liyafar da aka yi a kan Capitol Hill don girmama ta dangane da bikin cika shekaru 50 na ƙarshen yakin duniya na biyu. Madame Chiang ta kai ziyara ta ƙarshe a Taiwan a 1995. A Zaben Shugaban Kasa na 2000 a Taiwan, Kuomintang ta samar da wata wasika daga gareta inda a ciki ake cewa tana goyon bayan dan takarar KMT Lien Chan kan dan takara mai zaman kansa James Soong (babu wata alaka). James Soong bai taba jayayya da sahihancin harafin ba. Soong ta sayar da gadonta na Long Island a cikin 2000 kuma ta shafe sauran rayuwarta a cikin gidan Gracie Square a saman Gabashin Manhattan mallakar ɗan uwanta. Kallon gidan buɗe ido na kadarorin ya jawo 'yan kasashen waje da yawa na Taiwan. Lokacin da Madame Chiang ta cika shekaru 103, ta yi baje kolin zane -zanen nata na Sin a New York. [6]

Mutuwa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Madame Chiang ta mutu a cikin barcin ta a birnin New York, a cikin gidan ta na Manhattan a ranar 23 ga Oktoba, 2003, tana da shekara 106. An saka gawarwakin ta a makabartar Ferncliff da ke Hartsdale, New York, har zuwa lokacin da za a yi jana'izar marigayiyar mijinta wanda aka saka a Cihu, Taiwan. Manufar da aka bayyana ita ce a binne su duka biyu a babban yankin kasar Sin da zarar an warware bambance -bambancen siyasa.

Bayan mutuwarta, Fadar White House ta fitar da sanarwa:

Ƙididdiga ta manema labarai na ƙasashen duniya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Soong da Chiang akan bangon mujallar TIME, 26 ga Oktoba, 1931

Jaridar New York Times ta rubuta:

  • Mujallar Life ta kira Madame "mace mafi ƙarfi a duniya."
  • Mujallar Liberty ta bayyana ta a matsayin "haƙiƙanin ƙwaƙƙwaran ƙwaƙwalwa kuma shugabar gwamnatin China." [7]
  • Clare Boothe Luce ya kwatanta ta da Joan na Arc da Florence Nightingale . [8]
  • Ernest Hemingway ya kira ta da "sarauniyar" kasar Sin.

Gallery[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Bidiyo na Intanet[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Yakin Sin da Japan na Biyu
  • Lamarin Xi'an
  • Tarihin Jamhuriyar China
  • Sojojin Jamhuriyar China
  • Shugaban Jamhuriyar China
  • Siyasar Jamhuriyar China
  • 'Yan uwa mata
    • Soong Ai-ling
    • Soong Ching-ling
  • Claire Lee Chennault
  • Flying Tigers
  • Chiang Fang-liang
  • Sojojin Juyin Juya Hali na Kasa
  • Hadin gwiwar Sin da Jamus (1911-1941)
  • Adireshi ga Majalisa - Cikakken rubutun adireshinta na 1943
  • Maimartaba na Ƙarshe: Madame Chiang Kai-shek da Haihuwar China ta zamani- Tarihin Soong Mei-ling na 2009

Nassoshi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

 

  1. While records at Wellesley College and the Encyclopædia Britannica indicate she was born in 1897, the Republic of China government as well as the BBC and the New York Times cite her year of birth as 1898.[clarification needed] The New York Times obituary includes the following explanation: "Some references give 1897 as the year because the Chinese usually consider everyone to be one year old at birth." cf: East Asian age reckoning. However, early sources such as the Columbia Encyclopedia, 1960, give her date of birth as 1896, making it possible that "one year" was subtracted twice.
  2. ^ a b c d
  3. ^
  4. ^
  5. ^
  6. ^
  7. ^ Chitty, Arther and Elizabeth, Sewanee Sampler, 1978, p. 106; ISBN 0-9627687-7-4
  8. ^
  9. ^
  10. ^
  11. ^ St. Bartholomew's Church Marriage Registration 1944.
  12. ^ WANG, N. N., & JIANG, Z. (2007). " Usingnaturalwith ingenious ways, man and naturelive in harmony"——Simplyanalysis thedesign concepts of Mount Lushan" Meilu" villa to the inspirationofmodern ecological landscape design. Hundred Schools in Arts, 03.
  13. ^
  14. ^
  15. ^ Tyson Li 2006, pp. 87–88
  16. ^
  17. ^ TIME Magazine cover
  18. ^
  19. ^
  20. ^
  21. ^ Pakula 2009, p. 659
  22. ^
  23. ^ Pakula 2009, p. 670
  24. ^
  25. ^
  26. ^
  27. ^
  28. ^ Pakula 2009, p. 305
  29. ^ a b
  30. ^ Fenby, Jonathan (2009), Modern China, p. 279

BibliographyEdit[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

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Littafin tarihin[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Hanyoyin waje[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Lakabi na girmamawa
Magabata
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First Lady of the Republic of China Magaji
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  1. St. Bartholomew's Church Marriage Registration 1944.
  2. WANG, N. N., & JIANG, Z. (2007). " Usingnaturalwith ingenious ways, man and naturelive in harmony"——Simplyanalysis thedesign concepts of Mount Lushan" Meilu" villa to the inspirationofmodern ecological landscape design. Hundred Schools in Arts, 03.
  3. Tyson Li 2006, pp. 87–88
  4. TIME Magazine cover
  5. Pakula 2009, p. 659
  6. Pakula 2009, p. 670
  7. Pakula 2009, p. 305
  8. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named wsj