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Ahmed Zewail

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Ahmed Zewail
Rayuwa
Cikakken suna أحمد حسن زويل
Haihuwa Damanhur (en) Fassara, 26 ga Faburairu, 1946
ƙasa Misra
Tarayyar Amurka
Mazauni Los Angeles County (en) Fassara
Desouk (en) Fassara
Mutuwa Pasadena (en) Fassara, 2 ga Augusta, 2016
Yanayin mutuwa Sababi na ainihi (spinal cord lymphoma (en) Fassara)
Karatu
Makaranta Alexandria University (en) Fassara Digiri, master's degree (en) Fassara
University of Pennsylvania (en) Fassara
(1969 - 1974) Doctor of Philosophy (en) Fassara : kimiya
Matakin karatu Doktor Nauk in Chemistry (en) Fassara
Harsuna Turanci
Larabci
Sana'a
Sana'a chemist (en) Fassara, university teacher (en) Fassara, inventor (en) Fassara da physicist (en) Fassara
Employers California Institute of Technology (en) Fassara
Kyaututtuka
Mamba Royal Society (en) Fassara
Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences (en) Fassara
Pontifical Academy of Sciences (en) Fassara
National Academy of Sciences (en) Fassara
Chinese Academy of Sciences (en) Fassara
French Academy of Sciences (en) Fassara
American Academy of Arts and Sciences (en) Fassara
Russian Academy of Sciences (en) Fassara
Indian National Science Academy (en) Fassara
American Philosophical Society (en) Fassara
American Association for the Advancement of Science (en) Fassara
American Physical Society (en) Fassara
The World Academy of Sciences (en) Fassara
Koninklijke Vlaamse Academie van België voor Wetenschappen en Kunsten (en) Fassara
Imani
Addini Musulunci
IMDb nm2212570
caltech.edu…

Ahmed Hassan Zewail (Fabrairu 26, 1946 - Agusta 2, 2016) masanin sunadarai ne na Masar da Amurka, wanda aka fi sani da "mahaifin ilimin mata ". An ba shi lambar yabo ta Nobel a fannin ilmin sinadarai a shekarar 1999 saboda aikin da ya yi kan ilimin kimiyyar mata kuma ya zama Basarake da Balarabe na farko da ya ci lambar yabo ta Nobel a fannin kimiyya, kuma dan Afirka na biyu da ya ci lambar yabo ta Nobel a ilmin sinadarai . Shi ne Linus Pauling Shugaban Farfesa na Chemistry, farfesa a fannin kimiyyar lissafi, kuma darektan Cibiyar Biology ta Jiki don Kimiyya da Fasaha ta Ultrafast a Cibiyar Fasaha ta California .

Rayuwar farko da ilimi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An haifi Ahmed Hassan Zewail a ranar 26 ga Fabrairu, 1946, a Damanhur, Masar, kuma ya girma a Desouk . Ya samu digirin farko na Kimiyya da Digiri na biyu a fannin ilmin sinadarai daga Jami'ar Alexandria kafin ya koma kasar Amurka don kammala digirinsa na uku a Jami'ar Pennsylvania karkashin kulawar Robin M. Hochstrasser .

Sana'a[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Bayan kammala karatun digiri na uku, Zewail ya yi bincike na digiri na biyu a Jami'ar California, Berkeley, wanda Charles B. Harris ke kulawa. Bayan haka, an ba shi mukamin malami a Cibiyar Fasaha ta California a 1976, kuma a ƙarshe ya zama Linus Pauling kujera na farko a ilimin kimiyyar sinadarai a can. [1] Ya zama ɗan asalin ƙasar Amurka a ranar 5 ga Maris, 1982. Zewail shi ne darektan Cibiyar Nazarin Halittar Jiki don Kimiyya da Fasaha ta Ultrafast a Cibiyar Fasaha ta California .

An zabi Zewail kuma ya shiga cikin Kwamitin Ba da Shawarwari kan Kimiyya da Fasaha na Shugaba Barack Obama (PCAST), wata ƙungiya mai ba da shawara ta manyan masana kimiyya da injiniyoyi na ƙasar don ba da shawara ga shugaban kasa da mataimakin shugaban kasa da tsara manufofi a fannonin kimiyya, fasaha, da fasaha. bidi'a.

Bincike[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Babban aikin Zewail shine majagaba na ilimin kimiyyar mata [2] [3] [4] - watau nazarin halayen sinadarai a tsakanin dakika biyu . Yin amfani da fasaha mai sauri na ultrafast Laser (wanda ya ƙunshi fitilun Laser na ultrashort ), dabarar ta ba da damar bayanin halayen akan ma'aunin ɗan gajeren lokaci - gajeriyar isa don nazarin jihohin miƙa mulki a cikin zaɓaɓɓun halayen sinadarai. Zewail ya zama sananne da "mahaifin ilimin mata". Ya kuma ba da gudummawa mai mahimmanci a cikin ultrafast electron diffraction, wanda ke amfani da gajeriyar bugun wutar lantarki maimakon bugun haske don nazarin halayen halayen sinadaran. [5]

Aikin siyasa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A wani jawabi da ya yi a Jami'ar Alkahira a ranar 4 ga Yuni, 2009, Shugaban Amurka Barack Obama ya shelanta sabon shirin jakadan Kimiyya a matsayin wani sabon salo tsakanin Amurka da Musulman duniya. [6] A cikin Janairu 2010, Ahmed Zewail, Elias Zerhouni, da Bruce Alberts sun zama jakadun kimiyya na Amurka na farko zuwa Musulunci, sun ziyarci kasashen musulmi daga Arewacin Afirka zuwa kudu maso gabashin Asiya.

Da aka tambaye shi game da jita-jitar da ake yadawa cewa zai tsaya takara a zaben shugaban kasar Masar a shekara ta 2011, Ahmed Zewail ya ce: "Ni mutum ne mai gaskiya ... Ba ni da wani buri na siyasa, kamar yadda na sha nanata cewa ina son yi wa Masar hidima ne kawai a fannin kimiyya. kuma ya mutu a matsayin masanin kimiyya."

A lokacin zanga-zangar Masar a shekarar 2011 ya sanar da komawa kasar. Zewail ya ce zai shiga cikin kwamitin sake fasalin tsarin mulki tare da Ayman Nour, abokin hamayyar Mubarak a zaben shugaban kasa na 2005 kuma babban lauya. Daga baya an ambaci Zewail a matsayin mutum mai mutuntawa da ke aiki a matsayin mai shiga tsakani tsakanin gwamnatin mulkin soja da ke mulki bayan murabus din Mubarak, da kuma kungiyoyin matasa masu fafutukar neman sauyi irin su kungiyar matasa ta 6 ga Afrilu da matasa magoya bayan Mohamed El Baradei . Ya taka muhimmiyar rawa a wannan lokacin kamar yadda kafafen yada labarai na Masar suka bayyana.

Kyaututtuka da karramawa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ayyukan Zewail sun jawo hankalin duniya, yana samun kyautuka da karramawa a duk tsawon rayuwarsa saboda aikin da ya yi a fannin sinadarai da kimiyyar lissafi. A cikin 1999, Zewail ya zama ɗan Masar na farko da ya karɓi kyautar Nobel ta kimiyya lokacin da aka ba shi kyautar Nobel a cikin Chemistry . Zewail ya ba da laccar sa na Nobel akan "Femtochemistry: Atomic-Scale Dynamics of the Chemical Bond using Ultrafast Lasers". [7]

A cikin 1999, ya sami lambar yabo mafi girma ta Masar, Grand Collar na Kogin Nilu . Sauran sanannun kyaututtukan sun haɗa da lambar yabo ta Babban Masanin Kimiyya Alexander von Humboldt (1983), Kyautar King Faisal International Prize (1989), [1] Kyautar Wolf a Chemistry (1993), Kyautar Earle K. Plyler (1993), Herbert P. Kyautar Broida (1995), lambar yabo ta Peter Debye (1996), lambar yabo ta Tolman (1997), [1] lambar yabo ta Robert A. Welch (1997), [1] lambar yabo ta Linus Pauling (1997), Medal Franklin (1998) ) da lambar yabo ta Golden Plate Award na Kwalejin Ci gaban Amurka (2000). A cikin Oktoba 2006, Zewail ya sami lambar yabo ta Kimiyya ta Duniya ta Albert Einstein don "haɓaka na farko na sabon fannin ilimin mata da kuma gudummawar da ya bayar ga ilimin juyin juya hali na ilimin halittar jiki, ƙirƙirar sabbin hanyoyi don ƙarin fahimtar yanayin aiki na tsarin ilimin halitta ta hanyar kai tsaye kallon su a cikin nau'i hudu na sarari da lokaci." An ba Zewail lambar yabo ta Othmer Gold Medal (2009), Medal Priestley (2011) daga American Chemical Society da Davy Medal (2011) daga Royal Society .

A cikin 1982 an nada shi a matsayin Fellow of the American Physical Society . Zewail ya zama memba na National Academy of Sciences a 1989, Cibiyar Fasaha da Kimiyya ta Amirka a 1993, da Ƙungiyar Falsafa ta Amirka a 1998. An zaɓi Zewail Memba na Ƙasashen Waje na Royal Society (ForMemRS) a cikin 2001. An kuma zabe shi a matsayin dan uwansa na Kwalejin Kimiyya ta Afirka a 2001.

An mai da Zewail Memba na Ƙasashen Waje na Kwalejin Kimiyya na Yaren mutanen Sweden . A cikin 2005, lambar yabo ta Ahmed Zewail don Kimiyya da Fasaha ta Ultrafast ta American Chemical Society da Newport Corporation suka kafa don girmama shi. A cikin Mayu 2010, Zewail ya ba da adireshin farawa a Jami'ar Kudu maso Yamma . Birnin Kimiyya da Fasaha na Zewail, wanda aka kafa a cikin 2000 kuma ya farfado a 2011, ana kiransa da sunan sa.

Digiri na girmamawa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Zewail ya sami digiri na girmamawa daga cibiyoyi masu zuwa: Jami'ar Oxford, UK (1991); Jami'ar Amurka a Alkahira, Masar (1993); Jami'ar Katholieke, Leuven, Belgium (1997); Jami'ar Pennsylvania, Amurka (1997); Jami'ar Lausanne, Switzerland (1997); Jami'ar Fasaha ta Swinburne, Ostiraliya (1999); Arab Academy for Science, Technology & Maritime Transport, Masar (1999); D.Sc. Jami'ar Alexandria, Masar (1999); D.Sc. Jami'ar New Brunswick, Kanada (2000); Jami'ar Sapienza ta Rome, Italiya (2000); Jami'ar Liege, Belgium (2000); Jami'ar Heriot-Watt, Scotland (2002); Jami'ar Lund, Sweden (2003); Jami'ar Cambridge (2006); Complutense Jami'ar Madrid, Spain (2008); Jami'ar Jordan, Jordan (2009); Jami'ar Glasgow, Scotland (2011); Jami'ar Yale, Amurka (2014).

Karramawar kasa ta Masar[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

 Egypt

  • Grand Cross na Order of Merit (Misira) (1995)
  • Grand Cordon na oda na Jamhuriyar Larabawa ta Masar (1998)
  • Grand Collar na Order na Nilu (1999)

Karramawar kasashen waje[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Faransa

  • Knight na Legion of Honor
  • Jami'in Hukumar Kula da Jiki ta Kasa
  • Grand Cordon na National Order na Cedar

Sudan

  • Babban Jami'in Tsarin Koyarwar Nilu Biyu

Tunisiya

  • Kwamandan oda na Jamhuriyar

 United Arab Emirates

  • Babban Jami'in Umarnin Zayed

Rayuwa ta sirri[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Zewail da matarsa ta farko, Mervat, sun yi aure a shekara ta 1967, kafin su bar Masar don halartar Jami'ar Philadelphia. Ya haifi 'ya'ya mata biyu tare da Mervat, Maha da Amani. Sun rabu a 1979.

Zewail ya auri Dema Faham a shekara ta 1989. Zewail da Faham suna da 'ya'ya maza biyu, Nabeel da Hani. [8]

Mutuwa da jana'iza[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Zewail ya mutu yana da shekaru 70 a safiyar ranar 2 ga Agusta, 2016. Yana murmurewa daga ciwon daji, amma, ba a san ainihin musabbabin mutuwarsa ba. Zewail ya koma Masar, amma gawarsa kawai aka karbe a filin jirgin saman Alkahira. An gudanar da jana'izar soja ga Zewail a ranar 7 ga watan Agusta, 2016, a masallacin El-Mosheer Tantawy da ke birnin Alkahira na kasar Masar. [9] Wadanda suka halarci taron sun hada da shugaba Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, firaminista Sherif Ismail, al-Azhar Grand Imam Ahmed el-Tayeb, ministan tsaro Sedki Sobhi, tsohon shugaban kasa Adly Mansour, tsohon firaminista Ibrahim Mahlab da kuma likitan zuciya Magdi Yacoub . [9] Ali Gomaa tsohon babban Mufti na Masar ne ya jagoranci sallar jana'izar . [9]

Labarai[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Birnin Kimiyya da Fasaha na Zewail (ZCST)
    • Ahmed ya kafa ZCST har ma ya ba da kyautar kyautar Nobel ta gabaɗaya don kafa wannan jami'a. Saboda bukatarsa na neman taimakon Masar don yin fice da ci gaban ilimi an cire rukunin farko na dalibai daga kudade saboda hazakarsu ta kimiyya.
  • Jerin masana kimiyya na Masar

Nassoshi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

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Hanyoyin haɗi na waje[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Media related to Ahmed Zewail at Wikimedia Commons
  • Official website Captured from the Wayback Machine, June 28, 2018, accessed July 20, 2020
  • Ahmed Zewail's publications indexed by the Scopus bibliographic database. (subscription required)
  • Ahmed Zewail publications indexed by Google Scholar
  • Interview with Ahmed Zewail Caltech Oral Histories, California Institute of Technology
  • Ahmed Zewail on Nobelprize.org