Ƙwarƙwaranci

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Hajara da Isma'ilu a cikin jeji .Hotan François-Joseph Navez, 1820. Hajara ta kasance ƙwarƙwara ga Ibrahim, 'yar Masar. Isma'ilu ne yaran su na farko.

Kwarkwaranci na nufin saduwa da kuma dangantaka na jima'i a tsakanin na miji da mace, su biyu wadanda baza su iya aure ba. dan kasan cewar macen baiwa ko kuma mara nasa ba ko asali. Rashin yin aure na iya zama saboda dalilai da yawa kamar su bambance-bambance a matsayin zamantakewar aure, aure mai gudana, haramcin addini ko ƙwararru (alal misali sojojin Rome), ko kuma rashin martaba ta hanyar hukumomin da suka dace. macen ko namijin ne, a irin wannan dangantaka ake cewa ƙwarƙwara . A cikin addinin Yahudanci, ƙwarƙwara a matsayin aminiyar miji ne mai ƙima ga matar aure. a wasu mutanen kuma masu auren mata dayawa ,Kwarkwara tana zuwa ne a mata na biyu mara kima.

Yanci Kwarkwara a yaruka daban daban ya banbanta, haka ma yaran da suka haifa ,amman ko ma miye zai je ya dawo matar asali da aka aura ita da yaran sun fi Kwarkwara da yaransu dara ja, kuma u=ita da yaranta basu da hakki gado. a tarihance yawance Kwarkwara matan mutum ne ke daukan kwarkwara ta bama mijinta, saboda idan ta kasance baiwa bada ita ga na mijin gidan zai hana ta yin zina a wajen gidan. wani lokacin kwarkwara suna aikata jima'i da sauran bayi yan uwansu.

Yayinda siffofin dangantakar jima'i da jimawa tare da yin aure ya zama ruwan dare gama gari a Yammacin Duniya, waɗannan ba a bayyana su azaman concarfin namiji bane. Ana amfani da kalmar nan ƙwarkwaranci ne ga mata da kwatancen mata yau idan ana nufin ma'amala da rashin aure ta rayuwar da ta gabata. A cikin amfani na zamani, alaƙar ba ta da aure ana kiranta zaman tare (ko kuma maganganun makamancinsu), kuma macen da ke cikin irin wannan dangantakar ana gaba ɗaya ana kiranta budurwa, farka, amarya, mai ƙauna ko kuma abokiyar rayuwa .

A gabashin Asiya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kwarkwarori sun shahara sosai kafin farkon karni na 20 a duk gabashin Asiya . Babban aikin gwanaye ya kasance yana samar da ƙarin magada, har ma da kawo nishaɗi gamaza. yaran Kwarkwarori nada karancin gado dangane da dokar da Dishu ya tsara shi .

Sin[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

'ya'yan Sarkin Qianlong, daular Qing, karni na 18
Hotan wata Kwarkwara na kasar, hotan Sin Lam Qua, a 1864

A China, mazaje mau nasara s da yawa yana da ƙwaraƙwarai har da yi aka haramta a lokacin da Jam'iyyar Kwaminis ta Sin ya zo da iko a 1949. A misali Sin kalma da aka fassara a matsayin "ƙwarƙwarar" ya qiè 妾 , kalmar da aka yi amfani da ita tun zamanin da, wanda ke nufin "ƙwara; Alƙawura sun yi kama da aure a wannan ƙwaraƙwaran sun kasance masu gane zurfin jima'i na mutum kuma ana tsammanin sun haihu da shi. Gwanaye marasa kan gado ( Chinese ) masu ƙarancin daraja ne, kuma ana ɗaukar yaransu da cewa doka ce. Hakanan ana amfani da kalmar nan ta Turanci na mace ta China don abin da Sinanci ke magana da shi kamar yadda yakefasu ( Chinese ), ko "consorts of emperors", wani matsayi na gwamnati yawanci yana ɗauke da babban matsayi. [1]

A kasar Sin ba a bin doka ba haramun ne kuma ba a yarda a rabu da mutum ga mace sama da daya ba a lokaci guda, amma ya samu karbuwa. [2] A farkon rubuce rubucen mutum na iya samun ƙwaraƙwaran da yawa gwargwadon iko. Daga zamanin Han Han (AD 25 zuwa 2020) gaba, yawan ƙwaraƙwaran da mutum zai iya kasancewa yana iyakance ta hanyar doka. Matsayi mafi girma da kuma kyakkyawan daraja mutum ya mallaki, da mafi ƙwaraƙwarai ya halatta ya yi. [3]

Kulawar da ƙwaraƙwarar mace da halin da yake ciki ya kasance mai tasirin gaske da yanayin zamantakewar ɗan'uwan wanda aka haɗa ta da ita, gami da halayen matarsa. A cikin littafin ma'abuta al'adu a kan "Tsarin Iyali" ( Chinese ) yana cewa, “Idan da akwai ayyukanda suka dace, to ta zama matar aure; idan kuwa ta koma ba tare da waɗannan, ƙwararru ba. ” Matan sun kawo sadaka ga dangantaka, amma ƙwaraƙwaran ba su yi ba. Ba za a iya shiga dangantakar mace ba tare da bukukuwan aure a cikin aure ba, haka nan ba za a sake yin aure ko kuma a koma gidan haihuwarta a cikin gwauraye ba. [4]

Matsayin ƙwarƙwarai ya kasance ƙasa da na matar. Kodayake ƙwarƙwarar mace na iya haifar da magada, amma 'ya'yanta za su kasance masu ƙ karanci a cikin zamantakewa da yaran matar, duk da cewa sun fi su girma fiye da yaran ba bisa ƙa'ida ba. Ofan wata ƙwarƙwarar dole ne ya nuna wa mata biyu aikinsu, mahaifiyarsu ta asali da mahaifiyarsu ta doka - matar mahaifinsu. [5] Bayan rasuwar wani ƙwarƙwararsa, ta 'ya'yansa maza za ku yi hadaya da ita, amma wadannan ƙonawa da aka ba su ci gaba da ƙwarƙwararsa, da jikoki, wanda kawai ya yi hadaya to, kakan matar. [6]

Akwai bayanan jita-jita na wasu ƙwaraƙwaran da aka ce an binne su da rai tare da masu gidansu don " su jibinci lamarin su a lahira". Har zuwa lokacin daular Song (960-11276), ana ganin hakan babbar cin zarafin ɗabi'un zamantakewa ne don haɓaka Kwarkwara ga mace. [4]

A zamanin daular Qing (1644 zuwa 1911), darajar Kwarkwarori ta habaka. Ya halatta a gabatar da ƙwarƙwarawa ga mata, idan matar asali ta mutu to Kwarkwara ce maman sauran yaran. Bugu da kari, haramcin tilasta wa bazawara ta sake yin wani aure ya kasance ga wasu matan da mazansu suka mutu. A wannan lokacin allunan matan-mata suna da alama an fi sanya su cikin bagadan magabata na iyali, da kuma sassalar wasu jerin layin mata-mata. [4]

Mallaka ƙwaraƙwarai, kiyaye da sarakuna a haramta City, yana da daban-daban da darajõji, kuma aka gargajiyance kiyãye ta babani domin tabbatar da cewa su ba za a iya impregnated da kowa amma sarki. A cikin Ming China (1368–1644) akwai wani tsari na hukuma wanda zai zawara mata masu sarauta ga sarki. Shekarun 'yan takarar sun kunshi ne daga 14 zuwa 16. Hali, dabi'a, hali, bayyanar da yanayin jikin mutum sune abubuwan zaba. [7]

Duk da iyakokin da aka gindaya ga wasu ƙwaraƙwaran Sinawa, akwai misalai da yawa a cikin tarihi da kuma littattafai na ƙwararori waɗanda suka sami babban iko da tasiri. Uwargidan Yehenara, wacce ake kira da suna Dowress Dowager Cixi, wata yar gardamar ce da ta iya cin nasara a tarihin kasar Sin. Cixi ya fara shiga kotu a matsayin wata mata don Sarki Xianfeng ya kuma haifi dansa daya da ya tsira, wanda daga baya ya zama Sarkin Tongzhi . Bayan haka, ta zama shugabar kungiyar Qing China a shekaru 47 bayan mutuwar mijinta.

Binciken fasalin kwararru a ɗayan manyan litattafan tarihi guda huɗu, Mafarki na Red Chamber (wanda aka yi imanin ya zama asusun tarihin rayuwar marubuci Cao Xueqin dangin dangi). Three ƙarnõni na Jia iyali suna da goyan bayan daya sananne ƙwarƙwarar da sarki, Jia Yuanchun, da cikakken m 'yar'uwar namiji protagonist Jia Baoyu . Sabanin haka, youngeran uwansu rabinsu ta hanyar ƙwaraƙwaran Zhao, Jia Tanchun da Jia Huan, sun haɓaka halayen mutane saboda su 'ya'yan ƙwarzo ne.

Emphasizedwararrun matan sarki da tumbinsu sun shahara a cikin littattafan soyayya na ƙarni na 21 da aka rubuta wa masu karatu mata kuma aka saita su a zamanin da. A matsayin kayan makirci, 'ya'yan ƙwaraƙwalu ana misalta su da matsayi da ƙasa kamar yadda yake a cikin ainihin tarihin. taken Zhai dou ( Chinese , gida) da gong dou ( Chinese , harem intrigue) nau'ikan almara suna nuna ƙwaraƙwarai da matansu, haka kuma yaransu, suna yin makirci a asirce don samun iko. Sarakunan da ke cikin fadar, wani gwanayen tarihin gong dou da wasan kwaikwayon talabijin, sun sami babban nasara a kasar Sin a karni na 21.

Indiya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin Kerala, iran matan Nair sun kasance a cikin samari tare da Nambudiri maza.


Al'adar Brahmin da al'adar sun ba da izinin ɗayan babba maza don yin aure; zai iya aure har zuwa mata Nambuthiri har guda hudu. Kawai zai iya mallakar kayan gidan. Wannan ya basu damar kula da mallakar gidansu da sauran dukiyoyinsu tare da nisantarsu. Wannan ya taimaka musu wajen tabbatar da matsayinsu na tattalin arziki da na tattalin arziki suma a cikin alumma.

Braaramin maza Brahmin sun tafi don yin jima'i tare da matan makarantar Nair . Waɗannan matan Nair ɗin ba za su bar gidansu ba don shiga gidan iyayensu, haka kuma matan Brahmin ba su da wani hakki ko sha'awa game da dukiyarta. 'Ya'yan da aka Haifa ana kiransu thean ko ofar waccan matar. Potti Brahmins da ake kira Embramthiri suma suna yin wannan al'ada. Wannan aiki na ƙaramin Brahmins yin aure to Nair azuzuwan da aka sani a matsayin "Sambandham." Ko da yake Brahmins dauke Sambandham matsayin daya daga cikin 64 Anacharams (miyagun halaye), irin wannan alliance wanzu for ƙarni. A hankali Sambandham ya zama ruwan dare gama gari a cikin jama'ar Nair . Robin Jeffri a cikin littafinsa, ' ' Ragewar Nair Dominance, '' Sambandham yana nufin bikin auren Nair wanda ya haɗa da gabatar da wani zane da namiji ya ba wa mace. A Kerala ta zamanin da ya bayyana cewa duka maza da mata suna iya Sambhandam tare da fiye da mutum ɗaya a lokaci guda. Yin aure ya ƙulla da ƙare da sauƙi mai sauƙi. Wannan aka kira Sambandham kuma mace zai yi Sambandham da yawan maza a lokaci guda. Ko dai namiji ko mace na iya kawo ƙarshen Sambandham da ƙaramin tsari. ”Koyaya, haɗuwar mace mace ba ta da tsauri. Wadanda suka haɗu tare da Brahmins suna kiyaye kyawawan dabi'un su kuma suna kiyaye ka'idodi.

Wadanda Nair mace wanda a yarda ƙaramin Brahmin 'yan'uwa da su shiga jima'i dangantaka tare da su, zai aure a Nair kamar kyau, to, suna da biyu mazansu (a Nair da kuma wani Nambuthiri) da kuma a ainihi, a tsarin na polyandry zo a cikin kasancewa. Koyaya, sakamakon wannan ɗabi'a, yawan Nambuthiris ya ragu kuma adadin ma'aurata sun ƙaru saboda yaran da aka Haifa a cikin auren Nambuthiri-Nair zasu kasance na dangin matar Nair .

Hong Kong, Macau[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A shekarar 1971, Hong Kong ya soke babban tsarin doka na Qing a shekarar 1971, don haka ya sanya ba da izinin yin aure ba bisa doka ba. Stanley Ho na Macau na gidan caca ya ɗauki 'matarsa ta biyu' a matsayin ƙwarƙwaransa na halas a 1957, yayin da "matansa na uku da na huɗu" ba su da matsayi a hukuman ce.

Japan[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tun kafin a daura auren mata daya bisa doka a zamanin Meiji, yin kwarzane ya zama ruwan dare tsakanin manyan mutane. Manufarta ita ce tabbatar da magadan maza. Misali, dan wani kwararre na sarki sau da yawa yana da damar zama sarki. Yanagihara Naruko, a high-ranking ƙwarƙwarar Sarkin sarakuna Meiji, ta haifi Sarkin sarakuna Taishō, wanda aka daga baya bin doka soma da Empress Haruko, Sarkin sarakuna Meiji ta m matarsa. Ko da a tsakanin iyalai masu ciniki, a wasu lokuta ana amfani da ƙwarran don tabbatar da magada. Asako Hirooka, 'yar kasuwa ce kuma' yar baiwa ce, ta yi aiki tukuru don taimakawa dangin mijinta su rayu bayan maidowar Meiji . Ta rasa haihuwarta ta haifi 'yarta guda daya, Kameko; don haka mijinta wanda ya sami nutsuwa tare da shi ya ɗauki baiwa Asako ta zama ƙwarƙwarawa, ta kuma haifi 'ya'ya mata uku da ɗa. Kameko, a matsayin 'ya mace ta gari, ya auri mutum mai mutunci kuma a zahiri yana aiwatar da sunan dangi.

Koriya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Sarakunan Joseon suna da ƙararru waɗanda ke ɗauke da ƙwaraƙwarai na sahu daban daban. Sarauniyar Myeongseong ta sami damar samun 'ya'ya maza, ta hana' ya'ya mata na samun iko.

Ofayan kwarkwara galibi suna da ƙima game da aure. Daughteryawar ƙwarƙwara baza ta iya zama matar ɗan da ta haifa ba. Misali, Jang Nok-su yar 'yar gari ce wacce ta haihu daga magajin gari, wanda da farko ya auri bawa ne, daga baya ya zama babbar baiwa ta Yeonsangun .

Tsohuwar girka da roma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tsohuwar Girka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin tsohuwar Girka, ayyukan kiyaye mace Ancient Greek pallakís ) an ɗan yi rubutu kaɗan amma ya bayyana cikin tarihin Atheniya. Doka ta ba da umarnin cewa wani mutum zai iya kashe wani mutum da aka kama yana ƙoƙarin yin alaƙa da ƙwarƙwararsa don ƙirƙirar 'ya' yantacce, wanda ke ba da izinin 'yayan ƙwarƙwarar ba su zama ɗan ƙasa. Yayin da nassoshi game da amfani da zina maza suka bayyana a cikin wallafe-wallafe, ana ganin abin kunya ne ga namiji ya kiyaye irin wadannan matan a gida guda daya da matar sa. Wasu fassarorin hetaera sun riƙe su ƙwaraƙwarai lokacinda suke da dangantaka ta yau da kullun da mutum ɗaya.

Ubwararruwar wata ma'aikaciya wata hukuma ce da ake yin ta a cikin tsohuwar Roma wacce ke ba da izinin namiji ya shiga cikin wata al'ada amma an san dangantakarta da mace ( ƙwaraƙanci, ƙwaraƙwarar jam’i) wacce ba matar sa ba ce, galibi macen da ƙaramar zamanta ke zama cikas ga aure. An "yarda da girman kai har ya kai ga hakan bai kawo barazanar addini da mutuncin iyali ba". [8] Ba a dauki wulakanci ba da za a kira shi ƙwarƙwara, kamar yadda akan yi rubutu mafi yawa a kan dutse. [9]

A concubinus wani matashi namiji bawa jima'i maida su ba kome da ubangijinsa a matsayin jima'i abokin (ga luwadi a zamanin d Roma ). Wadannan dangantakar, duk da haka, an sa ran yi wasa da sakandare rawar da aure, a cikin abin da ma'aikata ya fara tasawa namiji nuna masa namiji dalĩli a matsayin shugaban gidan ( pater familias ). A cikin ɗayan silsilolinsa, Catullus ( Template:Floruit tsakanin karni na 1 karni na 1 BC) ya ɗauka cewa ango ango yana da ƙwaraƙwaran mace wacce take ɗaukar kanta sama da sauran bayi, amma wa zai zama kamar maigidansa ya mai da hankalinsa ga aure da rayuwar iyali. . [10]

A cikin ala'du na Ibrahim[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ba'isra'ile ya gano ƙwarƙwararsa, ya mutu a ƙofarta - by Gustave Doré

A cikin Yahudanci[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin Isra’ilawa, maza sun yarda da ƙwaraƙwaran su, kuma irin waɗannan mata suna jin daɗi iri ɗaya a gidan kamar matan aure.

Kalmar alƙalai ba ta kasance tana nufin mata ba bayan matar farko. Wani mutum yana iya samun mata da ƙwararori masu yawa. A bisa doka, duk yaran da aka haifa da ƙwaraƙwalwa ana ɗaukar su a matsayin 'yar matar da ta kasance a ƙarƙashinta. Saratu dole ne ta fitar da Isma’il daga gidanta domin bisa la’akari da Isma’il koyaushe zai kasance ɗan fari da haihuwa duk da Ishaku ɗanta ne na asali. Wataƙila ƙwarƙwarar ba ta ba da umarnin daidai matsayin matar ba. A cikin ka'idodin Lawiyawa game da sadarwar jima'i, kalmar Ibrananci da aka fi sani da "matar" ta sha bamban da kalmar Ibrananci wanda ke nufin "ƙwararar mace". Koyaya, a wani lokaci guda ana amfani da kalmar don nuna mace macen da ba mata ba Template:Snd musamman, baiwar matar Yakubu. A cikin lambar Levitical, an haramta yin jima'i tsakanin mace da miji na wani mutum dabam da hukuncin kisa ga duk mutanen da abin ya shafa. Tunda ana ɗaukarsa a matsayin babbar albarka don samun yara da yawa, mata da yawa suna ba da matansu ga mazansu idan sun kasance bakarare, kamar yadda a al'amuran Saratu da Hagar, da Rahila da Bilha . 'Ya'yan ƙwarƙwara suna da damar daidai da na matar; misali, Sarki Abimelek kuwa ɗan Gidiyon, da ƙwarƙwararsa. Daga baya mazannin littafi kamar Gidiyon, da Sulaiman suna da ƙwaraƙwarai ban da mata da yawa masu haihuwar. Misali, Littattafan Sarakuna sun ce Sulemanu yana da mata 700 da ƙwaraƙwarai 300.

Misalai daga Littafin Morgan na Bible na mutanen Biliyaminu suna ɗaukar matan Shiloh a matsayin ƙwaraƙwarai.

Labarin Bala Lau wanda ba a ambaci sunansa ba a cikin Littafin Mahukunta 19-20 nuna cewa ɗaukar ƙwaraƙun matan ba shi ne keɓance na sarakuna ko magabata a cikin Isra'ila a lokacin alƙalai, kuma cewa suturar ƙwarƙwara ba ta yarda da abin da Kasar Isra’ila kuma ta haifar da yakin basasa . A cikin labarin, Balawi kamar wani mutum ne dan asalin kabila, wanda ƙwarƙwararsa budurwa ce daga Baitalami ta Yahuda. Wannan matar ba ta da aminci, kuma a ƙarshe ta watsar da shi ta koma gidan iyayenta. Koyaya, bayan watanni huɗu, Balawe, wanda ake wa laƙabi da shi a matsayin mijinta, ya yanke shawarar yin tafiya zuwa gidan mahaifinta don shawo kan ƙwarƙwararsa ta dawo. Tana da halin dawowa tare da shi, kuma surukin yana maraba da zuwa. Surucin mahaifin ya tabbatar wa Balawen ya ci gaba da ƙarin wasu kwanaki, har sai wakilai sun bar jadawalin da yamma. Theungiyar ta haura wani birni wanda ba Ba'isra'ile kusa da shi, har zuwa ƙarshen Gibeya, a ƙasar Biliyaminu. Rukunin suna zaune kusa da harabar gari, suna jiran wani gari ya gayyace su da maraice, kamar yadda al'adar matafiya suke. Wani dattijo daga yankin ya gayyace su su zauna a gidansa, ya yi musu baƙo daidai ta wanke ƙafafunsu da ba su abinci. Ofungiyar mugayen mazaunan birni ta kawo hari cikin gidan kuma suka bukaci rundunar ta kori Balawen don suyi jima'i da shi. Mai masaukin ya bayar da kyautar 'yarsa budurwa da ƙwarƙwarar Balawe don yi musu fyaɗe, don guje wa baƙo dama ga Balawe. Daga baya, don ya tabbatar da amincinsa da na rundunar shi, Balawi ya ba wa ƙwarƙwararsa, wadda aka yi wa fyaɗe da daddare, har sai da aka barta ta rushe a ƙofar ƙofar. Da safe, Balawe ya same ta sa’ad da ya yi niyyar fita. Lokacin da ta kasa yin biyayya ga umarnin mijinta don ta tashi, wataƙila saboda ta mutu, Balawe ya ajiye ta a kan jakinsa ya ci gaba da gida. Da zarar ya dawo gida, sai ya manta jikinta ya rarraba sassa 12 a duk ƙasar Isra'ila. Isra’ilawa sun taru don sanin abin da ya sa aka ba su irin waɗannan kyaututtukan masu ban tsoro, kuma Balawen ya gaya musu game da baƙin ciki da ƙwarƙwararsa. Laifin Isra'ilawan suna ɗaukar wannan laifi abin ƙyamar, wanda sa’an nan ya jawo wa mazaunan Gibeya azaba, da kuma kabilar Biliyaminu da ke kewaye da su idan suka goyi bayan Gibeyonawa, tare da kashe su ba tare da jinƙai ba kuma suka ƙona garuruwansu. An kashe mazaunan (garin) Yabesh Gileyad a matsayin horo saboda rashin haɗuwa da ƙabilar goma sha ɗaya a cikin yaƙinsu da mutanen Biliyaminu, da kuma an kashe ɗiyansu mata ɗari huɗu waɗanda ba an tilasta musu ba . A ƙarshe, mutanen ɗari biyu na waɗanda suka tsira daga Biliyaminu waɗanda har yanzu ba su da mata, an ba su izinin auratayya ta sauran kabilu.

A cikin yahudanci na zamani[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A Yahudanci, ƙwaraƙwarai an kira su da kalma Hebrew pilegesh ( Hebrew ). Kalmar ita ce kalmar aro daga tsohuwar Girkawa παλλακίς , [11] [12] [13] ma'ana "farka kasance a gida".

Dangane da Talmud na Babila, bambanci tsakanin ƙwarƙwarawa da matar halal ita ce, ƙarshen ya sami ketubah kuma aurenta ( nissu'in ) ya kasance gabanin erusin (" amintaccen cin amana "), wanda ba haka bane. don alƙalai. Wani ra'ayi daya a cikin Talmud na Kudus ya bayar da hujjar cewa ƙwarayar ta kamata kuma su sami kwangilar aure, amma ba tare da magana ba wanda ya ƙayyade sassaucin sakin aure. A cewar Rashi, "matan da suka yi amfani da Kiddushin da ketubbah, ƙwaraƙwaran tare da yarandushin amma ba tare da ketubbah"; wannan karatun daga Talmud na Kudus ne,

Wasu masana daga cikin yahudawa, kamar Maimonides, sun yi imanin cewa an kebe wasu ƙwaraƙwarai don shugabancin Sarauta, sarakuna da sarakuna, kuma don haka ba za a sami gama gari ba. Haƙiƙa, irin waɗannan masu ra'ayin sun yi jayayya cewa ba za a saka masu bautar wani nau'in jima'i a wajen aure.

Maimonides ba shine farkon Bayahude da ya fara yin Allah-wadai da ƙwararar mata ba. Misali, Bala'iba Rabbah ya la'anci al'adar. [14] Sauran masana Yahudawa, kamar su Nahmanides, Samuel ben Uri Shraga Phoebus, da Yakubu Emden, sun yi hamayya sosai da ra'ayin cewa yakamata a haramta abubuwan ƙwaraƙwarai.

A Ibrananci na zamani jihar Isra'ila, pilegesh ne sau da yawa amfani da kwatankwacin na Turanci kalma " farka " -ie, da mace da abokin tarayya a cikin extramarital dangantakar-ko da kuwa shari'a fitarwa. Kokarin da aka qaddamar a yada pilegesh matsayin wani nau'i na kafin aure, ba aure, ko extramarital dangantaka (wanda, a cewar ta fuskar enacting mutum (s), da aka jiyar da dokar Yahudawa ). [15]

A Musulunci[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Harem, ta Doroshevich, c. 1905
Painting of seated women, with man standing
Matan Harem ta Jules Laurens, wajen 1847

An ba da damar saduwa da Kwarkwara a cikin ilimin jima'i na Musulunci a cikin Islama wanda ba a dauke shi karuwanci ba, kuma ya kasance ruwan dare gama gar lokacin cinikin bayi na Larabawa a duk lokacin Tsakiyar da farkon zamani, lokacin da aka kama mata da 'yan mata daga Caucasus, Afirka, Tsakiyar Asiya da Turai . ya kasance kwarkwara a cikin Yammacin Duniya . Ibn Battuta ya gaya mana sau da yawa cewa an ba shi ko ya sayi bayi mata.

An ba da izinin yin shiryawa da kuma tsara ta a cikin Islama. Al-Muminun 6 da Al-Maarij 30 duka biyu, a cikin kalmomin daidaita, suna jawo rarrabewa tsakanin ma'aurata da “waɗanda hannayen hannun dama suka mallaka” (ƙwararori) suna cewa "أَزْوَاجِهِمْ أَوْ مَا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَانُهُمْ" (a zahiri, matan aurensu ko abin da hannun dama ya mallaka ”), yayin da yake bayyana cewa yin jima’i da ɗayan ya halatta. Sayyid Abul Ala Abubakar Mahmoud Gumi ya bayyana cewa "biyu Categories na mata da aka cire daga janar umurnin mãsu tsarẽwa ga farjõjinsu: (a) matansa, (b) mata suke da bin doka a daya ta mallaka". " Kwantar da hankali " ( surriyya ) tana nufin bawa mace ( jāriya ), ko musulma ce ko kuma wacce ba musulma ba, wanda ubangijinta ya yi jima'i da ita. Ba a ambaci kalmar " surriyya " a cikin Kur'ani ba. Koyaya, kalmar " Ma malakat aymanukum " (abin da hannunku na dama suka mallaka), wanda ya faru sau goma sha biyar a cikin littafin mai tsarki, yana nufin bayi ne sabili da haka, kodayake ba lallai ba ne, ga ƙwaraƙwarai. Ubwararraki wata al'ada ce ta kasance ta addinin Islama wacce aka yarda da ita a ƙarƙashin addinin Islama tare da yahudawa da ma waɗanda ba musulma ba su aurar da ƙwarya bayan sun koya mata kuma suka koyar da ita sosai sannan kuma suka basu 'yanci. Hikimar da aka bayar don amincewa da baiwa a cikin Islama ita ce "ta gamsu da sha'awar jima'i na bayi don haka ya hana yaduwar alfasha a cikin al'ummar Musulmi ." Yawancin makarantu suna hana mace-mace ga wata dangantaka inda ake buƙatar bawa mace ta auri ɗaya ga maigidanta (kodayake ba a buƙatar auren mace ta miji ga mata), amma a cewar Sikainga, "a zahiri, duk da haka, bayi mata ne a cikin al'ummomin musulmai da yawa sun kasance abin farauta ga [maza] membobin gidan maigida, da makwabta na [maigidan] su, da baƙi na [maigidan] baƙi. " Al'adun sun kasance na gama gari a cikin Arabiya ta larabawa kafin musulinci kuma idan Musulunci ya zo, tana da wata al'umma da masu ba da shawara. Islama ya gabatar da ƙayyadaddun doka na ƙwarafin kuma ya ƙarfafa ɗan adam. A cikin aya ta 23: 6, a cikin Alƙur'ãni shi an yarda su yi jima'i tare da ƙwaraƙwarai bayan aure su, kamar yadda Musulunci hana jima'i a wajen aure. ofa ofan tsoffin ƙwaraƙan gwadansu an bayyana su da halal kamar yadda aka haife su ta hanyar ɗaurin aure, kuma an ɗauki mahaifiyar freea freean 'yantacce lokacin mutuwar abokin tarayya.

A cewar musulmin Shia, Muhammad ya haramta Nikah mut'ah (wani aure da aka shirya, wanda ake kira muta'a a Iraki da sigheh a Iran ) wanda a maimakon haka ana amfani da shi azaman kariya ta haramtacciyar hanya ga masu yin jima'i, a al'adar da ba a hana karuwanci ba. Wasu marubutan Yammacin duniya sun kafa hujja da cewa mut'ah yana kusan karuwanci. Julie Parshall ya rubuta cewa mut'ah an halatta karuwanci ne wanda hukumomin Shia goma sha biyu suka aminta da su. Ta nakalto littafin tarihin Oxford na duniyar musulmai na zamani don banbance tsakanin aure (nikah) da Mut'ah, sannan ta ce yayin da nikah take domin haihuwa, mut'ah adalci ne don saduwa da jima'i. A cewar Zeyno Baran, wannan irin aure na dan wani lokaci yana samarwa da yan Shi'anan takunkumi na addini wanda yayi daidai da karuwanci. Dangane da lurawar Elena Andreeva da aka buga a 2007, matafiya na Rasha zuwa Iran suna ɗaukar mut'ah a matsayin "ƙimar ƙwararren doka" wacce ba ta da bambanci daga karuwanci. Masu goyon bayan addini na mutah suna jayayya cewa aure na dan lokaci ya banbanta da karuwanci saboda wasu dalilai, gami da wajibcin iddah in dai ma'auratan sun yi jima'i. Ma'ana idan mace ta auri namiji ta wannan hanyar kuma tayi zina, dole ne ta jira watanni kafin ta sake yin wani aure don haka, mace ba zata iya yin aure sama da sau 3 ko 4 a cikin shekara. [16]

Zamanin zamani[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Wani ɗan Farisa da ya bugu da buguwa ya ci zarafin wata yarinya 'yar China. Karamin daga Gulistan na Sa'di . Herat, 1427

A zamanin da, an ba da izini ga wurare biyu don gwanaye karkashin tsarin Islama. A farko dai, matan da ba musulmai wadanda aka dauka a matsayin fursunonin yaki an sanya su cikin matan ne kamar yadda ya faru bayan Yaƙin na Tirin, [17] ko kuma a wasu lokuta da yawa. [18] An karfafa gwiwar sanya mutum mata bayi wadanda suka qaryata imaninsu na farko suka musulunta, ko kuma shigar dasu cikin aure .

A cikin dokokin Fiqh na Musulunci, abin da Allah ya halal (alah) a cikin Alqurani ba zai iya canza shi da wani iko ko wani mutum ba. Don haka, duk da cewa manufar 'yar ta mace halal ce, amma ba a samun wasu matan a wannan zamanin ba kuma ba a yarda a sayar dasu ko a sayar dasu daidai da sabbin ka'idojin' yancin ɗan adam ba.

An ƙara tabbatar da cewa duk ma'aikatan gida da na ƙungiyoyi ba ƙwararrun mata bane a wannan zamanin don haka an haramta jima'i da su sai Nikah, Nikah mut'ah ko Nikah Misyar ana yin ta ta hanyoyin da suka dace.

A Amurka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kyautar mace mai launi da 'yar quadroon ; ƙarshen zane-zane na ƙarni na 18th, New Orleans .

Lokacin da bautar ta zama tsari a cikin masarautan Arewacin Amurka, mazan, ko sun aura ko aura, wani lokacin sukan ɗauki bautar mata da maza a matsayin mata. An haramta aure tsakanin launin fata tsakanin dokar da mazaunan yankuna da kuma Amurka ta gaba. Yawancin larduna da jihohi ma suna da dokoki game da ɓataccen tsari, ko wata dangantakar wata kabila. Daga 1662 da mulkin mallaka na Virginia, wasu suka biyo baya, sun haɗa cikin doka ƙa'idodi cewa yara sun ɗauki matsayin mahaifiyarsu, watau, ƙa'idar tsarin aiki . Duk yaran da aka haifa don uwayen bayi sun haihu cikin bautar, ba tare da la'akari da matsayin mahaifinsu ko zuriyarsu ba. [19] Wannan ya haifar da tsararrakan bayi masu launin fata, waɗanda wasunsu ake ɗaukarsu farar fata a matsayin doka (ɗaya bisa takwas ko lessasa da Afirka, daidai da kaka-tsoho) kafin Yaƙin basasa na Amurka .

A wasu halaye, maza suna da "dangantaka" ta dogon lokaci tare da bautar mata, ba su da 'yayansu da ke haɗuwa da' yanci da ba da yaransu sana'o'in horarwa, ilimi da canja wurin babban birnin. Dangantaka mai dangantaka tsakanin Thomas Jefferson da Sally Hemings misali ne na wannan. Irin waɗannan shirye-shirye sun fi yawaita a jihohin Kudancin a cikin shekarun tsufa.

A Louisiana da tsoffin yankuna na Faransa, an samar da ingantaccen tsarin karuwanci da ake kira plaçage . Mazajen Turai sun ɗauki matan bayi masu ' yanci ko masu ' yanci kamar fyaɗe bayan sun yi shirin ba su kuɗin gida, gida ko wasu mallaka, kuma wani lokacin, idan sun kasance bautar, suna ba da 'yanci da ilimi ga childrena childrenansu. Darasi na uku na masu kyauta masu launi masu tasowa, musamman a cikin New Orleans . [20] Da yawa sun zama masu ilimi, masu fasaha da masu mallakar ƙasa. Faransanci na magana da aiki da Katolika, waɗannan mata sun haɗa al'adun Faransanci da Ba-Amurkan kuma sun haifar da zaɓi tsakanin waɗanda ke zuriyar Turai da bayi. A yau, zuriyar 'yanci na masu launi ana kiransu mutanen Louisiana Creole .

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Kwarkwara a canada
  • A cicisibeyo
  • Sanannun dokokin aure
  • Sakakkiyar tarayya
  • Aure a kiristanci
  • Bauta a amurka

Diddigin bayana[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Patricia Buckley Ebrey (2002): Women and the Family in Chinese History. Oxford: Routledge, p. 39.
  2. Ebrey 2002:39.
  3. Shi Fengyi 史凤仪 (1987): Zhongguo gudai hunyin yu jiating 中国古代婚姻与家庭 Marriage and Family in Ancient China. Wuhan: Hubei Renmin Chubanshe, p. 74.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Ebrey 2002: 60.
  5. Ebrey 2002: 54.
  6. Ebrey 2002: 42.
  7. Qiu Zhonglin(Chung-lin Ch'iu)邱仲麟:"Mingdai linxuan Houfei jiqi guizhi" 明代遴選後妃及其規制 (The Imperial Concubine Selection System during the Ming Dynasty). Mingdai Yanjiu 明代研究 (Ming Studies) 11.2008:58.
  8. Grimal, Love in Ancient Rome (University of Oklahoma Press) 1986:111.
  9. Kiefer, Sexual Life in Ancient Rome (Kegan Paul International) 2000:50.
  10. Catullus, Carmen 61; Amy Richlin, "Not before Homosexuality: The Materiality of the cinaedus and the Roman Law against Love between Men", Journal of the History of Sexuality 3.4 (1993), pp. 534–535.
  11. Michael Lieb, Milton and the culture of violence, p.274, Cornell University Press, 1994
  12. Agendas for the study of Midrash in the twenty-first century, Marc Lee Raphael, p.136, Dept. of Religion, College of William and Mary, 1999
  13. Nicholas Clapp, Sheba: Through the Desert in Search of the Legendary Queen, p.297, Houghton Mifflin, 2002
  14. Leviticus Rabbah, 25
  15. Adam Dickter, "ISO: Kosher Concubine", New York Jewish Week, December 2006
  16. Temporary Marriage in Islam Part 6: Similarities and Differences of Mut’a and Regular Marriage | A Shi'ite Encyclopedia | Books on Islam and Muslims | Al-Islam.org..
  17. Majlisi, M. B. (1966). Hayat-ul-Qaloob, Volume 2, Translated by Molvi Syed Basharat Hussain Sahib Kamil, Imamia Kutub Khana, Lahore, Pakistan
  18. Murat Iyigun, “Lessons From the Ottoman Harem on Culture, Religion & Wars”, University of Colorado, 2011
  19. Peter Kolchin, American Slavery, 1619–1877, New York: Hill and Wang, 1993, p. 17
  20. Peter Kolchin, American Slavery, 1619–1865, New York: Hill and Wang, 1993, pp. 82–83

Diddigin bayanai na waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]