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Charles Babbage

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Charles Babbage
Lucasian Professor of Mathematics (en) Fassara

1829 - 1839
Rayuwa
Haihuwa Landan da Walworth (en) Fassara, 26 Disamba 1791
ƙasa United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
Mutuwa Marylebone (en) Fassara, 18 Oktoba 1871
Makwanci Kensal Green Cemetery (en) Fassara
Yanayin mutuwa Sababi na ainihi (kidney failure (en) Fassara)
Ƴan uwa
Abokiyar zama Georgiana Whitmore (en) Fassara
Yara
Karatu
Makaranta Peterhouse (en) Fassara
Totnes Grammar School (en) Fassara
King Edward VI Community College (en) Fassara
Trinity College (en) Fassara
(21 ga Afirilu, 1810 -
Matakin karatu Bachelor of Arts (en) Fassara
Master of Arts (en) Fassara
Harsuna Turanci
Sana'a
Sana'a masanin lissafi, computer scientist (en) Fassara, inventor (en) Fassara, Mai tattala arziki, mai falsafa, university teacher (en) Fassara, injiniya, Ilimin Taurari da marubuci
Employers University of Cambridge (en) Fassara
Muhimman ayyuka analytical engine (en) Fassara
Kyaututtuka
Wanda ya ja hankalinsa Ada Lovelace
Mamba Royal Society (en) Fassara
Bavarian Academy of Sciences and Humanities (en) Fassara
Saint Petersburg Academy of Sciences (en) Fassara
Hungarian Academy of Sciences (en) Fassara
American Academy of Arts and Sciences (en) Fassara
Royal Society of Edinburgh (en) Fassara
Royal Statistical Society (en) Fassara
Analytical Society (en) Fassara
Royal Astronomical Society (en) Fassara
Academy of Sciences of Turin (en) Fassara
Imani
Addini Kiristanci
hoton charles babbage

Charles Babbage (an haife shi a ranar 26 ga watan Satumban shekara ta alif 1791). Bature ne kuma shahararren mai ilimi ne.[1] Ya kasance masanin lissafi[2], mahikayanci, mai kirkire-kirkire, injiniya, kuma shine ya kirkiro dabarar 'digital programmable kwamfuta

'.[3]

Charles Babbage KH FRS (/ ˈbæbɪdʒ/; 26 ga watan Disamba ta alif 1791 - 18 Oktoba 1871) ilimin lissafi ne na Ingilishi.[1] Masanin lissafi, philosopher, mai ƙirƙira kuma injiniyan injiniya, Babbage ya samo asali ne daga tsarin kwamfuta mai shirye-shirye na dijital.

Wasu suna kallon Babbage a matsayin “uban kwamfuta”[2][3][4][5] Babbage an lasafta shi ne ya ƙirƙiro na'urar kwamfuta ta farko, Injin Difference, wanda a ƙarshe ya haifar da ƙarin ƙira na lantarki, duk da cewa duk mahimman ra'ayoyin kwamfutoci na zamani ana samun su a cikin Injin Analytical Engine na Babbage, wanda aka tsara ta hanyar amfani da ƙa'idar da aka aro a fili daga Jacquard loom. Babbage yana da bukatu iri-iri ban da aikin da ya yi kan kwamfutoci da aka rufe a cikin littafinsa Tattalin Arziki na Masana'antu da Mashinna a 1832. Ayyukansa iri-iri a wasu fagage sun sa aka kwatanta shi a matsayin “mafi-fita” a cikin ɗimbin ilimin lissafi na ƙarni nasa

Babbage, wanda ya mutu kafin cikakken nasarar aikin injiniya na yawancin zane-zanensa, ciki har da Injin Difference da Injin Analytical, ya kasance fitaccen mutum a cikin tunanin kwamfuta. Ana baje kolin sassan hanyoyin Babbage da ba su cika ba a gidan tarihin kimiyya da ke Landan. A cikin 1991, an gina ingin bambanci mai aiki daga ainihin tsare-tsaren Babbage. An gina shi da juriya da za a iya samu a cikin karni na 19, nasarar injin da aka gama ya nuna cewa injin Babbage zai yi aiki.

FARKON RAYUWA[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An sami sabani game da wurin haifuwar Babbage, amma bisa ga ƙamus na Oxford Dictionary of National Biography yana yiwuwa an haife shi a 44 Crosby Row, Walworth Road, London, Ingila.[8] Alamar shuɗi a mahadar Larcom Street da Walworth Road tana tunawa da taron.

An ba da ranar haihuwarsa a cikin tarihin mutuwarsa a cikin The Times kamar 26 ga watan Disamba Na shekarar 1792; amma sai wani ɗan’uwa ya rubuta cewa an haifi Babbage shekara ɗaya da ta gabata, a shekara ta 1791. Littafin rajista na coci na St. Mary’s, Newington, London, ya nuna cewa Babbage ya yi baftisma a ranar 6 ga Janairu 1792, yana goyon bayan shekara ta haifuwa ta 1791.

Babban c. 1850

Babbage yana ɗaya daga cikin yara huɗu na Benjamin Babbage da Betsy Plumleigh Teape. Mahaifinsa abokin aikin banki ne na William Praed a kafa Praed's & Co. na Fleet Street, London, a cikin 1801.. A cikin 1808, dangin Babbage sun ƙaura zuwa tsohon gidan Rowdens a Gabashin Teignmouth. Yayin da yake da shekaru takwas, an aika Babbage zuwa makarantar ƙasa a Alphington kusa da Exeter don murmurewa daga zazzabi mai barazanar rai. Na ɗan lokaci kaɗan, ya halarci Makarantar Grammar King Edward VI a Totnes, South Devon, amma lafiyarsa ta tilasta masa komawa zuwa masu koyarwa masu zaman kansu na ɗan lokaci.

Daga nan Babbage ya shiga makarantar Holmwood mai ɗalibi 30, a Baker Street, Enfield, Middlesex, ƙarƙashin Reverend Stephen Freeman.[15] Makarantar tana da ɗakin karatu wanda ya sa Babbage yana son ilimin lissafi. Ya yi karatu da wasu malamai masu zaman kansu guda biyu bayan ya bar makarantar. Na farko wani malami ne a kusa da Cambridge; Ta wurinsa Babbage ya ci karo da Charles Saminu da mabiyansa na bishara, amma karatun ba abin da yake bukata ba ne. An kawo shi gida, don yin karatu a makarantar Totnes: wannan yana da shekaru 16 ko 17. Na biyu kuma wani malami ne na Oxford, wanda a karkashinsa Babbage ya kai matakin Classics wanda jami'ar Cambridge ta samu karbuwa.

Yin Karatu a Jami'ar Cambridge[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Babbage ya isa Kwalejin Trinity, Cambridge, a cikin Oktoba 1810. An riga an koyar da shi da kansa a wasu sassan ilimin lissafi na zamani; ya karanta Robert Woodhouse, Joseph Louis Lagrange, da Marie Agnesi. A sakamakon haka, ya ji kunya game da daidaitattun koyarwar lissafin da ake samu a jami'a.

Babbage, John Herschel, George Peacock, da wasu abokai da yawa sun kafa Ƙungiyar Analytical a 1812; sun kuma kasance kusa da Edward Ryan. A matsayinsa na ɗalibi, Babbage ya kasance memba na wasu al'ummomi kamar su The Ghost Club, wanda ya damu da binciken al'amuran allahntaka, da kuma Extractors Club, sadaukar da kai don 'yantar da membobinta daga gidan hauka, idan wani ya himmatu ga ɗayan.

A cikin alif 1812, Babbage ya koma Peterhouse, Cambridge.Shi ne babban masanin lissafi a can, amma bai kammala karatunsa da daraja ba. A maimakon haka ya sami digiri ba tare da jarrabawa ba a 1814. Ya kare wani kasida da aka yi la'akari da shi a cikin takaddamar farko na jama'a, amma ba a sani ba ko wannan hujja tana da alaka da rashin zama jarrabawar.

Bayan Cambridge[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Bisa la'akari da sunansa, Babbage ya yi sauri ya ci gaba. Ya yi lacca ga Cibiyar Sarauta kan ilmin taurari a shekara ta 1815, kuma an zabe shi a matsayin Fellow of the Royal Society a 1816.. Bayan kammala karatunsa kuwa, ya nemi mukamai bai yi nasara ba, kuma ba ya da wata sana’a. A cikin 1816 ya kasance ɗan takara don aikin koyarwa a Kwalejin Haileybury; yana da shawarwari daga James Ivory da John Playfair, amma ya sha kashi a hannun Henry Walter. A cikin 1819, Babbage da Herschel sun ziyarci Paris da Ƙungiyar Arcueil, inda suka gana da manyan malaman lissafi da physic na Faransa.A waccan shekarar Babbage ya nemi zama farfesa a Jami’ar Edinburgh, tare da shawarar Pierre Simon Laplace; sakon ya tafi ga William Wallace.

Tare da Herschel, Babbage ya yi aiki a kan electrodynamics na juyawa Arago, ya buga a 1825. Bayanin su na wucin gadi ne kawai, Michael Faraday ya dauka kuma ya fadada shi. Abubuwan al'amura yanzu sun kasance wani ɓangare na ka'idar igiyar ruwa, kuma Babbage da Herschel sun rasa wasu alamu na haɗin kai na ka'idar lantarki, kasancewa kusa da dokar ƙarfin Ampère.

Babbage ya sayi teburan wasan kwaikwayo na George Barrett, wanda ya mutu a shekara ta 1821 ya bar aikin da ba a buga ba, kuma ya bincika filin a cikin 1826 a cikin Kwatanta Ra'ayin Cibiyoyin Daban-daban don Tabbatar da Rayuwa.[30] Wannan sha'awar ta biyo bayan wani aiki na kafa kamfanin inshora, wanda Francis Baily ya jagoranta kuma aka yi ta a 1824, amma ba a aiwatar da shi ba.[31] Babbage ya lissafta allunan aiki don wannan makirci, ta yin amfani da bayanan mace-macen Al'umma masu Adalci daga 1762 zuwa gaba.

A cikin wannan lokacin duka, Babbage ya dogara da goyon bayan mahaifinsa, ya ba da halin mahaifinsa ga farkon aurensa, na 1814: shi da Edward Ryan sun auri 'yan'uwan Whitmore. Ya yi gida a Marylebone a Landan kuma ya kafa iyali mai yawa[33]. A rasuwar mahaifinsa a shekara ta 1827, Babbage ya gaji babban kadara (kimanin kusan fam 100,000, kwatankwacin fam miliyan 9.21 ko kuma dala miliyan 12.6 a yau), ya mai da shi arziƙi mai zaman kansa.. Bayan rasuwar matarsa ​​a wannan shekarar ya dauki lokaci yana tafiya. A Italiya ya sadu da Leopold II, Grand Duke na Tuscany, yana misalta ziyarar Piedmont daga baya A cikin Afrilu 1828 ya kasance a Roma, kuma yana dogara ga Herschel don gudanar da aikin injiniya na bambanci, lokacin da ya ji cewa ya zama farfesa a Cambridge, matsayin da ya kasa samu sau uku (a 1820, 1823 da 1826).

Mutuwa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Charles Babbage

Ya mutu ne ranar 18 ga watan octoban shekara ta 1871.

Ayyukan kimiya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Babbage yayi ayyukan kimiyya kaman haka, Mathematics, Engineering, Political economic, Cumputer Science.

Ilimi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Babbage yayi makaran ta kwalegi a , Trinity kwalege, Cambridge.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Terence Whalen shekara(1999). Edgar Allan Poe and the masses: the political economy of literature in antebellum America. Princeton University Press. p. 254. ISBN 978-0-691-00199-9. Retrieved 18 April2013.
  2. Craik, Alex D. D. (February 2005). "Prehistory of Faà di Bruno's Formula". The American Mathematical Monthly . 112 (2): 119–130.
  3. Copeland, B. Jack (18 December 2000). "The Modern History of Computing". The Modern History of Computing (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy). Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University. Retrieved 1 March 2017.