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(ilimin harshe) a faransanci

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Yaren Faransanci



Ƙananan Faransanci Faransanci ta Tsakiya ( Jamus ta Yamma ta Tsakiya )  Rhenish Franconian ( Jamus ta Yamma ta Tsakiya )  Babban Franconian (tsakanin Jamus ta tsakiya da babba ) 

Franconian ko Frankish kalma ce ta hadin gwiwa da masana harsuna ke amfani da ita don komawa ga Harsunan Yammacin Jamus da yawa, wasu daga cikinsu ana magana da su a cikin abin da ya kafa tarihin tarihin Francia a lokacin farkon tsakiyar zamanai.

Ta fannin harshe, ba ta da fasalulluka gama-gari don duk yaruka daban-daban waɗanda aka haɗa su kamar Franconian. Don haka, yana samar da ragowar nau'i a cikin babban yaren Jamus ta Yamma mai ci gaba kuma ba ƙungiya mai kamanceceniya ta yaruka masu alaƙa ba. Ga yawancin nau'ikan da aka haɗa a ƙarƙashin kalmar "Franconian", haɗin kai da harshen Faransanci, wanda Franks ke magana, ba a sani ba.

Babban canjin baƙar fata na Jamus, tare da Low Franconian (ciki har da Yaren mutanen Holland da Afrikaans ) ba sa shiga yayin da tsakiyar Franconian (wanda ya haɗa da Luxembourgish ) ya yi, zuwa digiri daban-daban, ya raba nau'ikan da suka karɓi epithet Franconian . Ire-iren su ne Low Franconian ( Niederfränkisch ), Tsakiya ko Tsakiyar Franconian ( Mittelfränkisch ) da Babban Franconian ( Oberfränkisch ).

Dukansu kalmar Franconian da ƙarin fayyace ta an iyakance su ga masu ilimin harshe kuma ba a amfani da su azaman ƙayyadaddun magana ta kowane mai magana na ƙungiyar Franconian; sai dai Jamus ta Gabas ta Franconia, wanda masu magana da shi ake kira Fränkisch, ko da yake wannan ya samo asali ne daga yaren da ake magana a yankin Franconia .

Kalmomi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kalmar Frankish ko Franconian (Babban Jamusanci: Fränkisch ) a matsayin nau'in harshe na zamani wanda masanin harshe na Jamus Wilhelm Braune (1850-1926) ya yi amfani da shi don zayyana rubutun tarihi na Yammacin Jamus wanda ba zai iya rarrabawa a matsayin na Low Saxon, Alemannic ko Bavarian . [1]

Al'adar yin ishara da sunayen kabilanci daga lokacin Hijira lokacin da ake sanya sunayen yare a farkon matakan Falsafar Jamusanci ba a keɓe ga Jamus ba: Masana harsunan Holland na ƙarni na 19 su ma sun rarraba nau'ikan Jamusanci da ake magana da su a cikin Netherlands da Belgium zuwa Frisian, Saxon. da nau'ikan Faransanci. A cikin duka biyun, iyakokin harshe na yarukan kakanni na tarihi, a lokacin, ana tunanin su yi kama da kamanni da ake zaton duchies na Daular Frankish a farkon tsakiyar zamanai .

Tun da farko ana iya samun amfani da "Franconiya/Faransa" azaman nau'in harshe. [2] Misali, masanin harsunan Holland Jan van Vliet (1622-1666) ya yi amfani da Francica ko Francks . A cewar van Vliet, Franconian ya fito ne daga oud Teuts (tsohon Jamusanci[ic]). [3] Hakazalika, masanin Franciscus Junius ya ce Jo (h) annes Georgius Graevius a shekara ta 1694 ya tattara gutsuttsura na tsoffin yarukan Faransanci da sauran harsuna don fayyace harshen uwa ( "[...] ad illustrandam linguam patriam [.. .] ex linga vetere Francica, Saxonica, Gothica, Cimbrica, Frisi[c]a, [...]" ). [4]

Ma'anarsa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kalmar "Franconiya" tana nufin tarin yaruka, ba ga harshe ba . Duk da yake babu bayanin ma'anar Franconian gabaɗaya, za'a iya bayyana rabe-raben sa na ciki da kuma bambanta, duka da juna da sauran manyan ƙungiyoyin yare.

Rarraba na Franconian[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ƙananan Faransanci[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ƙananan Franconian, Ƙarƙashin Frankish, ko Netherlandic [5] [6] wani nau'in harshe ne da ake amfani da shi don rarraba nau'o'in tarihi da na yau da kullum na Yammacin Jamus wanda ke da alaƙa da, ciki har da, harshen Holland (ko Netherlandish). Yawancin yaruka da harsunan da ke cikin wannan nau'in ana magana da su a cikin Netherlands, arewacin Belgium ( Flanders ), a sashen Nord na Faransa, a yammacin Jamus ( Lower Rhine ), da kuma Suriname, Afirka ta Kudu, da Namibiya . [7]

Tsakiya ko Tsakiyar Faransa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Yaren Faransanci na tsakiya ana magana da su a cikin jihohin Jamus na Kudu maso Yamma North Rhine-Westphalia, mafi yawan Rhineland-Palatinate, Saarland, sashen Moselle na Faransa mai iyaka, da Luxembourg, da kuma Transylvanian Saxon a Romania .

Rhine Franconian[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Yaren Rhine Franconian ana magana da su a cikin jihohin Jamus na Rhineland-Palatinate, Saarland, arewacin Baden-Württemberg, kudancin Hesse, arewacin Bavaria, a cikin sashen Moselle na Faransanci, da kuma Pennsylvania Dutch a Arewacin Amirka .

Faransanci ta Gabas[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  Yaren Franconian na Gabas yaruka ne na tsaka-tsaki tsakanin Jamus ta Tsakiya da Babba .

Yaren Faransanci na Gabashin Faransa yana ɗaya daga cikin rassan yare da ake magana da su a Jamus. Ana amfani da waɗannan yarukan a yankin Franconia . Franconia ya ƙunshi gundumomin Bavarian na Upper-, Tsakiyar-, da Ƙananan Franconia, yankin Kudancin Thuringia ( Thuringia ), da kuma sassan gabas na yankin Heilbronn-Franken ( Tauber Franconia da Hohenlohe ) a Baden-Württemberg . Yankunan gabas na masu magana da harshen Franconian su ne sassan Saxon na Vogtland, wanda a cikin yankunan tsakiyarsu na Gabashin Franconian (Core Vogtlandian ), kuma a cikin sassan gabas waɗanda ake magana da yarukan rikon kwarya (Arewacin Vogtlandian da Kudu maso Gabashin Vogtlandian). Yaren Faransanci na Gabas su ne kawai yaren Faransanci waɗanda masu magana da su ke kira da "Franconiya". Masu iya magana a cikin Saxon Vogtland kawai suna magana da yarukan su a matsayin "Vogtlandian" maimakon "Franconiya". Manyan biranen yankin yaren Faransanci na Gabas sune Nuremberg da Würzburg .

Faransa ta Kudu[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ana amfani da harshen Kudancin Faransa a arewacin Baden-Württemberg a Jamus, amma kuma a arewa maso gabashin yankin Alsace na Faransa. Yayin da ake ɗaukar waɗannan yarukan a matsayin yarukan Jamusanci a Baden-Württemberg, ana ɗaukar su a matsayin yarukan Alsatian a cikin Alsace (sauran yarukan na Alsace ko dai Alemannic ko Rhine Franconian). Yaren Kudancin Franconian ana kiran masu magana da su a matsayin "Badian" a cikin sassan Badian, da kuma "Unterländisch" (Unterland shine yankin da ke kusa da Heilbronn) ko "Swabian" (saboda tasiri mai karfi daga babban birnin Stuttgart, inda Swabian. ana magana da yare) a cikin sassan Württembergian na Baden-Württemberg. Manyan biranen yankin yaren Faransanci ta Kudu sune Karlsruhe da Heilbronn .

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Tsohon Faransanci
  • Jamus ta Gabas ta Tsakiya

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Alfred Klepsch: Fränkische Dialekte, published on 19th October 2009; in: Historisches Lexikon Bayerns (accessed 21st November 2020)
  2. e.g.: Friedrich Adelung: Uebersicht aller bekannten Sprachen und ihrer Dialekte. St. Petersburg, 1820, p. 45 ("Fränkisch" (Bavarian) besides "Gothisch" and "Alemannisch" as "Oberdeutsch") and p. 51 ("Mittel-Deutsch. (Ost-Fränkisch.)" including "Fränkisch" (East Franconian) between "Hessisch" and "Nürnbergisch")
  3. Dekker 1999.
  4. Geart Invalid |url-status=Vries (help); Missing or empty |title= (help)
  5. Sarah Grey Thomason, Terrence Kaufman: Language Contact, Creolization, and Genetic Linguistics, University of California Press, 1991, p. 321.
  6. Scott Shay: The History of English, Wardja Press, 2008, p. 73. [About Old Low Franconian (from approx. the 9th to the 12th centuries CE), and also mentioning the terms Old Low Frankish and Old Netherlandic.]
  7. Glück, H. (ed.): Metzler Lexikon Sprache, pages 472, 473. Stuttgart, Weimar: Metzler, 2000 (entries Niederdeutsch and Niederfränkisch)

Littafi Mai Tsarki[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

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