Women's suffrage

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Women's suffrage
harkar zamantakewa
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Women's suffrage

suffrage shine hakkin mata na kada kuri'a a zabe. Tun daga farkon karni na 18, wasu mutane sun nemi sauya dokokin kada kuri'a don baiwa mata damar kada kuri'a. Jam'iyyun siyasa masu sassaucin ra'ayi za su ci gaba da baiwa mata 'yancin kada kuri'a, tare da kara yawan wadanda za su iya kada kuri'a. Ƙungiyoyin ƙasa da ƙasa sun kafa don daidaita ƙoƙarin mata don kada kuri'a, musamman Ƙungiyar Suffrage ta Duniya (wacce aka kafa a 1904 a Berlin, Jamus). [1]

Abubuwa da yawa sun faru a cikin ƙarnukan baya-bayan nan inda aka ba wa mata damar yin zaɓe, sannan aka kwace musu yancin kada kuri'a. Wuri na farko a duniya don ba da kyauta da kuma kula da zaɓen mata shine New Jersey a shekara ta 1776 (ko da yake a cikin shekarar 1807 an sake dawo da wannan don kawai fararen fata za su iya yin zabe). [2]

Women's suffrage

Lardi na farko da ya ci gaba da ba wa mata damar jefa ƙuri'a shi ne tsibirin Pitcairn a cikin shekarar 1838, kuma ƙasa ta farko mai iko ita ce Norway a 1913, a matsayin Masarautar Hawai'i, wacce a asali tana da zaɓe na duniya a 1840, ta soke wannan a cikin shekarar 1852 kuma daga baya ta hade da shi. Amurka a 1898. A cikin shekaru bayan 1869, larduna da dama da daulolin Biritaniya da Rasha suka yi sun ba wa mata damar zaɓe, kuma wasu daga cikin waɗannan sun zama ƙasashe masu iko a wani lokaci, kamar New Zealand, Australia, da Finland. Jihohi da yankuna da dama na Amurka, irin su Wyoming, sun kuma bai wa mata 'yancin yin zabe. Matan da suka mallaki kadarori sun sami 'yancin yin zabe a cikin Isle of Man a cikin shekarar 1881, kuma a cikin shekarar 1893, matan da ke mulkin kai na lokacin New Zealand sun sami damar yin zabe. A Ostiraliya, mulkin mallaka na Kudancin Ostiraliya ya ba wa dukan mata 'yancin jefa ƙuri'a daga 1894, da 'yancin tsayawa takarar majalisa daga 1895, yayin da Majalisar Tarayya ta Australiya ta ba da 'yancin yin zabe da tsayawa takara a 1902 (ko da yake ya ba da izinin cirewa. na "'yan asali"). [3] Kafin samun 'yancin kai, a cikin Grand Duchy na kasar Finland, mata sun sami daidaito tsakanin launin fata, tare da 'yancin kada kuri'a da tsayawa takara a 1906. [4] Yawancin manyan ƙasashen yamma sun ba da haƙƙin jefa ƙuri'a ga mata a cikin lokacin tsaka-tsakin, ciki har da Kanada (1917), Burtaniya da Jamus (1918), Austria, Netherlands (1919) da Amurka (1920). Fitattun abubuwan da aka sani a Turai sune Faransa, inda mata ba za su iya jefa kuri'a ba har zuwa 1944, Girka (bata a wanzu a can ba har zuwa 1952, ko da yake, tun 1930, mata masu ilimi sun iya jefa kuri'a a zabukan kananan hukumomi), da Switzerland (inda. tun 1971, mata za su iya jefa kuri'a a matakin tarayya, kuma tsakanin 1959 zuwa 1990, mata sun sami 'yancin kada kuri'a a matakin kananan hukumomi). Hukunce-hukuncen Turai na ƙarshe da suka ba wa mata ‘yancin zaɓe su ne Liechtenstein a 1984 da kuma yankin Appenzell Innerrhoden na Switzerland a matakin gida a 1990.

Leslie Hume ta bayar da hujjar cewa yakin duniya na farko ya canza yanayin da ya shahara:

Gudunmawar da matan suka bayar a yaki ya kalubalanci ra'ayin mata na rashin karfin jiki da tunani kuma ya sa ya zama da wahala a iya tabbatar da cewa mata a tsarin mulki da kuma halin da ake ciki ba su cancanci kada kuri'a ba. Idan mata za su iya yin aiki a masana'antar harsashi, ya zama kamar rashin godiya da rashin hankali a hana su gurbi a rumfar zaɓe. Amma kuri'ar ta wuce tukuicin aikin yaki; abin lura shi ne yadda mata suka shiga yakin ya taimaka wajen kawar da fargabar da ke tattare da shigar mata cikin fage.

Masu adawa da zaɓen mata na pre-WWI kamar Ƙungiyar Mata ta Ƙasa ta Anti-Suffrage League sun ba da misali da rashin ƙwarewar mata a cikin harkokin soja. Sun yi ikirarin cewa tun da mata ne suka fi yawa, ya kamata mata su kada kuri’a a zaben kananan hukumomi, amma saboda rashin kwarewa a harkokin soja, sun ce zai yi hadari a bar su su kada kuri’a a zaben kasa. [5]

Women's suffrage

Tsawaita kamfen na siyasa na mata da magoya bayansu ya zama dole don samun doka ko gyara tsarin mulki don zaɓen mata. A cikin ƙasashe da yawa, an ba da ƙayyadadden zaɓe ga mata kafin zaɓe na duniya ga maza; misali, mata masu karatu ko masu dukiya an ba su damar zaɓe kafin duk maza su karɓe ta. Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ta karfafa zaben mata a cikin shekaru bayan yakin duniya na biyu, kuma Yarjejeniyar kawar da duk wani nau'i na nuna wariya ga mata (1979) ta bayyana shi a matsayin wani hakki na asali tare da kasashe 189 a halin yanzu suna cikin wannan yarjejeniya.



Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Sneider, Allison (2010). "The New Suffrage History: Voting Rights in International Perspective". History Compass . 8 (7): 692–703. doi :10.1111/ j.1478-052.2010.00689.x .Empty citation (help)
  2. More than a century before the 19th Amendment, women were voting in New Jersey. Washington Post
  3. Documenting Democracy: Constitution (Female Suffrage) Act 1895 (SA); National Archives of Australia
  4. Brief history of the Finnish Parliament. eduskunta.fi
  5. "Women's National Anti-Suffrage League Manifesto" in Phelps, Edith M. (2013), Selected Articles on Woman Suffrage, London: Forgotten Books, pp. 257–9