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Sarauniyar Sheba

Sarauniyar Sheba ( Hebrew ; Arabic Al Malikah Balqis ) wata shahararriya ce da aka fara ambata a cikin littafin Hibranci . A cikin asalin labarin na farko, ta kawo kyautuka cikin amalanku da yawa ga Sarki Sulemanu na Isra'ila. Wannan labarin ta sami cikakkun karin bayanai game a yahudanci, da Islama, da a Habasha, kuma ya zama batun ɗayan manyan labarai na tarihin Afirka .

Masana tarihi na zamani sun gano da cewa Sheba itace dake Daular Sheba a Kudu Arabiya a yanzu itace Yemen . An yi jayayya game da kasancewar Sarauniya a tsakanin masana tarihi. [1]

Labaran tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Baibul[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Amfani da kalmar ' doiddot ko' ' tatsuniyoyi ' ( 1 Sarakuna 10: 1), kalmar lafazin Aramaic wacce siffarta ke nuna motsi mai motsi bai wuce ƙarni na shida kafin haihuwar Yesu ba, yana nuna ƙarshen asalin rubutun. Tunda babu ambaton faɗuwar Babila a cikin 539 BC, Martin Noth ya riƙe cewa Littafin Sarakuna ya sami cikakkiyar ma'amala a kusan 550 BC.

Kusan dukkan malamai na zamani sun yarda cewa Sheba ita ce masarautar Arab ta Kudu ta Saba, wadda ke kewaye da yankin Marib, a cikin Yemen yau. Sheba sanannun sanannun duniya ne, kuma ana kiran kasarta Arabia Felix . A kusan tsakiyar karni na farko BC, akwai kuma mutanen Sabiya a yankin Afirka, a yankin da daga baya suka zama daular Aksum . Akwai biyar wuraren a cikin Littafi Mai Tsarki inda marubucin ya bambanta Sheba ‎ ), Watau Yemenite Sabaeans, daga Seba ‎ ), watau 'yan Sababin Afirka. A cikin Zab. 72:10 an ambace su tare: "Sarakunan Sheba da Seba za su ba da kyaututtuka". Wannan bambance-bambancen kalma, koyaya, na iya zama ma'anaitaccen bayani ne; Rubutun 'yan asalin ƙasa ba su da wannan bambanci, kuma duka' yan Yaman da na 'yan Afirka ba a can aka haife su daidai iri ɗaya.

Rubuce-rubucen haruffan daga Kudancin Arabia ba su da wata hujja ga mata masu mulkin, amma rubutattun bayanan Assuriyawa sun ambaci sarakunan Arabiya a arewa. Queens suna da kyau sosai a cikin Arabia, duk da cewa bisa ga Kitchen, ba bayan 690 BC ba Furthermoreari , kabilun Sabae sun san taken mqtwyt ("babban jami'in"). Makada ko Makueda, sunan sarauniyar a cikin tatsuniyar Habasha, ana iya fassara shi a matsayin sanannen ma'anar fassara ta taken mqtwyt . Wannan taken ana iya samo shi daga tsohuwar m'asar Masar ta m'kit (𓅖𓎡𓇌𓏏𓏛) "uwargida, uwargida".

Ziyarar sarauniyar na iya zama manufa ta kasuwanci . Kasuwancin farko na Kudancin Arabiya tare da Mesopotamiya wanda ya haɗa da itace da kayan yaji waɗanda raƙuma ke jigilar su an tabbatar da su a farkon karni na tara BC kuma watakila an fara shi har zuwa na goma.

Tsohuwar Masallacin Awwām na Sabaic, wanda aka fi sani da tatsuniyoyi kamar Maḥram ("Wuri Mai Tsarki") Bilqīs, ba da daɗewa ba masana archaeoji sun haƙa, amma ba a gano asalin Sarauniyar Sheba ba har yanzu a cikin rubutattun rubuce-rubuce da dama da aka samu a wurin. Wani Sabean Haikalin, da Barran Haikali ( Arabic ), kuma ana kiranta da 'Arash Bilqis ("Al'arshi na Bilqis"), wanda kamar gidan nan na Awam mai kusa kuma an sadaukar dashi ga allahn Almaqah, amma haɗin da ke tsakanin gidan ibadar Barran da Sheba ba a kafa shi ba ta hanyar archaeologically ko dai.

Labarun Littafi Mai-Tsarki game da Sarauniyar Sheba da jiragen ruwa na Ofir sun kasance tushen al'adar tatsuniyoyi game da Isra'ilawa suka yi tafiya a cikin Sarauniyar Sheba yayin da ta dawo ƙasarta don ta haife shi da Sulemanu.

Kirista[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Nassosin Kirista sun ambaci wata “sarauniyar Kudu” ( Greek , Latin ), wanda “ya zo daga ƙarshen duniya”, watau daga ƙarshen duniya ta sanannu, don ya ji hikimar Sulemanu ( Mt 12:42; Lk. 11:31).

Ma'anar su ta asali game da Waƙar Waƙoƙi, wacce ake jin tana iya samar da ainihin tushen ra'ayoyin waɗanda ake zargin, ta bayyana a farkon ta a cikin Origen, wanda ya rubuta sharhi mai zurfi game da Waƙar Waƙoƙi. A cikin sharhinsa, Origen ya bayyana amarya ta Waƙar Waƙoƙi tare da "sarauniyar Kudu" ta Linjila, watau Sarauniyar Sheba, wacce ake zaton ta Habasha ce. Wasu sun ba da shawarar ko dai auren Sulaiman tare da 'yar Fir'auna, ko kuma aurensa da wata mace Ba'isra'ile, Shulamite . Tsohon shine ra'ayin da aka fi so daga masu fassarar asusai har zuwa ƙarshen ƙarni na 18; na ƙarshen ya samu tun farkon gabatarwar ta Good (1803).

Ana zaton amaryar Canticles ta kasance baƙaƙen saboda wani sashi na Waƙar Waƙoƙi 1: 5, wanda Revised Standard Version (1952) fassara a matsayin "Ina da duhu, amma kyakkyawa", kamar yadda Jerome ( Latin : Nigra jimla, sed formosa ), yayin da New Revised Standard Version (1989) yana da "Ni baƙi ne kyakkyawa", kamar yadda Septuagint ( Ancient Greek ).

Wata almara tana nuna cewa Sarauniyar Sheba ta kawo wa Sulemanu duk irin kyaututtukan da Magi daga baya suka ba wa Kristi. A lokacin Tsakiyar Tsakiya, Kiristocin wani lokaci sukan bayyana Sarauniyar Sheba da sibyl Sabba .

'Yan Koftik[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Labarin Sulaiman da sarauniya ya shahara tsakanin 'yan Kofi, kamar yadda aka nuna a wasu gungun almara na' yan Koftik a cikin Papyrus na Berlin. Sarauniyar, tun da yaudarar ta ya ba ta, ta ba wa Sulemanu wani ginshiƙi wanda duk aka yi rubutu a kimiyyan duniya. Sulaiman ya aiko da ɗaya daga aljannunsa ya jero dutsen daga Habasha, inda ya sauka nan take. A cikin waƙar gargajiyar waƙoƙi, Sarauniyar Yesaba ta Cush tana tambayar gumbuka na Sulaiman.

Habasha[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Hoton Sarauniyar Sheba ta ƙarni na 17 a cikin wata coci a Lalibela, Habasha kuma a yanzu a Gidan Tarihi na Habasha a Addis Ababa

Cikakken kuma ingantaccen juzu'in labari ya bayyana a cikin Kebra Nagast (Daukaka na Sarakuna), Fadan Habasha wanda aka fassara daga Larabci a 1322. Anan Menelik Ni ɗan Sulaiman ne da Makeda (sunan Italiyanci ga sarauniyar Sheba) daga wanda daular Habasha ta ce daga yau. Yayin da labarin Abisiniya ya ba da cikakkun bayanai, amma ba a ambaci wani ambaton kafafun Sarauniya ba ko wani abin da zai yi tasiri a kan ta.

Dangane da Linjilar Matta (12:42) da Luka (11:31), "sarauniyar Kudu" ana iƙirarin itace sarauniyar Habasha. A waɗancan lokatai, sarki Sulemanu ya nemi merchantsan kasuwa daga ko'ina cikin duniya don siyan kayayyakin don ginin Haikalin . Daga cikinsu akwai Tamrin, babbar 'yar kasuwar Sarauniya Makeda ta Habasha. Bayan da ta koma Habasha, Tamrin ta faɗa wa sarauniyar abubuwan ban al'ajabi da ya gani a Urushalima, da kuma hikimomi da karimcin Sulemanu, inda ta yanke shawarar ziyartar Sulaiman. An yi mata maraba sosai, aka ba ta fadar inda take zama, ana karɓar kyaututtuka masu yawa kowace rana. Sulaiman da Makeda sun yi magana da hikima sosai, kuma suka koyar da shi, sai ta koma addinin Yahudanci. Kafin ta tafi, an yi babban biki a gidan sarki. Makeda ta kwana a gidan dare, bayan da Solomon ya rantse ba zai yi mata wata lahani ba, alhali kuwa ta rantse cewa ba za ta yi sata daga gare shi ba. Tun da abinci ya ke yaji, Makeda ta farka da daddare, da dare ta sha ruwa, lokacin da Sulaiman ya bayyana, yana tunatar da shi rantsuwa. Ta amsa: "Yi watsi da rantsuwar ka, kawai bari in sha ruwa." A wannan daren, Sulaiman ya yi mafarki game da rana ta fito kan Isra’ila, amma da yahudawa suka wulakanta su suka raina shi, rana ta karkata ta haskaka kan Habasha da Rome (watau daular Byzantine). Sulaiman ya ba wa Makeda zobe kamar alamar imani, sannan ta tafi. Tana kan hanyarta ta zuwa gida, ta haifi ɗa, wanda ta sanya wa suna Baina-leḥkem (watau Bin al-ḥakīm, "ofan Mai hikima", wanda ake kira Menilek daga baya). Bayan yaron ya girma a Habasha, ya je Urushalima yana ɗaukar zoben, kuma aka karɓe shi da babbar daraja. Sarki da jama'a sunyi kokarin banza don shawo kansa ya zauna. Sulemanu ya tattara manyansa ya ba da sanarwar cewa zai aiko ɗan farinsa zuwa Habasha tare da Ethiopiaa firstansu na fari. Ya kara da cewa yana tsammanin yana da dan na uku, wanda zai auri Sarkin 'yar Rome ya kuma yi mulkin Rome, ta yadda zuriyar Dauda za ta mallaki duk duniya. Zadok babban firist kuwa ya naɗa shi sarki, ya sa masa suna Dawuda. Manyan noan fari da suka biyo shi suna, kuma har wa yau wasu iyalai na Habasha suna da'awar zuriyarsu daga wurinsu. Kafin su tafi, 'ya'yan firistocin sun sace akwatin alkawari, bayan shugabansu Azaryas ya miƙa hadaya kamar yadda malaikan Allah ya umurce shi. Tare da kuka da yawa, rundunarsu ta bar Urushalima a kan motar jigilar iska kuma shugaban mala'ikan Mika'ilu ya ɗauka. Bayan sun isa Jar Teku, Azaryas ya bayyana wa mutane cewa jirgin yana tare da su. Dauda ya yi wa akwatin alkawari, mutanen kuwa suka yi murna, suna raira waƙa, suna rawa, masu busa ƙaho, suna busa kakoki. Akwatin ya nuna ikonsa na mu'ujiza yayin tsallaka Tekun Hadari, kuma dukkansu sun iso ba a tsira ba. Da Sulemanu ya ji an saci akwatin, sai ya aika da mahayan dawakai bayan masu satar, har ma ya ba da kansa, amma ba su iya kama su. Sulemanu ya koma Urushalima, ya kuma umarci firistocin su yi shuru game da sata kuma su sanya akwatin a cikin Wuri Mai Tsarki, don al'umman baƙi ba za su iya cewa Isra'ila ta yi fice ba.

A cewar wasu bayanai, Sarauniya Makeda wani bangare ne na daular da Za Besi Angabo ya kafa a 1370 kafin haihuwar Kristi, tare da kakanta da mahaifinta kuma sune mazan karshe na masarautar. Zabi dangi ya zabi sarauta Aksum shine dan uwan Makeda, Yarima Nourad, amma rasuwarsa a farkon shine ya haifar da magajin nasa. A bayyane ta mallaki masarautar Habasha sama da shekara 50.

A cikin Littafin Aksum na Habasha, an bayyana Makeda da kafa sabon birni a Azeba .   [ <span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (June 2019)">Lissafi da ake bukata</span> ] Edward Ullendorff ya ce Makeda cin hanci ce ta Candace, sunan ko taken sarakunan Habasha da dama daga Meroe ko Seba . Candace sunan waccan Sarauniyar Habasha wanda shugabansu ya karɓi Kristanci a ƙarƙashin wa'azin Philip mai Bishara ( Ayukan Manzanni 8:27) a cikin 30 AD A cikin karni na 14 (? ) Siffar bidiyon bidiyon soyayyar Alexander, Alexander the Great of Macedonia (Ethiopic Meqédon ) an ce ya hadu da wata sarauniya Kandake ta Nubia .

Masana tarihi sun yi imani da cewa daular Sulemanu ta fara ne a 1270 tare da mai martaba Yekuno Amlak, wanda, tare da goyon bayan Cocin Habasha ya kifar daular Zagwe, wanda ya mallaki Habasha tun daga wani lokaci a cikin karni na 10. Haɗin da Sarki Sulaiman ya ba da tushe mai ƙarfi ne ga haɗin kan Habasha. "Habasha suna ganin kasarsu a matsayin ƙasar da Allah ya zaɓa, wurin hutu na ƙarshe da ya zaɓa don jirgin - kuma Sheba da ɗanta sune hanyar da ta shigo wurin". Duk da cewa daular ta kasance a hukumance a 1769 tare da Emperor Iyoas, sarakunan Habasha sun ci gaba da gano alakar tasu, har zuwa lokacin da sarki na karni na 20, Haile Selassie .

A cewar wata al'ada, Yahudawan Habasha ( Beta Isra'ila, "Falashas") su ma suna bin asalin zuriyarsu ne ga Menelik I, ɗan Sarki Solomon da Sarauniyar Sheba. Wani ra'ayin da ya fi bayyana tarihi shi ne cewa Falashas sun fito ne daga waccan yahudawan da suka zauna a Masar bayan hijira na farko, kuma wanene, bayan faduwar mulkin Farisa (539-333 BC) a kan iyakar Kogin Nilu, ya shiga cikin Sudan., daga nan suka shiga sassan yamma na Abisiniya.

Sarakuna da yawa sun jaddada mahimmancin Kebra Negast . Misalin farko na wannan za'a iya samo shi a cikin wata wasika daga Yar Kasa Kasa (King John IV) zuwa ga Sarauniya Victoria a 1872. Kasa ta ce, "Akwai wani littafi mai suna Kebra Nagast wanda ya ƙunshi dokar ƙasar Habasha gaba ɗaya, kuma sunayen shuwagabannin (gwamnoni), majami'u da larduna suna cikin wannan littafin. Ina rokon ku gano wanda ya sami wannan littafin, ya aika min, gama a ƙasata mutanena ba za su yi biyayya ga umarnina ba tare da shi ba. ” Duk da mahimmancin tarihi da aka baiwa Kebra Negast, har yanzu akwai shakku kan ko Sarauniya ta hau kujerar.

Bayahude[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cewar Josephus ( Ant. 8: 165 - 173), sarauniyar Sheba ita ce sarauniyar Misira da Habasha, kuma ta kawo wa Isra’ila samfurori na farko na balsam, wanda ya girma a cikin ƙasa mai tsarki a lokacin masanin tarihin. Josephus (Antiquities 2.5‒2.10) yana wakiltar Cambyses kamar yadda ya mamaye babban birnin Aethiopia, da canza sunansa daga Seba zuwa Meroe . Josephus ya tabbatar da cewa Sarauniyar Sheba ko ta Saba ta fito daga wannan yankin, kuma tana ɗauke da sunan Saba kafin ta san Meroe. Haka kuma akwai kusanci tsakanin kalmar Saba da suna ko taken sarakunan Aethiopians, Sabaco .

Talmud ( Bava Batra 15b) ya nace cewa ba mace ba ce amma kuma mulkin Sheba (wanda ya danganci fassarorin fassarar Ibrananci mlkt ) da ya je Urushalima, a fili yake da niyyar rage labarun da ke akwai game da alaƙar da ke tsakanin Sulemanu da Sarauniya. Baba Bathra 15b: "Duk wanda ya ce malkath Sheba (I Sarakuna X, 1) yana nufin mace ta yi kuskure; ... yana nufin masarautar (מַלְכֻת) na Sheba". An yi bayanin wannan da ma'anar cewa ita mace ce da ba ta kasance a matsayinta ba saboda ta auri sarki, amma ta iyakancinta. [2]

Mafi kyawun bayani dalla-dalla game da ziyarar da Sarauniya ta kawo wa Sulaiman an ba shi cikin Targum Sheni ga Esta (duba: Colloquy na Sarauniyar Sheba ). Wani hoopoe ya sanar da Sulaiman cewa masarautar Sheba ita ce masarautar da ba ta da iko a duniya kuma sarauniya tana bauta wa rana. Ya aika da shi ga Kitor a ƙasar Sheba tare da wasiƙar da aka haɗe da reshensa wanda ke umurta sarauniya ta zo masa da batun. Bayan haka sai ta aika masa da dukkan jiragen ruwa na teku waɗanda aka ɗauke da kyautai masu tamani da samari 6,000 masu daidaita, waɗanda duka aka haife su a lokaci guda, suka sa riguna masu launin shunayya. Sun dauki wasika suna shelanta cewa za ta iya zuwa Urushalima cikin shekaru uku dukda cewa tafiyar ta dauki shekaru bakwai. Lokacin da Sarauniyar ta zo, ta zo gaban gidan Sulemanu, tana tunanin ƙasan gilashin ruwa ne, sai ta ɗora rigarta, ta buɗe ƙafafunta. Sulaiman ya sanar da ita kuskurensa kuma ya tsauta mata saboda gashin ta. Ta nemi shi uku ( Targum Sheni zuwa Esta 1: 3) ko kuma, bisa ga Midrash ( Mis. Ii 6; Yalḳ. Ii., § 1085, Midrash ha-Hefez ), mafi tsarguwa don gwada hikimarsa.

Rubutun wani dan kasar Yemen mai taken "Midrash ha-Hefez" (wanda S. Schechter ya buga a Folk-Lore, 1890, pp.   353 et seq.) Yana ba da gwanaye goma sha tara, yawancinsu ana samunsu warwatse cikin Talmud da Midrash, wanda marubucin "Midrash ha-Hefez" ya ba Sarauniyar Sheba. Yawancin waɗannan tsarukan roƙo ne kawai tambayoyin Littafi Mai-Tsarki, wasu basu da haɓaka mai haɓaka. Abubuwa biyu wadanda suke da tatsuniyoyi na hakika sune: "Ba tare da motsi ba yayin da yake raye, yana motsa yayin da aka yanke kan kansa", da kuma "An samar da shi daga ƙasa, mutum yana samarwa da shi, yayin da abincin shi ne 'ya'yan ƙasa". Amsar tsohuwar ita ce, "itace, wanda idan an cire saman sa, za a iya sanya shi cikin jirgin ruwa mai motsi"; Amsar ƙarshen ƙarshen ita ce, "wick".

Malaman da ke tir da Sulaiman sun fassara 1 Sarakuna 10:13 da ma'anar cewa Sulemanu ya yi ma'amala da Sarauniyar Sheba, wacce ita ce Nebukadnesar, wanda ya rushe haikalin (hada. Rashi ad local. ). A cewar wasu, zunubin aka danganta wa Sulaiman a cikin 1 Sarakuna 11: 7 et seq. kawai alamu ne: ba ana nufin cewa Sulaiman ya faɗi cikin bautar gumaka bane, amma yana da laifin ƙin hana matansa ayyukan gumaka ( Shab. 56b).

Haruffan Sirach sun nuna cewa Nebukadnezzar ɗan itacen ne na haɗin tsakanin Sulemanu da Sarauniyar Sheba. A cikin Kabbalah, ana daukar Sarauniyar Sheba a matsayin daya daga cikin sarakunan aljanu kuma wani lokacin ana danganta shi da Lilith, da farko a cikin Targum na Ayuba (1:15), daga baya kuma a cikin Zohar da litattafai masu zuwa. Wani camfi na Yahudu da na Larabawa ya tabbatar da cewa Sarauniya hakika aljannu ce, rabin mutum da rabin aljan.

A cikin tarihin Ashkenazi, ita ana haɗa ta da sanannen hoton Helen na Troy ko kuma Frau Venus na tatsuniyoyin Jamusanci. Haushin Ashkenazi yawanci suna wakiltar Sarauniyar Sheba a matsayin mawakiya mai lalata. Har zuwa tsararraki da suka gabata an nuna hotonta a matsayin mai satar yara da maita.

Musulunci[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin ayar da ta gabata, bayan ta tsinkaye ƙasashe na kusa, tsuntsayen da aka sani da hud-hud ( hoopoe ) ya koma wurin Sarki Sulemanu yana ba da labarin cewa Sarauniya ce ta mallake ƙasar Sheba. A cikin wata wasika, Sulaiman ya gayyaci Sarauniyar Sheba, wanda kamar mabiyanta sun bauta wa rana, don miƙa wuya ga Allah . Ta bayyana cewa wasikar tana da daraja kuma tana tambayar manyan masu ba da shawara ga abin da ya kamata a ɗauka. Sun ba da amsa ta ambaton cewa an san masarautarta don ƙarfin ƙarfinta da karkata zuwa yaƙi, kodayake umarnin yana hannun ta kawai. A wani mataki da ke nuna halayen diflomasiya na shugabancinta, ta amsa da karfin gwiwa ba, amma ta hanyar tura jakadanta don gabatar da kyauta ga Sarki Sulaiman. Ya ki yarda da kyautar, yana mai cewa Allah ya ba mafi kyautuka kyauta kuma jakadu su ne kawai kyautar da kyautar suke bayarwa. Sarki Sulaiman ya umarci jakadun da su koma hannun Sarauniya da sakon batanci cewa idan ya yi mata nasiha, zai kawo abin da ba za ta iya kayar da ita ba. Daga nan Sarauniya ta yi shirin ziyartarsa a fadarsa. Kafin tazo, Sarki Sulaiman ya sa kursiyinsa ya koma fadarsa tare da taimakon masanin littafi, wanda ya sami damar motsa kursiyin a cikin idanuwa. Sarki Sulaiman ya rushe da kursiyinsa don gwada wayewarsa, ya tambaye ta ko da alama ta saba. Ta ba da amsa cewa yayin tafiyarta zuwa gare shi, koturta ta sanar da ita cewa kursiyin ya shuɗe kuma tun daga wannan lokacin ita da mabiyanta sun ƙuduri niyyar yin biyayya ga Allah. Daga nan sai Sarki Sulaiman ya yi bayanin cewa Allah ne kawai abin bautawa da za ta bauta, kada a hada shi da sauran allolin da ta kasance suna bauta wa. Daga baya aka nemi Sarauniyar Sheba ta shiga babban zauren. Da farko kallonta yayi kuskure zauren don tafki kuma ta ɗaga rigarta don kar rigar rigarta. Sarki Sulaiman ya sanar da ita cewa ita ba ruwa ba ce face taushi ce ta gilashi. Ganin cewa wannan abin al'ajabi ne wanda ba'a ta'ba ganin irinta ba, ta bayyana cewa a baya ta cutar da ranta amma yanzu tayi biyayya ga Sarki Sulaiman, ga Allah (27: 22 - 44).

Labarin Sarauniyar Sheba a cikin Alqur’ani ya yi musayar wasu kamanni da na Baibul da kuma sauran kafofin yahudawa. Wasu masu sharhi kan al'amuran musulmai kamar Al-Tabari, Al-Zamakhshari da Al-Baydawi sun kara bada labarin. Ga suka yi da'awar cewa Sarauniya sunan ne Bilqīs ( Arabic ), mai yiwuwa ya samo asali ne daga Greek ko da Hebraised pilegesh ( "ƙwarƙwarar"). The Quran ba suna da Sarauniya, nufin ta a matsayin "wata mace wadda tanã su" ( Arabic ), [3] al'ummar Sheba. [4]

Yarbanci[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

The Yoruba Ijebu clan of Ijebu-Ode, Nigeria, claim that she was a wealthy, childless noblewoman of theirs known as Oloye Bilikisu Sungbo. They also assert that a medieval system of walls and ditches, built sometime around the 10th century, was dedicated to her.

After excavations in 1999 the archaeologist Patrick Darling was quoted as saying, "I don't want to overplay the Sheba theory, but it cannot be discounted ... The local people believe it and that's what is important ... The most cogent argument against it at the moment is the dating."

A art[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Medieval[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Harkar da Sulaiman a cikin adabi, zane-zane, da kade-kade sun hada da maudu'in Sarauniyar Sheba da Shulammite na Waƙoƙin Waƙoƙi . Sarki Sulemanu da Sarauniyar Sheba ba batun gama gari ba ne har zuwa ƙarni na 12. A cikin tarihin kirista Sulemanu ya wakilci Yesu, kuma Sheba yana wakiltar Ikilisiyar da ke mara baya; Saboda haka haduwar Sheba tare da Sulemanu wanda ke ɗauke da kyaututtukan kyaututtuka ya nuna matsayin masu sihiri . A gefe guda, Sheba ya hau kujerar mulki wakilcin matsayin budurwa .

An samo zane-zane na Sarauniyar Sheba a kan manyan mashahuran Gothic kamar Chartres, Rheims, Amiens, da Wells . Katolika na ƙarni na 12 a Strasbourg, Chartres, Rochester da Canterbury sun haɗa da zane-zane na zane-zane a cikin windows gilashi da kayan ado na ƙofar. [5] Hakanan zane-zane na Romanesque, zane mai ban dariya na mace baƙar fata a gidan sufi na Klosterneuburg . [6] Sarauniyar Sheba, tana tsaye a ruwa a gaban Sulaiman, an nuna hoton ta a wata taga a Masarautar Kwalejin King, Cambridge .

Renaissance[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Doorofar baftisma Florence, Lorenzo Ghiberti (1378‒1455), taimako na tagulla.

Liyafar sarauniyar ta kasance wani sanannen zance a lokacin Renaissance na Italiya . Ya bayyana a cikin ƙofofin tagulla zuwa Florence Baptistery ta Lorenzo Ghiberti, a cikin frescoes daga Benozzo Gozzoli ( Campo Santo, Pisa ) da kuma cikin Raphael Loggie ( Vatican ). Misalan zane-zane na Venetian na Tintoretto ( Prado ) da Veronese ( Pinacotheca, Turin ). A cikin karni na 17, Claude Lorrain ta zana Zangon Sarauniyar Sheba ( Gidajen Kasa, Landan ).

Piero della Francesca's frescoes a Arezzo (c. 1466) akan Legend of the True Cross na dauke da panels biyu akan ziyarar sarauniya Sheba zuwa ga Solomon. An aiyana yadda sarauniyar tayi mamakin rukuni rukuni na pillars da a fadar Sarki Sulaiman..

Berta Golahny with her sculpture Sheba

Literature[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Boccaccio's On Famous Women ya biyo Josephus da yake kiran sarauniyar Sheba Nicaula. Boccaccio ya bada bayanin cewa bawai kadai ita sarauniya ce a Ethiopia da Egypt, amma ita sarauniya ce ga Arabia. Har wayau an rawaito ta da mallakar wata babbar fada a Meroe, wanda ke kusa da Nile river, "practically on the other side of the world". From there Nicaula crossed the deserts of Arabia, through Ethiopia and Egypt and up the coast of the Red Sea, to come to Jerusalem to see "the great King Solomon".

O takaitaccen labarin O. Henry ' Kyautar' yan Magi "ya ƙunshi bayanin da ya gabata don isar da darajar gashi na mata:" Da a ce Sarauniyar Sheba ta zauna a ɗakin bayan ƙetaren jirgin sama, Della za ta kyale gashinta ya rataye taga wata rana ta bushe dan kawai taji darajar kayanta da kyaututtukan girmamawa.

Littafin Christine de Pizan Littafin Birnin Ladies ya ci gaba da babban taron da ake kira Sarauniyar Sheba "Nicaula". Mawallafin ya yaba wa Sarauniya saboda hikimar wayewar kai da ta addini kuma ya jera ta ban da matan Annabawan Ibrananci da na Ibrananci kamar yadda ta farko a jerin jarumai mata masu daraja.   [ <span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (May 2017)">Lissafi da ake bukata</span> ] Christopher Marlowe's Doctor Faustus refers to the Queen of Sheba as Saba, when Mephistopheles is trying to persuade Faustus of the wisdom of the women with whom he supposedly shall be presented every morning.

r daGérard de Nerval's autobiographical novel, Voyage to the Orient (1851), details his travels through the Middle East with much artistic license. He recapitulates at length a tale told in a Turkish cafe of King Soliman's love of Balkis, the Queen of Saba, but she, in turn, is destined to love Adoniram (Hiram Abif), Soliman's chief craftsman of the Temple, owing to both her and Adoniram's divine genealogy. Soliman grows jealous of Adoniram, and when he learns of three craftsmen who wish to sabotage his work and later kill him, Soliman willfully ignores warnings of these plots. Adoniram is murdered and Balkis flees Soliman's kingdom.

Léopold Sédar Senghor 'Elégie zuba la Reine de Saba ", wanda aka buga a cikin fitattun labarun Elégies a 1976, ya yi amfani da Sarauniyar Sheba cikin waƙar soyayya da kuma saƙon siyasa. A cikin shekarun 1970s, ya yi amfani da Sarauniyar Sheba tatsuniya don fadada ra'ayinsa game da Negritude da Eurafrique ta hanyar "Arab-Berber Africa".

Littafin Rudyard Kipling Just So Labarun ya hada da tatsuniyar "The Butterfly That Stffin". A ciki, Kipling yana bayyana Balkis, "Sarauniya wacce ta kasance ta Sheba da Sable da Kogin Zinare na Kudu" mafi kyau, kuma watakila kawai, ƙaunatattun matan 1000 na Suleiman-bin-Daoud, Sarki Sulaiman. A bayyane ya nuna babban hikima, "Balkis, kusan mai hikima ne kamar Mafi Sulaiman-bin-Daoud"; amma duk da haka Kipling na iya nuna wata hikima a wurin ta fiye da mijinta, ta yadda zata iya yin amfani da miji a hankali, azancinsa da kuma abubuwan da ya yi umarni, da sauran matan 999 na Suleimin-bin-Daoud, marubucin malam buɗe ido da taken matar malam buɗe ido, ta haka ne ya kawo jituwa da farin ciki ga duka.

Sarauniyar Sheba ta bayyana a matsayin hali a cikin The ring of Sulaiman, littafi na huɗu a cikin Jonathan Stroud 's Bartimaeus Sequence . An nuna shi a matsayin macen da ba ta da amfani, wanda, yana tsoron girman ikon Sulemanu, ya aika da shugaban maigidansa don kashe shi, yana saita abubuwan da ke cikin littafin a motsi.

Fim[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Betty Blythe a matsayin sarauniya a cikin Sarauniyar Sheba (1921).

Music[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Template:Listen

  • Sulaiman (wanda aka haɗa a 1748; an fara yi a 1749), oratorio na George Frideric Handel ; da "Zuwan Sarauniyar Sheba" daga wannan aikin yawanci ana yin ta azaman yanki ne
  • La reine de Saba (1862), wanda Charles Gounod ya sarrafa
  • Die Königin von Saba (1875), ta Karl Goldmark ta opera
  • La Reine de Scheba (1926), ta Reynaldo Hahn ta opera
  • Belkis, Regina di Saba (1931), ballet ta Ottorino Respighi
  • Sulaiman da Balkis (1942), Randall Thompson ne suka kunna opera
  • "Black kyakkyawa" (1970), waƙa ta Maimaitawa
  • "Makeda" (1998), R&B na Faransa daga Chadian duo Les Nubians
  • " Aïcha " (1996), na Khaled
  • "Balqis" (2000), waƙa ta Siti Nurhaliza

Talabijin[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. National Geographic, issue mysteries of history, September 2018, p.45.
  2. Maharsha Baba Bathra 15b
  3. Surat an-Naml 27:23
  4. Surat an-Naml 27:22
  5. Byrd, Vickie, editor; Queen of Sheba: Legend and Reality, (Santa Ana, California: The Bowers Museum of Cultural Art, 2004), p. 17.
  6. Nicholas of Verdun: Klosterneuburg Altarpiece, 1181; column #4/17, row #3/3. NB the accompanying subject and hexameter verse: "Regina Saba." "Vulnere dignare regina fidem Salemonis." The Warburg Institute Iconographic Database; retrieved 24 December 2013.
  • Thaʿlabī, Qiṣaṣ ̣ (1356 AH), 262 -4
  • Kisāʾī, Qiṣaṣ (1356 AH), 285–92
  • G. Weil, Littafi Mai-Tsarki, Kur'ani, da Talmud ... (1846)
  • G. Rosch, Die Königin von Saba als Königin Bilqis (Jahrb. F. Prot. Theol., 1880) 524‒72
  • M. Grünbaum, Neue Beiträge zur semitischen Sagenkunde (1893) 211‒21
  • E. Littmann, Tarihin Sarauniyar Sheba a al'adar Axum (1904)
  • L. Ginzberg, Legends of the Yahudawa, 3 (1911), 411; 4 (1913), 143–9; (1928), 288–91
  • H. Speyer, Die biblischen Erzählungen im Qoran (1931, repr. 1961), 390–9
  • E. Budge, Sarauniyar Sheba da danta guda daya Menyelek (1932)
  • J. Ryckmans, L'Institution monarchique en Arabie Emiridionale avant l'Islam (1951)
  • E. Ullendorff, Candace (Ayyukan Manzanni VIII, 27) da Sarauniyar Sheba (Nazarin Sabon Alkawari, 1955, 53-6)
  • E. Ullendorff, Abubuwan Hebraic-Yahudawa a Abisiniya (monophysite) Kiristanci (JSS, 1956, 216-55)
  • D. Hubbard, Tushen rubuce-rubuce na Kebra Nagast (Jami'ar St. Andrews Ph. D. thesis, 1956, 278‒308)
  • La Persécution des chrétiens himyarites au sixième siècle (1956)
  • Bulletin na Makarantun Amurkawa na Nazarin Oriental 143 (1956) 6-10; 145 (1957) 25-30; 151 (1958) 9-16
  • A. Jamme, La Paléographique sud-arabe de J. Pirenne (1957)
  • R. Bowen, F. Albright (eds.) ), Binciken Gano kayan tarihi a Kudancin Arabia (1958)
  • Encyclopedic Dictionary of the Bible (1963) 2067-70
  • T. Tamrat, Coci da Jihohi a Habasha (1972) 1270–1527
  • W. Daum (ed. ), Die Königin von Saba: Kunst, Legende und Archäologie zwischen Morgenland und Abendland (1988)
  • J. Lassner, Nuna Sarauniyar Sheba: Iyakokin Jinsi da Al'adu a Bayanin Yahudanci da Matsayi Na Islama (1993)
  • M. Brooks (ed. ), Kebra Nagast (Daukakar Sarakuna) (1998)
  • J. Breton, Arabia Filik daga lokacin Sarauniyar Sheba: Karnin na takwas BC zuwa karni na farko AD (1999)
  • D. Crummey, Land and Society in the Christian Kingdom of Ethiopia: Daga karni na goma sha uku zuwa karni na Ashirin (2000)
  • A. Gunther (ed. ), Masarautun Caravan: Yemen da Kasuwancin Tsohuwar Turawa (2005)