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Yakin Nahavand

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Infotaula d'esdevenimentYakin Nahavand

Map
 31°34′59″N 44°30′00″E / 31.583°N 44.5°E / 31.583; 44.5
Iri faɗa
Bangare na Nasarar Musulunci a Farisa
Kwanan watan 642 (21 AH (en) Fassara)
Wuri Nahavand (en) Fassara

Yaƙin Nahavand (Larabci: مَعْرَكَة نَهَاوَنْد Maʿrakah Nahāwand, Persian: نبرد نهاوند Nabard-e Nahâvand), wanda kuma aka rubuta Nihavand ko Nahawand, an yi yaƙi a shekarar 642 tsakanin Musulmin Larabawa a ƙarƙashin rundunar Umar da Sassanid.[1] Yakin da Musulmai suka sani da "Nasarar Nasara." Sarkin Sassanid Yazdegerd III ya tsere zuwa yankin Merv, amma ya kasa tada wani gagarumin runduna. Nasara ce ga Halifancin Rashidun kuma saboda haka Farisawa suka rasa garuruwan da ke kusa da su ciki har da Spahan (wanda aka yi wa suna Isfahan).

Tsoffin lardunan Sassanid, cikin ƙawance da manyan mutanen Parthian da White Hun, sun yi tsayayya na kusan ƙarni a yankin kudu da Tekun Caspian, kamar yadda Umayyads suka maye gurbin Halifancin Rashidun, don haka kuma ya kuma ci gaba da tsarin kotun Sassanid, addinin Zoroastrian, da Jawabin Farisanci.

Bayan Fage[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A lokacin rasuwar Annabi Muhammad a 632, addinin da ya jagoranci ya mamaye Hejaz (yammacin Arabiya). A ƙarƙashin khalifofi biyu na farko Abubakar da Umar, Musulunci ya fadada zuwa Falasdinu da Mesopotamiya inda a gaba daya ya fuskanci daular Rum da Farisa (Sāsānian). Dukansu sun gaji da yaƙi da rashin jituwa na ciki. Tare da cin nasarar Rumawan Gabas a Yaƙin Yarmouk (636), Larabawa Musulmai sun sami 'yancin yin gabas zuwa Ifiritu da tsakiyar zuciyar Farisa.[2] A watan Nuwamba na shekara ta 636 aka ci sojojin Sasaniyya a yakin Qadisiya, wanda ya yi sanadiyyar rasa Iraki ga Musulmai.

Yawan sojojin Larabawa da na Sasanian[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Bayan cin nasara da Larabawa suka yi a 639, "Sarkin Sarakuna" Yazdgerd III ya tilasta barin babban birnin sa a Ctesiphon. Daga Mesopotamiya ya ja da baya zuwa cikin ƙasar Sāsānian a cikin abin da yanzu shine kudancin ƙasar Iran. A can ya sami damar tara runduna don maye gurbin wanda aka rasa a Qadisiya.[3]

A Nahāvand an kiyasta mayaƙan Larabawa 30,000, ƙarƙashin umurnin Nuʿmān, sun kai hari kan sojojin Sāsānian da aka ruwaito cewa ca. 100,000 mutane. Sojojin Sāsānian, waɗanda Fīrūzan ke jagoranta, sun kasance cikin matsuguni mai ƙarfi. Bayan fadan da ba a sani ba, Nuʿmān ya yi kamar an ci shi ya janye daga fagen daga. Daga nan Fīrūzan ya yi watsi da matsayinsa ya bi abokin gaba. Neman ya zama babban kuskure na dabara saboda an tilastawa Sansani yin yaƙi akan ƙasa mara kyau; sojojin Sassaniya, wadanda aka kama tsakanin ƙazantar tsaunuka guda biyu, Larabawa sun kashe su. Dukan Nuʿmān da Fīrūzan sun mutu a cikin yaƙin, kuma an ce asarar rayukan Farisawa sun kai kusan 38,000.

Yaƙi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An ba da labarai daban -daban game da Nahāvand da farkon matakan yaƙin. Dangane da wasu sigogi, sojan dokin Farisa ya hau kan wani shiri mara kyau na Larabawa waɗanda suka koma wuri mafi aminci. Sannan Larabawa sun yi gangami, kafin su kewaye da tarkon sojojin Farisa. A ƙarshe mayaƙan musulmai sun farma rundunar sojojin Sassaniya daga kowane bangare kuma suka ci ta.

Dangane da sigar daban, kwamandan larabawa Nuʿmān ya sami damar wuce takwaransa na Sāsānian Fīrūzan ta hanyar amfani da manyan dabaru maimakon ɓatar da jita-jita. An tura manyan Farisawa masu lamba a cikin matsayi mai ƙarfi na tsaro. Wannan ba zai zama wata dabara da sojan larabawa masu ladabi suka fi so ba; wanda aka samo daga hanyoyin da ba a rarraba su ba kuma jagorancin ƙawancen manyan mutane. Saboda haka Nuʿmān ya sami damar fitar da Farisawa daga inda suke ta hanyar ci gaba da ci gaba sannan kuma gaba ɗaya amma mai haɗin gwiwa. A yayin bin sawun Sāsānian Fīrūzan ya sami mahayan dawakansa da aka kama cikin tsararraki a cikin tsaka mai wuya da ƙetare hanya. Musulmai masu himmatuwa kuma masu dogaro da kai sannan suka yi gangami da tunkarar su, inda suka yi asara mai yawa kan Farisawa marasa tsari. An ba da rahoton duka Nuʿmān da Fīrūzan a cikin ƙarshen ƙarshe amma rashin nasarar Sāsānian duka ne.

Kamar yadda masanin tarihi Tabari ya lura, Farisawa ba su sake samun damar haɗa sojojin su cikin irin wannan adadi ba. Da yawa daga cikin manyan sarakunan Sasawa sun riga sun fara tunanin barin Masarautar tun kafin fara yakin. Da yawa daga cikin sojojin Yazdegerd da jami'an farar hula sun riga sun yi watsi da shi.[4]

Bayan[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Nahāvand ya nuna rugujewar rundunonin Sojojin Sasanian, tare da faɗuwar ƙarshe na manyan mayaƙan sojojin da tashin warlordism tsakanin Farisa. Sarkin Yazdegerd na III yayi yunƙurin tara sojoji ta hanyar yin kira ga sauran yankunan makwabta kamar sarakunan Tukharistan da Sogdia daga ƙarshe ya tura ɗansa Peroz III zuwa kotun Tang, amma ba tare da samun nasara ba.

Yezdegerd ya gaggauta gudu zuwa gabas inda wasu Marzban (gwamnonin larduna) da yawa a arewa suka yi masa maraba; haka kuma a Merv, inda gwamna Mahoye ya fito fili ya nuna ƙiyayyarsa ga Sarkin. A cewar majiyoyin da ba Musulmai ba, Yazdegerd ya gaza samun isasshen tallafi a Gabashin Farisa inda mutanen Sasani ba su da farin jini da yawan jama'ar yankin. Majiyoyin Musulmai, kamar Tabari, sun ba da rahoton cewa lardin Khorasan ya yi tawaye da mulkin Sasanian, kamar yadda ya kasance shekaru da suka gabata lokacin da yawan jama'a suka goyi bayan kawun Khosrau II Vistahm. Lokacin da aka nada Yazdegerd a Estakhr, a zahiri Farisa tana da Sarakuna uku da ke mulki a yankuna daban -daban kuma Khorasan bai fara ba Yazdegerd tallafi ba.

Kafin Yazdegerd ya sami damar samun taimako daga Hepthalites da kabilun Turkawa, wani mai shayarwa na gida ya kashe shi a Merv a cikin 651.[5][6] Bayan haka, ɗan Yazdegerd Peroz ya yi ƙoƙarin sake kafa daular Sasanian a kan Khalifancin Rashidun da magajinsa, Umayyad. Halifanci, kodayake shirin bai ci gaba ba, kamar yadda Peroz ya mutu a ƙarshe a China.

Tasiri[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Dangane da tasirin wannan yaƙin na dogon lokaci, Sir Muhammad Iqbal ya rubuta cewa: "Idan kuka tambaye ni abin da ya fi muhimmanci a tarihin Musulunci, zan faɗi ba tare da wani jinkiri ba:" Nasarar Farisa. " Yaƙin Nehawand ya ba Larabawa kyakkyawar ƙasa ba kawai ba, har ma da tsohuwar wayewa; ko, mafi dacewa, mutanen da za su iya yin sabon wayewa tare da kayan Semitic da Aryan. na ra'ayoyin Yahudanci da Aryan.Yaro ne wanda ya gaji taushi da tsaftar mahaifiyarsa Aryan, da kuma halin mahaifinsa na Yahudanci Amma ga cin nasarar Farisa, da wayewa ta Musulunci ta kasance gefe ɗaya. Cin nasarar Farisa ya ba mu abin da nasarar Girka ta ba wa Romawa.”[7]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Pourshariati, Parvaneh (2008). Decline and Fall of the Sasanian Empire: The Sasanian-Parthian Confederacy and the Arab Conquest of Iran. London and New York: I.B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1-84511-645-3.
  • Zarrinkub, Abd al-Husain (1975). "The Arab conquest of Iran and its aftermath". The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 4: From the Arab Invasion to the Saljuqs. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 1–57. ISBN 978-0-521-20093-6.
  1. Willem Vogelsang (2002), The Afghans, Blackwell Publishing, ISBN 0-631-19841-5
  2. Barraclough, Geoffrey. The Times Atlas of World History. pp. 104–105. ISBN 0-7230-0161-8.
  3. Khodadad Rezakhani "Arab Conquests and Sasanian Iran", pages 35-36 History Today April 2007
  4. Iranian History and Politics: The Dialectic of State and Society By Homa Katouzian, pg. 25
  5. The History of Iran By Elton L. Daniel, pg 67
  6. History of Islamic Philosophy-With View of Greek Philosophy and Early History of Islam By I. M. N. Al-Jubouri, pg. 142
  7. Stray Reflections: The Private Notebook of Muhammad Iqbal, Ed. Dr. Javid Iqbal, pg. 49