Zoonosis

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Zoonosis
A dog with rabies.Zoonosis
A dog with rabies.
Rabe-rabe da ma'adanai da waje

Zoonosis (jam'i zoonoses, ko Cututtukan oonotic ) cuta ce mai saurin kamuwa ( maganin kamuwa da cuta, irin su bacterium, virus, parasite ko prion ) wanda ya yi tsalle daga dabba (yawanci vertebrate ) zuwa mutum.[1][1][2][3] Yawanci, mutum na farko da ya kamu da cutar yana watsa ƙwayar cutar ga aƙalla mutum ɗaya, wanda, bi da bi, yana cutar da wasu.

Manyan cututtuka na zamani kamar cutar Ebola da salmonellosis sune zoonoses. HIV cuta ce ta zoonotic da ake yaɗawa ga mutane a farkon ƙarni na 20, kodayake yanzu ta rikiɗe zuwa wata cuta ta ɗan adam kaɗai.[4][5][6] Mafi yawan nau'in mura da ke kamuwa da mutane cututtukan mutane ne, ko da yake yawancin nau'ikan murar tsuntsaye da murar alade sune zoonoses; Wadannan ƙwayoyin cuta lokaci-lokaci suna haɗuwa tare da nau'ikan mura na ɗan adam kuma suna iya haifar da cututtuka kamar mura na 1918 na Mutanen Espanya ko mura aladun 2009.[7]

Taenia solium kamuwa da cuta yana daya daga cikin cututtuka na wurare masu zafi da aka yi watsi da su tare da lafiyar jama'a da damuwa na dabbobi a yankunan da ke da yawa. Zoonoses na iya haifar da nau'in cututtukan cututtuka kamar ƙwayoyin cuta masu tasowa, kwayoyin cuta, fungi da parasites; na cututtukan cututtuka 1,415 da aka sani suna cutar da mutane, 61% sun kasance zoonotic.[8] Mafi yawan cututtukan mutane sun samo asali ne daga dabbobi; duk da haka, kawai cututtukan da ke haɗawa da waɗanda ba na ɗan adam ba a kai a kai ga ɗan adam, irin su rabies, ana ɗaukar zoonoses kai tsaye.[9]

Zoonoses suna da hanyoyin watsa daban-daban. A cikin zoonosis kai tsaye ana kamuwa da cutar daga dabbobi zuwa ga mutane ta hanyar kafofin watsa labarai kamar iska ( mura ) ko ta cizo da miya ( rabies ).[10] Ya bambanta, watsa kuma na iya faruwa ta hanyar tsaka-tsakin nau'in (wanda ake magana da shi azaman vector ), wanda ke ɗauke da ƙwayoyin cuta ba tare da rashin lafiya ba. Lokacin da mutane ke cutar da dabbobi, ana kiranta reverse zoonosis ko anthroponosis.t Kalmar ta fito daga Girkanci : ζῷον zoon "dabba" da νόσος nosos "ciwo".[11]

Ƙwayoyin halitta masu masaukin baƙi suna taka muhimmiyar rawa wajen tantance ko wane ƙwayoyin dabbobi za su iya yin kwafin kansu a cikin jikin ɗan adam. Kwayoyin cuta na dabba masu haɗari sune waɗanda ke buƙatar ƴan maye gurbi don fara kwafi kansu a cikin ƙwayoyin ɗan adam. Waɗannan ƙwayoyin cuta suna da haɗari tunda haɗuwar maye gurbi da ake buƙata na iya tasowa ba da gangan a cikin tafki na halitta ba.[12]

Dalilai[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bayyanar cututtukan zoonotic ya samo asali ne daga cikin gida na dabbobi.[13] Watsawar Zoonotic na iya faruwa a cikin kowane mahallin da akwai hulɗa tare da ko cin dabbobi, samfuran dabbobi, ko abubuwan da suka samo asali na dabba. Wannan na iya faruwa a cikin abokiyar gida (dabbobin gida), tattalin arziki (noma, kasuwanci, yanka, da sauransu), farauta (farauta, yanka ko cin naman daji) ko mahallin bincike.[14]

Kwanan nan, an sami ƙaruwar bayyanar sabbin cututtukan zoonotic. "Kimanin ƙwayoyin cuta miliyan 1.67 da ba a bayyana su ba ana tsammanin suna wanzuwa a cikin dabbobi masu shayarwa da tsuntsaye, kusan rabinsu an kiyasta cewa za su iya shiga cikin mutane," in ji wani bincike wanda masu bincike a Jami'ar California, Davis suka jagoranta. A cewar wani rahoto daga Hukumar Kula da Muhalli ta Majalisar Dinkin Duniya da Cibiyar Nazarin Dabbobi ta Duniya, manyan abubuwan da ke haifar da su sun hada da sauyin yanayi, rashin dorewar noma, cin gajiyar namun daji, canjin amfani da ƙasa. Wasu kuma suna da alaƙa da canje-canje a cikin al'ummar ɗan adam kamar ƙarin motsi. Ƙungiyoyin sun ba da shawarar matakan da za su dakatar da tashin.[15][16]

Lalacewar abinci ko ruwan sha[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Mafi mahimmancin cututtukan zoonotic da ke haifar da cututtukan abinci sune O157:H7, Campylobacter, Caliciviridae, da Salmonella.[17][18][19]

A cikin 2006 wani taro da aka gudanar a Berlin ya mayar da hankali kan batun cututtukan cututtukan ƙwayar cuta na zoonotic akan amincin abinci, yana mai yin kira ga gwamnati da ta sa baki da kuma lura da jama'a game da haɗarin kamuwa da cututtukan da ke haifar da abinci daga cin abinci na gona zuwa tebur.[20]

Yawancin ɓarkewar abinci ana iya danganta su da cututtukan zoonotic. Yawancin nau'ikan abinci daban-daban waɗanda suke da asalin dabba na iya zama gurɓata. Wasu abubuwan abinci na yau da kullun da ke da alaƙa da gurɓataccen zoonotic sun haɗa da ƙwai, abincin teku, nama, kiwo, har ma da wasu kayan lambu. Yakamata a kula da barkewar cutar da ta shafi gurbataccen abinci a cikin shirye-shiryen shirye-shiryen hana ɓarkewar annoba da kuma shawo kan barkewar cikin inganci da inganci.[21]

Noma, kiwo da kiwo[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yin hulɗa da dabbobin gona na iya haifar da cututtuka a cikin manoma ko wasu waɗanda suka yi hulɗa da dabbobin gonaki masu kamuwa da cuta. Glanders da farko yana shafar waɗanda ke aiki tare da dawakai da jakuna. Kusanci cuɗanya da shanu na iya haifar da kamuwa da cutar anthrax, yayin da kamuwa da cutar anthrax ya fi zama ruwan dare ga ma'aikata a mayanka, masana'antar fatu da masana'antar ulu.[22]

Kusa da tunkiya da suka haifa kwanan nan zai iya haifar da clamydiosis, ko zubar da ciki na enzootic, a cikin mata masu juna biyu, da kuma ƙara yawan haɗarin Q zazzabi, toxoplasmosis, da listeriosis a cikin ciki ko in ba haka ba immunocompromised. Echinococcosis na faruwa ne ta hanyar tsutsotsi da ake iya yaɗawa daga tumakin da suka kamu da abinci ko ruwan da aka gurɓace da najasa ko ulu. Murar tsuntsaye ta zama ruwan dare a cikin kaji.[23] Duk da yake da wuya a cikin mutane, babban abin da ke damun lafiyar jama'a shine cewa nau'in murar tsuntsaye zai sake haɗuwa da kwayar cutar murar mutum kuma ta haifar da annoba kamar 1918 na Mutanen Espanya.[24] A cikin 2017, an ba da umarnin kajin masu cin abinci a Burtaniya su kasance a ciki na ɗan lokaci saboda barazanar murar tsuntsaye.[25] Shanu wani muhimmin tafki ne na cryptosporidiosis kuma galibi yana shafar marasa lafiya. Rahotanni sun nuna cewa Minks na iya kamuwa da cutar. A cikin kasashen yammacin Turai kuma nauyin Hepatitis E ya dogara ne akan bayyanar da kayan dabba, musamman naman alade shine muhimmin tushen kamuwa da cuta ta wannan fanni.[26]

Likitocin dabbobi suna fuskantar haɗari na musamman na sana'a da cututtukan zoonotic. A cikin Amurka, bincike ya nuna ƙarin haɗarin rauni ga raunin da kuma rashin sanin ilimin dabbobi game da waɗannan haɗarin. Bincike ya tabbatar da mahimmancin ci gaba da ilimin likitan dabbobi akan haɗarin sana'a da ke da alaƙa da raunin tsoka, cizon dabbobi, sandunan allura, da yanke.[27]

Wani rahoto na Yuli na 2020 na Hukumar Kula da Muhalli ta Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ya bayyana cewa karuwar cututtukan zoonotic yana da alaƙa kai tsaye ga lalata dabi'ar ɗan adam da ƙaruwar buƙatun nama a duniya, kuma noman masana'antu na aladu da kaji musamman zai zama babban haɗari na farko. don zubar da cututtukan zoonotic a nan gaba.[28]

Kasuwancin namun daji ko harin dabbobi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kasuwancin namun daji na iya ƙara haɗarin zubewa saboda kai tsaye yana ƙara yawan hulɗar tsakanin nau'ikan dabbobi, wani lokacin akan ƙananan wurare.[29] Asalin cutar ta COVID-19 da ke gudana[30][31] tana zuwa kasuwannin rigar a Sin.[32][33][34]

  • Rabies

Ƙwarin vector[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Ciwon bacci na Afirka
  • Dirofilariasis
  • Gabas equine encephalitis
  • Jafananci encephalitis
  • Saint Louis encephalitis
  • Goge typhus
  • Tularemia
  • Venezuelan equine encephalitis
  • Zazzabin Yammacin Kogi
  • Western equine encephalitis
  • Zazzaɓin Zika

Dabbobin gida[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Dabbobin gida na iya yada cututtuka da dama. Ana yi wa karnuka da kuliyoyi allurar riga-kafin cutar rabies.[35] Dabbobin gida kuma na iya watsa tsutsa da Giardia, waɗanda ke da alaƙa a cikin dabbobi da mutane. Toxoplasmosis cuta ce ta kowa da kuliyoyi; a cikin mutane cuta ce mai sauƙi ko da yake tana iya zama haɗari ga mata masu ciki. Dirofilariasis yana haifar da Dirofilaria immitis ta hanyar sauro da dabbobi masu shayarwa ke kamuwa da su kamar karnuka da kuliyoyi. Cutar katsina tana haifar da Bartonella henselae da Bartonella quintana daga ƙuma waɗanda ke da yawa a cikin kuliyoyi. Toxocariasis shine kamuwa da mutane na kowane nau'in tsutsotsi, ciki har da nau'in nau'i na musamman ga kare ( Toxocara canis ) ko cat ( Toxocara cati ). Cryptosporidiosis ana iya yadawa ga mutane daga dabbobin dabba, irin su damisa gecko . Encephalitozoon cuniculi ƙwayar cuta ce ta microsporidial da yawancin dabbobi masu shayarwa ke ɗauke da su, gami da zomaye, kuma shine muhimmin ƙwayar cuta mai fa'ida a cikin mutanen da ke da rigakafi ta HIV/AIDS, dashen gabbai, ko rashi CD4+ T-lymphocyte.[36] Dabbobin dabbobi kuma na iya zama wurin tafki na cututtukan hoto ko bidiyo mai zagaya yanar gizo da sauri kuma suna ba da gudummawa ga ci gaba da kasancewar wasu cututtukan hoto ko bidiyo mai zagaya yanar gizo da sauri a cikin yawan ɗan adam. Misali, kusan 20 Kashi% na karnuka na gida, kuliyoyi da dawakai suna ɗauke da ƙwayoyin rigakafin cutar Hepatitis E don haka wataƙila waɗannan dabbobi suna ba da gudummawa ga nauyin cutar Hepatitis E na ɗan adam.[37] Ga mutanen da ba su da rauni (mutanen da ba su da rigakafi) nauyin cutar da ke haɗe shi ne, duk da haka, ƙananan.

nuni[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An gano barkewar cutar zoonoses zuwa hulɗar ɗan adam tare da fallasa su ga sauran dabbobi a wuraren baje koli, kasuwannin dabbobi masu rai,[38] gidajen dabbobi, da sauran saitunan. A cikin 2005, Cibiyoyin Kula da Cututtuka da Cututtuka (CDC) sun ba da sabon jerin shawarwari don hana watsa zoonosis a cikin saitunan jama'a.[39] Shawarwari, waɗanda aka haɓaka tare da Ƙungiyar Likitocin Kiwon Lafiyar Jama'a ta Ƙasa, sun haɗa da nauyin ilimi na masu gudanar da wurin, iyakance hulɗar dabbobin jama'a, da kula da dabbobi.[40]

Farauta da naman daji[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • HIV
  • SARS

Sake sare bishiyoyi, asarar rabe-raben halittu da lalata muhalli[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kate Jones, shugabar nazarin halittu da bambancin halittu a Kwalejin Jami'ar London, ta ce cututtukan zoonotic suna daɗa alaƙa da canjin yanayi da halayen ɗan adam. Rushewar dazuzzukan dazuzzukan da ake yi ta hanyar sare itace, hakar ma'adinai, gina tituna ta wurare masu nisa, saurin bunƙasa birane da haɓaka yawan jama'a yana kawo kusanci da nau'in dabbobin da wataƙila ba su taɓa samun kusanci ba. Sakamakon yada cututtuka daga namun daji zuwa ga mutane, in ji ta, yanzu ya zama "boyayyen tsadar ci gaban tattalin arzikin dan Adam".[41]

A cikin labarin baƙon da IBES, Peter Daszak da wasu shugabannin uku suka buga na 2019 Global Assessment Report on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services, Josef Settele, Sandra Díaz da Eduardo Brondizio, sun rubuta cewa "yawan saran gandun daji, rashin kulawa da fadada aikin gona, noma mai zurfi, haƙar ma'adinai da samar da ababen more rayuwa, da kuma yadda ake amfani da namun daji sun haifar da 'cikakkiyar guguwa' don yaduwar cututtuka daga namun daji zuwa ga mutane." Joshua Moon, Clare Wenham da Sophie Harman sun ce akwai shaidun da ke nuna cewa raguwar rayayyun halittu na da tasiri a kan bambance-bambancen runduna da yawan hulɗar ɗan adam da dabba tare da yuwuwar kamuwa da cuta.[42] [43]

Wani bincike na Afrilu 2020 da aka buga a cikin Proceedings of the Royal Society Part B ya gano cewa ƙaruwar abubuwan da ke haifar da kwayar cutar daga dabbobi zuwa mutane na iya danganta su da asarar rayayyun halittu da lalata muhalli, yayin da mutane ke ci gaba da mamaye filayen daji don shiga aikin noma, farauta da hakar albarkatu. ya zama fallasa ga ƙwayoyin cuta waɗanda galibi za su kasance a waɗannan wuraren. Irin waɗannan abubuwan da suka faru sun ninka sau uku a kowace shekaru goma tun daga 1980. Wani bincike na watan Agusta na 2020 da aka buga a cikin Nature ya kammala da cewa lalata tsarin halittar ɗan adam don manufar faɗaɗa aikin gona da matsugunan ɗan adam yana rage bambancin halittu kuma yana ba da damar ƙananan dabbobi kamar jemagu da beraye, waɗanda suka fi dacewa da matsin ɗan adam kuma suna ɗauke da mafi yawan cututtukan zoonotic., don yaduwa. Wannan kuma na iya haifar da ƙarin annoba.[44]

A cikin Oktoba 2020, Tsarin Tsarin Siyasa-Tsarin Tsarin Mulki akan Diversity and Ecosystem Services ya buga rahotonsa game da 'zamanin annoba' da masana 22 suka yi a fagage daban-daban, kuma sun yanke shawarar cewa lalata halittar ɗan adam na samar da hanyar zuwa zamanin annoba, kuma zai iya haifar da kamuwa da ƙwayoyin cuta kusan 850,000 daga dabbobi - musamman tsuntsaye da dabbobi masu shayarwa - ga mutane. Ƙarfafa matsin lamba a kan yanayin halittu yana faruwa ne ta hanyar "haɓaka mai girma" na cin abinci da cinikayyar kayayyaki kamar nama, dabino, da karafa, wanda akasarin ƙasashen da suka ci gaba suka sauƙaƙe, da kuma karuwar yawan mutane.[45] A cewar Peter Daszak, shugaban kungiyar wanda ya samar da rahoton, "babu wani babban asiri game da musabbabin cutar ta Covid-19, ko kuma wata annoba ta zamani. Ayyukan ɗan adam iri ɗaya waɗanda ke haifar da sauyin yanayi da asarar rayayyun halittu suma suna haifar da haɗarin annoba ta hanyar tasirin su ga muhallinmu."[46][47][48]

Canjin yanayi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cewar wani rahoto daga Hukumar Kula da Muhalli ta Majalisar Dinkin Duniya da Cibiyar Nazarin Dabbobi ta Duniya mai suna: "Hana annoba ta gaba - cututtukan Zoonotic da yadda za a karya sarkar yada ƙwayar cutar" sauyin yanayi yana daya daga cikin abubuwan da ke haifar da karuwar mutane 7. na cututtukan zoonotic.[15][16]

Jami'ar Sydney ta ba da a watan Maris 2021 wani binciken da ke yin nazarin abubuwa, yana ƙara yuwuwar kamuwa da cututtuka da annoba kamar cutar ta COVID-19.[49] Masu binciken sun gano cewa "matsi kan yanayin muhalli, sauyin yanayi da ci gaban tattalin arziki sune muhimman abubuwan" wajen yin hakan. An sami ƙarin cututtukan zoonotic a cikin ƙasashe masu tasowa.[50][51]

Wani bincike na 2021 ya gano yiwuwar alaƙa tsakanin canjin yanayi da watsa COVID-19 ta jemagu. Marubutan sun ba da shawarar cewa canje-canjen yanayi a cikin rarrabawa da wadatar nau'ikan jemagu da ke ɗauke da coronaviruses na iya faruwa a wuraren da ake fama da su a gabashin Asiya (kudancin China, Myanmar da Laos), wanda ya zama direban juyin halitta da yaɗuwar cutar.

Watsawa ta biyu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Ebola da Marburg misalan cututtukan jini ne.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A lokacin mafi yawan ƙungiyoyin mafarauta na kafin tarihin ɗan adam ƙila ƙanana ne. Wataƙila irin waɗannan ƙungiyoyin sun yi hulɗa da wasu irin waɗannan makada da wuya kawai. Irin wannan keɓewar da zai sa a keɓe cututtukan annoba ga kowane yanki na yanki, saboda yaɗawa da faɗaɗa annoba sun dogara da yawan saduwa da wasu mutane waɗanda har yanzu ba su sami isasshen rigakafin rigakafi ba . Don dawwama a cikin irin wannan yawan, ƙwayar cuta ko dai dole ne ya zama kamuwa da cuta na yau da kullun, yana kasancewa kuma yana iya kamuwa da cutar a cikin mai cutar na dogon lokaci, ko kuma ya sami wasu ƙarin nau'ikan a matsayin tafki inda zai iya kula da kansa har sai ƙarin masu saurin kamuwa da runduna. da aka tuntube kuma suka kamu da cutar.[ana buƙatar hujja] ga yawancin cututtuka na "mutane", a zahiri an fi kallon ɗan adam a matsayin wanda aka azabtar da shi na bazata ko wanda ya faru da shi kuma mai gida na ƙarshe. Misalai sun haɗa da ciwon huhu, anthrax, tularemia da cutar ta West Nile . Don haka, yawancin bayyanar da ɗan adam ga cututtuka sun kasance zoonotic.

Yiwuwar watsa cutar zoonotic

Yawancin cututtuka na zamani, har ma da cututtuka, sun fara a matsayin cututtukan zoonotic.[ana buƙatar hujja]Yana da wuya a tabbatar cututtuka ne suka yi tsalle daga wasu dabbobi zuwa ga mutane, amma akwai ƙarin shaida daga jerin DNA da RNA, cewa kyanda, ƙwanƙwasa, mura, HIV, da diphtheria sun zo ga mutane ta wannan hanya.[ana buƙatar hujja] -daban na mura da tarin fuka suma suna daidaita nau'ikan iri.[ana buƙatar hujja] ba da shawarar cewa duk cututtukan ƙwayoyin cuta na ɗan adam asalin zoonotic ne.[52]

Zoonoses suna da ban sha'awa saboda yawanci cututtuka ne waɗanda ba a gane su a baya ba ko kuma suna da ƙaruwa a cikin yawan mutanen da ba su da rigakafi. Cutar ta West Nile ta bayyana a Amurka a cikin 1999 a yankin New York City, kuma ta ratsa cikin ƙasar a lokacin rani na 2002, ta haifar da damuwa.[ana buƙatar hujja] ce ta zoonotic, kamar yadda ake kira salmonellosis, Dutsen Rocky zazzaɓi. da cutar Lyme .

Babban abin da ke ba da gudummawa ga bayyanar sabbin ƙwayoyin cuta na zoonotic a cikin yawan ɗan adam shine ƙara cuɗanya tsakanin mutane da namun daji.[53] Ana iya haifar da hakan ko dai ta hanyar kutse ayyukan ɗan adam zuwa yankunan jeji ko kuma ta motsa namun daji zuwa wuraren ayyukan ɗan adam. Misalin wannan shine barkewar kwayar cutar Nipah a cikin ƙasar Malesiya a cikin 1999, lokacin da aka fara noman alade mai tsanani a mazaunin jemagu na ƴaƴan itace masu cutar. ba a tantance ba ya ƙara ƙarfin kamuwa da cutar, inda daga ƙarshe ya yaɗa cutar ga manoma tare da haddasa mutuwar mutane 105.[54]

Hakazalika, a cikin ƴan kwanakin nan, cutar mura ta jiragen ruwa da cutar ta West Nile sun yaɗu a cikin jama'a mai yiwuwa saboda hulɗar da ke tsakanin mai ɗaukar hoto da dabbobin gida.[ana buƙatar hujja] da-gidanka masu yawa kamar jemagu da tsuntsaye na iya gabatar da haɗarin watsa zoonotic fiye da sauran dabbobi saboda sauƙin da za su iya ƙaura zuwa wuraren zama na ɗan adam.

Domin sun dogara ga ɗan adam na wani ɓangare na rayuwarsu, cututtuka irin su schistosomiasis na Afirka, makanta kogi, da elephantiasis ba a bayyana su a matsayin zoonotic ba, ko da yake suna iya dogara ne akan yaɗa ta ƙwari ko wasu ƙwayoyin cuta.[55]

Amfani a alluran rigakafi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Alurar riga kafi ta farko da Edward Jenner ya yi a shekara ta 1800 ta hanyar kamuwa da ƙwayar cutar zoonotic bovine ce ta haifar da wata cuta mai suna cowpx.[56] Jenner ya lura cewa masu shayarwa suna da juriya ga ƙanƙara. Milkmaids sun kamu da cutar mafi sauƙi daga shanu masu kamuwa da cuta waɗanda ke ba da rigakafi ga cutar ɗan adam. Jenner ya zayyana wani shiri na 'cowpox' mai kamuwa da cuta kuma daga baya ya yi amfani da shi don yin allurar rigakafin cutar sanƙarau. Sakamakon haka, an kawar da cutar sankara a duniya, kuma an daina yin allurar rigakafin wannan cuta a shekara ta 1981.[57]

Jerin cututtuka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Disease Pathogen(s) Animals involved Mode of transmission Emergence
African sleeping sickness Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense range of wild animals and domestic livestock transmitted by the bite of the tsetse fly 'present in Africa for thousands of years' – major outbreak 1900–1920, cases continue (sub-Saharan Africa, 2020)
Angiostrongyliasis Angiostrongylus cantonensis, Angiostrongylus costaricensis rats, cotton rats consuming raw or undercooked snails, slugs, other mollusks, crustaceans, contaminated water, and unwashed vegetables contaminated with larvae
Anisakiasis Anisakis whales, dolphins, seals, sea lions, other marine animals eating raw or undercooked fish and squid contaminated with eggs
Anthrax Bacillus anthracis commonly – grazing herbivores such as cattle, sheep, goats, camels, horses, and pigs by ingestion, inhalation or skin contact of spores
Babesiosis Babesia spp. mice, other animals tick bite
Baylisascariasis Baylisascaris procyonis raccoons ingestion of eggs in feces
Barmah Forest fever Barmah Forest virus kangaroos, wallabies, opossums mosquito bite
Bird flu Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 wild birds, domesticated birds such as chickens close contact 2003–19 Avian Influenza in Southeast Asia and Egypt
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy Prions cattle eating infected meat isolated similar cases reported in ancient history; in recent UK history probable start in the 1970s
Brucellosis Brucella spp. cattle, goats, pigs, sheep infected milk or meat historically widespread in Mediterranean region; identified early 20th century
Bubonic plague, Pneumonic plague, Septicemic plague, Sylvatic plague Yersinia pestis rabbits, hares, rodents, ferrets, goats, sheep, camels flea bite Epidemics like Black Death in Europe around 1347–53 during the Late Middle Age, Third Plague Pandemic in China-Qing dynasty and India alone
Capillariasis Capillaria spp. rodents, birds, foxes eating raw or undercooked fish, ingesting embryonated eggs in fecal-contaminated food, water, or soil
Cat-scratch disease Bartonella henselae cats bites or scratches from infected cats
Chagas disease Trypanosoma cruzi armadillos, Triatominae (kissing bug) Contact of mucosae or wounds with feces of kissing bugs. Accidental ingestion of parasites in food contaminated by bugs or infected mammal excretae.
Clamydiosis / Enzootic abortion Chlamydophila abortus domestic livestock, particularly sheep close contact with postpartum ewes
COVID-19 Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 suspected: bats, felines, raccoon dogs, minks. White-tailed deer respiratory transmission COVID-19 pandemic; 2019–present; Ongoing pandemic
Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease PrP<sup id="mwAjs">vCJD</sup> cattle eating meat from animals with Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) 1996–2001: United Kingdom
Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever orthonairovirus cattle, goats, sheep, birds, multimammate rats, hares tick bite, contact with bodily fluids
Cryptococcosis Cryptococcus neoformans commonly – birds like pigeons inhaling fungi
Cryptosporidiosis Cryptosporidium spp. cattle, dogs, cats, mice, pigs, horses, deer, sheep, goats, rabbits, leopard geckos, birds ingesting cysts from water contaminated with feces
Cysticercosis and taeniasis Taenia solium, Taenia asiatica, Taenia saginata commonly – pigs and cattle consuming water, soil or food contaminated with the tapeworm eggs (cysticercosis) or raw or undercooked pork contaminated with the cysticerci (taeniasis)
Dirofilariasis Dirofilaria spp. dogs, wolves, coyotes, foxes, jackals, cats, monkeys, raccoons, bears, muskrats, rabbits, leopards, seals, sea lions, beavers, ferrets, reptiles mosquito bite
Eastern equine encephalitis, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Western equine encephalitis Eastern equine encephalitis virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, Western equine encephalitis virus horses, donkeys, zebras, birds mosquito bite
Ebola virus disease (a haemorrhagic fever) Ebolavirus spp. chimpanzees, gorillas, orangutans, fruit bats, monkeys, shrews, forest antelope and porcupines through body fluids and organs 2013–16; possible in Africa
Other haemorrhagic fevers (Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever, Dengue fever, Lassa fever, Marburg viral haemorrhagic fever, Rift Valley fever) Varies – commonly viruses varies (sometimes unknown) – commonly camels, rabbits, hares, hedgehogs, cattle, sheep, goats, horses and swine infection usually occurs through direct contact with infected animals 2019–20 dengue fever
Echinococcosis Echinococcus spp. commonly – dogs, foxes, jackals, wolves, coyotes, sheep, pigs, rodents ingestion of infective eggs from contaminated food or water with feces of an infected, definitive host or fur
Fasciolosis Fasciola hepatica, Fasciola gigantica sheep, cattle, buffaloes ingesting contaminated plants
Foodborne illnesses (commonly diarrheal diseases) Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Listeria spp., Shigella spp. and Trichinella spp. animals domesticated for food production (cattle, poultry) raw or undercooked food made from animals and unwashed vegetables contaminated with feces
Giardiasis Giardia lamblia beavers, other rodents, raccoons, deer, cattle, goats, sheep, dogs, cats ingesting spores and cysts in food and water contaminated with feces
Glanders Burkholderia mallei. horses, donkeys direct contact
Gnathostomiasis Gnathostoma spp. dogs, minks, opossums, cats, lions, tigers, leopards, raccoons, poultry, other birds, frogs raw or undercooked fish or meat
Hantavirus Hantavirus spp. deer mice, cotton rats and other rodents exposure to feces, urine, saliva or bodily fluids
Henipavirus Henipavirus spp. horses, bats exposure to feces, urine, saliva or contact with sick horses
Hepatitis E Hepatitis E virus domestic and wild animals contaminated food or water
Histoplasmosis Histoplasma capsulatum birds, bats inhaling fungi in guano
HIV SIV Simian immunodeficiency virus Non-human primates Blood Immunodeficiency resembling human AIDS was reported in captive monkeys in the United States beginning in 1983.[58] SIV was isolated in 1985 from some of these animals, captive rhesus macaques suffering from simian AIDS (SAIDS). The discovery of SIV was made shortly after HIV-1 had been isolated as the cause of AIDS and led to the discovery of HIV-2 strains in West Africa. HIV-2 was more similar to the then-known SIV strains than to HIV-1, suggesting for the first time the simian origin of HIV. Further studies indicated that HIV-2 is derived from the SIVsmm strain found in sooty mangabeys, whereas HIV-1, the predominant virus found in humans, is derived from SIV strains infecting chimpanzees (SIVcpz)
Japanese encephalitis Japanese encephalitis virus pigs, water birds mosquito bite
Kyasanur Forest disease Kyasanur Forest disease virus rodents, shrews, bats, monkeys tick bite
La Crosse encephalitis La Crosse virus chipmunks, tree squirrels mosquito bite
Leishmaniasis Leishmania spp. dogs, rodents, other animals sandfly bite 2004 Afghanistan
Leprosy Mycobacterium leprae, Mycobacterium lepromatosis armadillos, monkeys, rabbits, mice[59] direct contact, including meat consumption. However, scientists believe most infections are spread human to human.
Leptospirosis Leptospira interrogans rats, mice, pigs, horses, goats, sheep, cattle, buffaloes, opossums, raccoons, mongooses, foxes, dogs direct or indirect contact with urine of infected animals 1616–20 New England infection: Present day in the United States–Native Americans; Killed around 90–95% of (Native America)
Lassa fever Lassa fever virus rodents exposure to rodents
Lyme disease Borrelia burgdorferi deer, wolves, dogs, birds, rodents, rabbits, hares, reptiles tick bite
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus rodents exposure to urine, feces, or saliva
Melioidosis Burkholderia pseudomallei various animals direct contact with contaminated soil and surface water
Microsporidiosis Encephalitozoon cuniculi Rabbits, dogs, mice, and other mammals ingestion of spores
Middle East respiratory syndrome MERS coronavirus bats, camels close contact 2012–present: Saudi Arabia
Monkeypox Monkeypox virus rodents, primates contact with infected rodents, primates, or contaminated materials
Nipah virus infection Nipah virus (NiV) bats, pigs direct contact with infected bats, infected pigs
Orf Orf virus goats, sheep close contact
Psittacosis Chlamydophila psittaci macaws, cockatiels, budgerigars, pigeons, sparrows, ducks, hens, gulls and many other bird species contact with bird droplets
Q fever Coxiella burnetii livestock and other domestic animals such as dogs and cats inhalation of spores, contact with bodily fluid or faeces
Rabies Rabies virus commonly – dogs, bats, monkeys, raccoons, foxes, skunks, cattle, goats, sheep, wolves, coyotes, groundhogs, horses, mongooses and cats through saliva by biting, or through scratches from an infected animal Variety of places like Oceanic, South America, Europe; Year is unknown
Rat-bite fever Streptobacillus moniliformis, Spirillum minus rats, mice bites of rats but also urine and mucus secretions
Rift Valley fever Phlebovirus livestock, buffaloes, camels mosquito bite, contact with bodily fluids, blood, tissues, breathing around butchered animals or raw milk 2006–07 East Africa outbreak
Rocky Mountain spotted fever Rickettsia rickettsii dogs, rodents tick bite
Ross River fever Ross River virus kangaroos, wallabies, horses, opossums, birds, flying foxes mosquito bite
Saint Louis encephalitis Saint Louis encephalitis virus birds mosquito bite
Severe acute respiratory syndrome SARS coronavirus bats, civets close contact, respiratory droplets 2002–04 SARS outbreak; started in China
Smallpox Variola virus Possible Monkeys or horses Spread to person to person quickly The last cases was in 1977; WHO certified to Eradicated (for the world) in December 1979 or 1980.
Swine influenza A new strain of the influenza virus endemic in pigs (excludes H1N1 swine flu, which is a human virus). pigs close contact 2009–10; 2009 swine flu pandemic; The outbreak began in Mexico.
Taenia crassiceps infection Taenia crassiceps wolves, coyotes, jackals, foxes contact with soil contaminated with feces
Toxocariasis Toxocara canis, Toxocara cati dogs, foxes, cats ingestion of eggs in soil, fresh or unwashed vegetables or undercooked meat
Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasma gondii cats, livestock, poultry exposure to cat feces, organ transplantation, blood transfusion, contaminated soil, water, grass, unwashed vegetables, unpasteurized dairy products and undercooked meat
Trichinosis Trichinella spp. rodents, pigs, horses, bears, walruses, dogs, foxes, crocodiles, birds eating undercooked meat
Tuberculosis Mycobacterium bovis infected cattle, deer, llamas, pigs, domestic cats, wild carnivores (foxes, coyotes) and omnivores (possums, mustelids and rodents) milk, exhaled air, sputum, urine, faeces and pus from infected animals
Tularemia Francisella tularensis lagomorphs (type A), rodents (type B), birds ticks, deer flies, and other insects including mosquitoes
West Nile fever Flavivirus birds, horses mosquito bite
Zika fever Zika virus chimpanzees, gorillas, orangutans, monkeys, baboons mosquito bite, sexual intercourse, blood transfusion and sometimes bites of monkeys 2015–16 epidemic in the Americas and Oceanic

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