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Harshen Somaliya

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Somali
Af Soomaali,[1] Soomaali[2]
𐒖𐒍 𐒈𐒝𐒑𐒛𐒐𐒘, 𐒈𐒝𐒑𐒛𐒐𐒘
اَف سٝومالِ, سٝومالِ,
Yanki Horn of Africa
Ƙabila Somalis
'Yan asalin magana
Samfuri:Sigfig million (2020)[3]
kasafin harshe Ashraf
Benadiri
Maay
Northern Somali
Somali Latin alphabet (Latin script; official)
Wadaad's writing (Arabic script)
Osmanya alphabet
Borama alphabet
Kaddare alphabet
Official status
Babban harshe a Samfuri:SOM
{{country data Somaliland}}
Samfuri:DJI
Samfuri:ETH
Recognised minority language in
Regulated by Regional Somali Language Academy
Lamban rijistar harshe
ISO 639-1 so
ISO 639-2 som
ISO 639-3 som
Glottolog soma1255[4]
Linguasphere 14-GAG-a
Primary Somali Sprachraum

 

Rarraba[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. "Somali alphabets, pronunciation and language". Omniglot. Retrieved 16 June 2017.
  2. "cldr/so.xml at master · unicode-org/cldr". Unicode. Retrieved 8 November 2020.
  3. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named eth
  4. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Somali". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.

An rarraba Somaliya a cikin reshen Cushitic na dangin Afroasiatic, musamman, Lowland East Cushittic ban da Afar da Saho . Somali ita mafi kyawun rubuce-rubuce na yarukan Cushitic, [1] tare da nazarin ilimi na yaren da ya samo asali daga ƙarshen karni na 19.

Yankin da aka rarraba na Somaliya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ana magana da harshen Somaliya a yankunan Somaliya da ke zaune a Somalia, Djibouti, Habasha, Kenya, Yemen da kuma mambobin Somali diaspora. Har ila yau, ana magana da shi azaman yaren tallafi ta wasu kabilun tsiraru da mutane a yankunan da suka fi yawa a Somaliya.

Somali ita yaren Cushitic da aka fi magana da shi a yankin sannan Oromo da Afar suka biyo baya.

zuwa 2019, akwai kusan masu magana da Somaliya miliyan 21.8, sun bazu a Babbar Somaliya wanda kusan miliyan 7.8 ke zaune a Somaliya. Kimanin kashi % na mazaunan kasar ne ke magana da yaren, [1] da kuma yawancin jama'a a Djibouti.

farawar Yaƙin basasar Somaliya a farkon shekarun 1990, mutanen da ke magana da harshen Somaliya sun karu da girma, tare da sabbin al'ummomin Somaliya da aka kafa a wasu sassan Gabas ta Tsakiya, Arewacin Amurka da Turai.

Matsayi na hukuma[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  Bisa kundin tsarin mulki, Somaliya da Larabci sune harsuna biyu na Somaliya. Somali ta kasance harshen hukuma na kasa tun daga watan Janairun 1973, lokacin da Majalisar Juyin Juya Halin (SRC) ta ayyana shi harshen farko na Jamhuriyar Demokradiyyar Somaliya na gudanarwa da ilimi. Daga baya aka kafa Somali a matsayin babban harshe na koyarwar ilimi a cikin siffofi 1 zuwa 4, biyo bayan aikin shiri na Kwamitin Harshen Somali da gwamnati ta nada. Daga baya ya fadada ya hada da dukkan siffofi 12 a shekarar 1979. A cikin 1972, SRC ta karɓi Rubutun Latin a matsayin haruffa na ƙasa a kan wasu rubutun rubuce-rubuce da yawa waɗanda ake amfani da su a lokacin. lokaci guda, jaridar yau da kullun ta harshen Italiyanci Stella d'Ottobre ("The October Star") ta zama kasa, an sake masa suna Xiddigta Oktoobar, kuma ya fara bugawa a Somaliya. Rediyon Mogadishu na jihar ya kuma watsa shirye-shirye a Somaliya tun daga shekara ta 1951. Bugu ƙari, wasu cibiyoyin sadarwar jama'a na jihar kamar Somaliland National TV, cibiyoyin sadarwa na yanki kamar Puntland TV da Rediyo da, da kuma Eastern Television Network da Horn Cable Television, a tsakanin sauran masu watsa shirye-shirye masu zaman kansu, shirye-shiryen iska a Somaliya.

An san Somaliya a matsayin harshen aiki na hukuma a Yankin Somaliya na Habasha . Kodayake ba harshen hukuma ne na Djibouti ba, ya zama babban yaren ƙasa a can. Ana amfani Somaliya a cikin watsa shirye-shiryen talabijin da rediyo, [1] tare da shirye-shirye na Rediyon Djibouti da ke aiki da gwamnati a cikin yaren daga 1943 zuwa gaba.

Kamfanin watsa shirye-shiryen Kenya yana watsa shirye-'shirye a cikin harshen Somaliya a cikin shirye-shiryenta na Iftin FM. magana yaren a yankunan Somaliya a cikin Arewa maso gabashin Kenya, wato Wajir County, Garissa County da Mandera County.

Harshen Somaliya yana ƙarƙashin kulawar Kwalejin Harshen Somali, wata cibiyar gwamnati da aka kafa a watan Yunin 2013 a Birnin Djibouti ta gwamnatocin Djibouta, Somaliya da Habasha. ba da izini a hukumance tare da adana harshen Somaliya.

Ya zuwa Oktoba 2022, Somali da Oromo sune kawai yarukan Cushitic da ake samu akan Google Translate .

Iri-iri[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

 

Rarraba kungiyoyin yaren Somaliya a cikin Horn of Africa

Ire-iren harsunan Somaliya sun kasu zuwa manyan rukunoni uku: Arewa, Banaadir da Maay . Arewacin Somaliya (ko Nsom ) shine tushen tushen Somali Standard. [1] Fiye da kashi 85% na al'ummar Somaliya ne ke magana da shi,[ana buƙatar hujja]</link> tare da yankin jawabinsa wanda ya taso daga Djibouti yankin Somaliya na Habasha, Gundumar Frontier ta Arewa zuwa mafi yawan sassan Somalia Gulf of Aden littoral. Lamberti ya raba Arewacin Somaliya zuwa yaruka uku: Arewacin Somaliya daidai (wanda ake magana da shi a arewa maso yamma; ya bayyana wannan yare a matsayin Arewacin Somaliya a ma'anar da ta dace), kungiyar Darod (wanda ake magana a arewa maso gabas da kuma iyakar gabashin Habasha; mafi yawan masu magana gaba daya. ), da kuma kungiyar Lower Juba (da mazauna arewacin Somaliya mazauna yankunan kudancin kogin suke magana). [2]

Misali na magana a cikin Standard Somali (magana ta Islama da ke dauke da kalmomin aro na Larabci da yawa)

Ana magana da Benadir (wanda aka fi sani da Coastal Somali) a tsakiyar Tekun Indiya, gami da Mogadishu . Ya zama ƙaramin rukuni. Yaren yana kyakkyawar fahimta tare da Arewacin Somaliya..

Ƙungiyoyin yaren Arewacin Somaliya (Nsom)

Akwai wasu harsuna da ake magana a Somaliya waɗanda ba lallai bane su zama Afsoomali. Suna iya zama cakuda harsunan Somaliya da sauran harsunan asali. Irin wannan yaren shine Maay wan yawancin Digil da Mirifle (Rahanweyn ko Sab) ke magana a yankunan kudancin Somalia. magana ya kai daga iyakar kudu maso yamma da Habasha zuwa yankin da ke kusa da bakin teku tsakanin Mogadishu da Kismayo, gami da birnin Baidoa. Maay ta da fahimtar juna tare da Arewacin Somaliya, kuma ta bambanta da tsarin jumla da sauti. Hakanan ba'a amfani dashi gabaɗaya a ilimi ko kafofin watsa labarai. [3][4], masu magana da Maay galibi suna amfani da Standard Somali a matsayin harshen magana, wanda aka koya ta hanyar sadarwa ta jama'a, ƙaura ta ciki da birni.

Maay ba ta da alaƙa da harshen Somaliya a cikin tsarin jumla kuma Jiddu, Dabarre, Garre da Tunni iri-iri suna magana da su waɗanda ƙananan al'ummomin Rahanweyn ke magana da su. Gabaɗaya, waɗannan harsuna suna da kamanceceniya da Oromo waɗanda ba a samu a cikin al'ada Somali ba. Babban daga cikin wadannan shine rashin sautunan pharyngeal a cikin yarukan Rahanweyn / Digil da Mirifle, siffofin da suka bambanta da Somali amma ba Somali ba ne. Kod a baya ana rarraba su akai-akai a matsayin yarukan Somaliya, binciken da masanin harshe Mohamed Diriye Abdullahi ya yi kwanan nan ya nuna cewa waɗannan nau'ikan, gami da Maay, sun zama harsunan Cushitic daban-daban. Matsayin bambancin yi daidai da na tsakanin Mutanen Espanya da Portuguese. cikin nau'ikan Digil, Jiddu shine mafi ƙarancin fahimta ga masu magana da Benadir da Arewa. Duk wadannan bambance-bambance na harshe, masu magana da Somaliya gaba ɗaya suna kallon kansu a matsayin suna magana da harshe ɗaya.

Wadannan zato duk da haka an kalubalanci su ta hanyar binciken da Deqa Hassan ya yi kwanan nan wanda ya gwada fahimtar juna tsakanin masu magana da Af-Maay da Af-maxaa (Northern Somali).

Fasahar sauti[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

 

Sautin sautin[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Somaliya tana da sautin wasali guda biyar waɗanda duk sun bambanta murya mai ƙarfi da murya mai tsanani da kuma Tsawon wasula. Akwai ɗan canji a cikin ingancin wasali lokacin da aka tsawaita wasali. Kowane wasali yana da takwaransa na jituwa, kuma kowane wasali a cikin rukuni na jituwa (wanda zai iya zama mafi girma fiye da kalma a cikin Somaliya) dole ne ya dace da sauran wasula. Harshen Somaliya, duk da haka, ba ya rarrabe tsakanin bambance-bambance biyu na kowane wasali.

Sautin Somaliya Biyu na gaba da baya
Jerin gaba Jerin baya
gajeren lokaci Tsawon Lokaci gajeren lokaci Tsawon Lokaci
Kusan gaba ba a zagaye ba /

Kusa da kusa da gaba ba a zagaye ba

i ɪ ɪː
Tsakanin tsakiya na gaba ba a zagaye ba /

Bude-tsakiyar gaba ba a zagaye ba

da kuma ɛ ɛː
Kusan bude gaban ba a zagaye ba /

Bude baya ba tare da zagaye ba

æ ne æː Ƙarshen An samo asali ne daga wannan
Bude-tsakiyar tsakiya ta zagaye /

Bude-tsakiyar baya ta zagaye

Sanya Sanyaː Owu ɔː
Tsakanin tsakiya /

Kusa da baya

ʉ ʉː u
Sautin Somaliya
A gaba Tsakiya Komawa
gajeren lokaci Tsawon Lokaci gajeren lokaci Tsawon Lokaci gajeren lokaci Tsawon Lokaci
Kusa i ʉ ʉː u
Kusa da kusa ɪ ɪː
Tsakanin Tsakiya da kuma
Bude-Tsakiyar ɛ ɛː Sanya Sanyaː Owu ɔː
Bude æ ne æː Ƙarshen An samo asali ne daga wannan

Somaliya tana sautin sautin 22.

Alamun sauti Somaliya
Biyuwa Coronal Bayan alveolar<br id="mwAak"> Velar Rashin ƙarfi Farashin Farashin Faransanci<br id="mwAbA"> Gishiri
Hanci m n
Plosive voiceless k q ʔ
voiced b Abin da ya faru g
Rashin lafiya t͡ʃ
Fricative voiceless f s ʃ x ~ χ ħ h
voiced Sanya
Trill r
Kusanci w l j (w)

/b d̪ ɡ/ sau da yawa suna raunana zuwa [β ð ɣ] ta hanyar magana. [5] plosive /ɖ/ na iya samun ingancin implosive ga wasu masu magana, kuma ta hanyar intervocalic ana iya gane shi azaman flap. Wasu masu magana suna samar /ħ/ tare da trilling na epiglottal. /q/ sau da yawa ana amfani da shi.

Harshen yana da sautin biyar na asali. Kowane mutum yana da bambancin gaba da baya da kuma tsawo ko gajeren juzu'i. Wannan yana ba da sauti mai tsabta guda 20. Har ila yau, yana nuna sautuna uku: sama, ƙasa da faɗuwa. Sautin suna daidaitawa a cikin rukuni na jituwa, don haka duk sautin a cikin rukuna dole ne su kasance gaba ko baya. Harshen Somaliya ya rarrabe tsakanin bambance-bambance na gaba da na baya na wasula, duk da haka, saboda akwai ƙananan nau'i-nau'i.

Tsarin syllable na Somali shine (C) V (C). Tushen morphemes yawanci suna da tsari na mono- ko di-syllabic.

Pitch yana sauti a cikin Somaliya, amma ana muhawara ko Somaliya magana ce ko yaren sauti. (1954) ya nuna cewa Somali yare ne na sauti, yayin da Banti (1988) ya nuna cewa harshe ne na sauti.

Sauti[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Za'a iya rarraba shahararren kalmomi a cikin Somaliya a ƙarƙashin tsarin faɗakarwa, wanda ke da sautin murya guda ɗaya a kowace kalma.

Tsarin sautin ya bambanta bambance-bambance na harshe da na ƙamus. Bambance-bambance sun haɗa da lambobi guda ɗaya da jam'i (bambanci na ilimin lissafi), da maza da mata (bambance na ilimin lissafin lissafi kuma wani lokacin kuma bambancin ƙamus). Ɗaya daga cikin misalai shine inán ('yarinya') da yanan ('yaro'). Wannan yana nuna tsarin sauti wanda ke tsara jinsi na ilimin lissafi, kamar Dameer ('mace jaki') da daméer ('mace jakar namiji').

Tambayar tsarin sautin a Somaliya an yi muhawara shekaru da yawa. Yarjejeniyar zamani kamar haka.

A cikin Somaliya, sautin da ke ɗauke da sautin shine mora maimakon wasula na syllable. Tsawon wasali ko diphthong ya ƙunshi morae biyu kuma yana iya ɗaukar sautuna biyu. Kowane mora an bayyana shi a matsayin mai sautin sama ko ƙasa. Sai kawai sautin da ya fi girma yana faruwa a kowace kalma kuma wannan dole ne ya kasance a kan ƙarshe ko na ƙarshe. Kwayoyin ba su da sautin da ya fi girma. (Waɗannan sun haɗa da prepositions, sunayen suna don batun da abu, sunayen sunayen da ba na mutum ba da alamun mayar da hankali.) Saboda haka akwai yiwuwar "alamu" guda uku a cikin tushen kalmomi

Phonetically akwai sautuna uku a kan dogon wasali: high, low da falling:

  1. A kan dogon wasali ko diphthong, ana samun jerin manyan-ƙananan a matsayin sautin da ke fadowa.
  2. A kan dogon wasali ko diphthong, ana samun jerin ƙananan-babban a matsayin babba. (A wasu lokuta, sautin yana tashi.)

Wannan amfani da sautin ana iya nuna shi azaman faɗakarwa. Ya yi kama da wannan a cikin Oromo.

Damuwa tana da alaƙa da sautin. Babban sautin yana da damuwa mai ƙarfi; sautin da ke fadowa yana da ƙarancin damuwa kuma sautin da ba shi da damuwa.

Lokacin da ake buƙata, tarurruka don yin alama a rubuce-rubucen Somali sune kamar haka:

  • Babban sautin - sautin da ya fi girma
  • Magana mai tsanani - sautin ƙasa
  • circumflex - sautin da ke fadowa

Sautuna a kan dogon wasula galibi ana nuna su a kan alamar wasula ta farko.[dubious – discuss]

Fonotactics[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Tsarin syllable na Somali shine (C) V (C).

Tushen morphemes yawanci suna da tsari na mono- ko di-syllabic.

Ƙungiyoyin ƙwayoyin biyu ba sa faruwa da kalma-da farko ko kalma-a ƙarshe, watau, suna faruwa ne kawai a iyakokin syllable. Wadannan consonants na iya zama geminate: /b/, /d/, /ɖ/, /ɡ/, /t/, /n/, /r/ da /l/. Wadannan ba za su iya zama geminate ba: /t/, /k/ da fricatives.

Sautin biyu ba za su iya faruwa tare a kan iyakokin syllable ba. Sabili da haka an saka ma'anar epenthetic, misali [j] da [ʔ].

Harshe[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Yanayin Yanayi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Somali yare ne mai haɗuwa, kuma yana nuna kaddarorin juyawa. Affixes alama yawa grammatical ma'anoni, ciki har da al'amari, lokaci da shari'a.

Somali tana da tsohuwar karkatarwa ta magana da aka ƙuntata ga kalmomi huɗu na yau da kullun, tare da duk sauran kalmomi da ke fuskantar karkatarwa da bayyane. Wan tsari na gabaɗaya yayi kama da sauyawa wanda ke nuna Cairene Arabic..

Ana amfani canje-canje a cikin farar don ilimin harshe maimakon dalilai na ƙamus. Wannan [6] haɗa da bambancin jinsi, lamba da shari'a. wasu lokuta, waɗannan bambance-bambance suna alama da sautin kawai (misali Ínan, "yaro"; inán, "yarinya"). [1]

Somaliya tana da nau'ikan sunaye guda biyu: sunaye masu zaman kansu (mai mahimmanci, mai mahimmanci) da sunaye masu mahimmanci (magana). Wakilan masu zaman kansu suna nuna hali a matsayin sunaye, kuma galibi suna faruwa tare da labarin -ka/-ta (misali, "ku"). [7] Ana iya cire wannan labarin bayan haɗin kai ko kalma mai maida hankali. Misali, adna' ma'anar "da ku..." (daga Adi-na). [7] Ana haɗa sunayen suna ma'anar ma'anar kuma ba sa ɗaukar nau'in suna. Somaliya alama ta clusivity a cikin mutum na farko da aka saba amfani da shi; wannan kuma ana samunsa a wasu harsunan Cushitic na Gabas, kamar Rendille da Dhaasanac .

yadda yake a wasu harsunan Afro-Asiatic daban-daban, Somaliya tana da alamar bambancin jinsi, inda yawancin sunayen yawanci ke ɗaukar yarjejeniya jinsi na siffofin su na musamman. [8], jam'i na namiji dibi ("bull") an kafa shi ta hanyar canza shi zuwa mace dibi. Somaliya ta da yawa a cikin harsunan duniya saboda ba a yi wa abu alama ba yayin da aka yi wa batun alama, kodayake ana samun wannan fasalin a wasu harsunan Cushitic kamar Oromo.

Rubuce-rubuce[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Somali yare ne na batun-abu (SOV). Yawanci shine karshe, tare da postpositions da kuma obliques da suka gabata. Wadannan siffofi na yau da kullun na yarukan Cushitic da Semitic Afroasiatic da ake magana a yankin Horn (misali Amharic). [1] , kalmomin sunayen Somaliya sune na farko, inda sunan ya riga adjective mai canzawa. [9] [3] [9] tsari na gabaɗaya kai-ƙarshe tare da kalmomin farko na kai ana samun su a wasu harsunan Cushitic (misali Oromo), amma ba gabaɗaya a cikin harsunan Semitic na Habasha ba.

Ba'a amfani da alamomi guda uku: baa,__ilo____ilo____ilo__ da kuma waxa (a), wanda gabaɗaya ke nuna sabon bayani ko nuna bambanci. Baa da kuma 10% suna buƙatar abin da aka mayar da hankali don faruwa a cikin pre-bally, yayin da za'a iya amfani da waxa (a) bayan aikatau.

Kalmomin kalmomi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Littattafan yaren Somaliya da aka nuna.

Ana iya raba kalmomin aro na Somaliya zuwa waɗanda aka samo daga wasu harsunan Afroasiatic (musamman Larabci), da waɗanda suka fito daga Indo-Turai (musamman Italiyanci)..

Babban lamuni Somali ya fito ne daga Larabci, kuma an kiyasta sun kasance kusan 20% na ƙamus na yaren. Wannan gado ne na yawan zamantakewar jama'ar Somaliya, al'adu, kasuwanci da addini da kuma hulɗa da mutanen da ke kusa da su a yankin Larabawa. Ana amfani kalmomin aro na Larabci a cikin addini, gudanarwa da kuma magana mai alaƙa da ilimi (misali Aamiin don "bangaskiya ga Allah"), kodayake suna nan a wasu yankuna (misali kubbad-da, "ball"). [1] (1994) ya lura da jimlar kalmomin aro na Larabci 1,436 a cikin Agostini a.o. 1985, [1] sanannen ƙamus na Somali mai shigarwa 40,000. [2] Yawancin kalmomin sun kunshi sunayen da aka saba amfani da su. Wadan[10] lamuni na ƙamus na iya zama mafi yawa a baya tun lokacin da wasu kalmomin da Zaborski (1967:122) ya lura a cikin tsofaffin wallafe-wallafen ba su cikin aikin Agostini na baya ba. Bugu kari, yawancin sunayen mutum sun samo asali ne daga Larabci.

Harshen Somali ya ƙunshi wasu kalmomin aro na Indo-Turai waɗanda aka riƙe daga zamanin mulkin mallaka. Yawancin waɗan rance na ƙamus sun fito ne daga Turanci da Italiyanci kuma ana amfani da su don bayyana sababbin abubuwa ko ra'ayoyin zamani (misali telefishen-ka, "tafiyar talabijin"; raadia-ha, "radio"). [1] Akwai kuma rance na Roman kai tsaye 300, kamar garawati don "ƙaddamarwa" (daga cravatta na Italiyanci).

Lallai, kalmomin lamuni da aka fi amfani da su daga Italiyanci sune "ciao" azaman gaisuwar abokantaka, "dimukradi" daga Italiyanci "dimokiradiyya" (dimokiradiyya), "mikroskoob" daga "microscopio" (microscope), "Jalaato" daga "gelato" (kankara). cream), "baasto" daga "taliya" ( taliya), "bataate" daga "patate" (dankali), "bistoolad" daga "pistol" (pistol), "fiyoore" daga "fiore" (flower) da "injinyeer" daga "ingegnere" (injiniya) Somaliyawa suna kiran watannin kalandarsu kamar Soon, soonfur, siditaal, carafa....amma waɗannan sun canza kwanan nan. </link> . Bugu da ƙari, duk watanni a cikin harshen Somaliya yanzu kalmomin aro ne daga Italiyanci, kamar "Febraayo" wanda ya fito daga "febbraio" (Fabrairu)[ana buƙatar hujja]</link> .

Bugu da ƙari, Somaliya ta ƙunshi kalmomin ƙamus daga Farisa, Urdu da Hindi waɗanda aka samo ta hanyar cinikayya ta tarihi tare da al'ummomi a Gabas ta Tsakiya da Kudancin Asiya (misali 'khiyār' "cucumber" daga Farisa: خ__yār). Sauran kalmomin aro sun kuma maye gurbin ma'anarsu a wasu yaruka (misali Jabaati "wani nau'in gurasa mai laushi" daga Hindi: चप dot Chapāti displacing sabaayad). daga cikin wad[11] kalmomi an kuma aro su ta hanyar Larabci.

Tsarin rubuce-rubuce[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Rubutun rubutun Osmanya don Somaliya.
Rubuce-rubucen Shaláw Sabaean, Sanaag (Hoto: na Sada Mire, 2007). Rubuce-rubucen ya kasance tsakanin 900 KZ da 300 AZ.

Binciken archaeological [12] bincike a Somalia sun gano rubuce-rubuce na dā a cikin tsarin rubutu na musamman. [13] cikin wani rahoto na 1878 ga Royal Geographical Society of Great Britain, masanin kimiyya Johann Maria Hildebrandt ya lura a lokacin da ya ziyarci yankin cewa "mun san daga marubutan zamanin d ̄ a cewa waɗannan gundumomi, a halin yanzu hamada ce, sun kasance masu yawa da wayewa[...] Na kuma gano tsoffin rushewa da rubuce-rubucen dutse a cikin hotuna da har yanzu ba a fassara su ba. " [12] A cewar rahoton 1974 na Ma'aikatar Bayanai da Jagoran Kasa, wannan rubutun yana wakiltar farkon rubuce-wallace-rude na Somaliya.

Kwanan nan, masanin binciken kayan tarihi na Somaliya Sada Mire ya buga rubuce-rubuce na dā da aka samu a duk faɗin Somaliland. Kamar yadda yawancin tarihin harshe [14] Somaliya ba a yi amfani da harshen sosai ba don wallafe-wallafen, wallafe-rubucen Dr. Mire duk da haka sun tabbatar da cewa rubuce-rubuce a matsayin fasaha ba na waje ba ne ko kuma kaɗan a yankin. Wadannan rubuce-rubuce sun fito ne daga yarukan Semitic Himyarite da Sabaean waɗanda aka fi magana da su a cikin abin da ke Yemen na zamani - "akwai dangantaka mai zurfi da tsohuwar dangantaka tsakanin mutane da al'adu na bangarorin biyu na bakin tekun Jar". Mire posits. Duk [14] haka, yayin da ba a sami wasu irin waɗannan rubuce-rubucen tsohuwar ba ko kuma a bincika su, masu haɓakawa sun "ƙaddamar da su, kamar yadda Ma'aikatar Yawon Bude Ido ba za ta iya siyan ƙasar ba ko dakatar da lalacewa".

Baya ga rubutun Latin na Ahmed, wasu rubutun da aka yi amfani da su na ƙarni don rubuta harshen Somaliya sun haɗa da Rubutun Larabci da aka kafa da daɗewa da Rubuce-rubucen Wadaad. A cewar Bogumił Andrzejewski, wannan amfani ya iyakance ga malamai na Somaliya da abokan aikinsu, kamar yadda sheikhs suka fi son rubuta a cikin harshen liturgical Larabci. Duk haka, akwai irin waɗannan rubuce-rubucen tarihi daban-daban a cikin Somaliya, waɗanda galibi sun haɗa da waƙoƙin Islama (Kasidas), maimaitawa da waƙoƙi. Daga cikin waɗannan matani akwai waƙoƙin Somaliya na Sheikh Uways da Sheikh Ismaaciil Faarah . Sauran wallafe-wallafen tarihi ke akwai a Somaliya galibi sun ƙunshi fassarorin takardu daga Larabci.

Tun daga wannan lokacin an yi amfani da tsarin rubuce-rubuce da yawa don sake rubuta harshen Somaliya. [15] cikin wadannan, haruffa Latin na Somaliya, wanda aka karɓa a hukumance a 1972, shine mafi yawan amfani da shi kuma an san shi a matsayin rubutun hukuma na jihar. manyan malaman Somaliya suka kirkiro rubutun, ciki har da Musa Haji Ismail Galal, [./B._W._Andr<i id= z" id="mwA3Q" rel="mw:WikiLink" title="B. W. Andrzejewski">B. W. Andrzejewski] da Shire Jama Ahmed musamman don sake rubuta harshen Somaliya, kuma yana amfani da dukkan haruffa na haruffa Latin na Turanci ban da p, v da z. Babu alamomi ko wasu haruffa na musamman sai dai amfani da apostrophe don tsayawar glottal, wanda ba ya faruwa da kalma-da farko. Akwai nau'o'i uku: DH, KH da SH. Ba a yi alama da sautin ba, kuma ba a rarrabe wasula na gaba da na baya ba.

Lambobin da kalmomin kalandar[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Sunayen lambobi masu yawa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Turanci Somaliya
Latin Osmanya #
Zero Eber Sanya 𐒠
Ɗaya Kow Sanya 𐒡
Biyu Labba Sanya 𐒢
Uku Shirin da aka yi Sanya 𐒣
Hudu nesa Sanya 𐒤
Biyar shan Sanya 𐒥
Shida Rashin abinci Sanya 𐒦
Bakwai toddoba Sanya 𐒧
Takwas Ya lalace Sanya 𐒨
Tara Sagaal Sanya 𐒩
Goma Yaro da kuma Sanya 𐒡𐒠
Turanci Somaliya
Latin Osmanya #
Goma sha ɗaya Yankin da aka yi amfani da shi Sanya ta gaba 𐒡𐒡
Goma sha biyu Yankin da aka yi amfani da shi Sanya ta gaba 𐒡𐒢
Goma sha uku Sashen da ya fi dacewa Sanya ta gaba 𐒡𐒣
Goma sha huɗu A waje da kuma a waje da Sanya ta gaba 𐒡𐒤
Goma sha biyar Yankin da aka yi amfani da shi Sanya ta gaba 𐒡𐒥
Goma sha shida A cikin wannan lokacin Sanya ta gaba 𐒡𐒦
Goma sha bakwai Dukkanin da ya yi Sanya ta gaba 𐒡𐒧
Goma sha takwas gefen da aka yi amfani da shi Sanya ta gaba 𐒡𐒨
Goma sha tara Yankin da ya fi dacewa Sanya ta gaba 𐒡𐒩
Ashirin labaatan Sanya 𐒢𐒠

Ga dukkan lambobi tsakanin 11 kow iyo da 99 Sagaashal iyo sagaal, daidai ne a sauya wurin sanya lambobi, kodayake lambobi masu girma wasu yaruka sun fi son sanya lambar 10s da farko. Misali 25 ana iya rubuta su a matsayin labaatan iyo shan da shan iyo labaatan (lit. Ashirin da biyar da biyar da ashirin).

Kodayake rubutun Latin ko Osmanya ba su yarda da wannan sauyawar lambobi ba.

Yawan 10[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Turanci Somaliya
Latin Osmanya #
Goma Yaro da kuma Sanya 𐒡𐒠
Ashirin labaatan Sanya 𐒢𐒠
talatin Siraici Sanya 𐒣𐒠
arba'in Afarta Sanya 𐒤𐒠
Kashi hamsin konton Sanya 𐒥𐒠
sittin lixdan Sanya 𐒦𐒠
Kashi saba'in todobaatan Sanya 𐒧𐒠
Takwas gefen gefen Sanya 𐒨𐒠
Kashi casa'in Sagaashan Sanya 𐒩𐒠

Lambobin[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Turanci Somaliya
Latin Osmanya #*
Ɗari Har ila yau Sanya 𐒡𐒠𐒠
Dubban Kun Sanya 𐒡,𐒠𐒠𐒠
Miliyan daya milyan Sanya 𐒡,𐒠𐒠𐒠,𐒠𐒠𐒠
Biliyan daya Bilyan Sanya 𐒡,𐒠𐒠𐒠,𐒠𐒠𐒠,𐒠𐒠𐒠

* an kara commas a cikin jadawalin lambobi na Osmanya don bayyanawa

Kwanaki na mako[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Turanci Somaliya
Latin Osmanya
Lahadi Axad Sanya
Litinin Isniin Sanya
Talata Salaasa / Talaado Wannan shi ne
Laraba Arbaca/Arbaco Wannan shi ne
Alhamis Khamiis Sanya
Jumma'a Jimce / Jimco Sanya
Asabar Sabti Sanya

Watanni na shekara[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Turanci Somaliya
Latin Osmanya
Janairu Janaayo Sanya
Fabrairu Fabraayo Sanya
Maris Maarso Sanya
Afrilu Gidan ajiya Sanya
Mayu Mahaifiyar Sanya
Yuni Yuni Sanya
Yuli Luuliyo Sanya
Agusta Agusta Sanya
Satumba Sebteembar Sanya
Oktoba Oktoobar Sanya
Nuwamba Nofeembar Sanya
Disamba Daga Ruwa Sanya

Dubi kuma[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Harsunan Djibouti
  • Harsunan Somaliya
  • Harsunan Kenya
  • Harshen Kurame na Somaliya
  • Littattafan Somaliya
  • Nazarin Somaliya

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ƙarin karantawa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

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Haɗin waje[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Dalby2
  2. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Lamberti
  3. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Ethnymm
  4. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named s4
  5. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named s8
  6. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named s21
  7. 7.0 7.1 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named s68
  8. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Tosco
  9. 9.0 9.1 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named hn253
  10. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Versteegh
  11. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named d73
  12. 12.0 12.1 Ministry of Information and National Guidance, Somalia, The writing of the Somali language, (Ministry of Information and National Guidance: 1974), p.5
  13. Royal Geographical Society (Great Britain), Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society of London, Volume 22, "Mr. J. M. Hildebrandt on his Travels in East Africa", (Edward Stanford: 1878), p. 447.
  14. 14.0 14.1 Empty citation (help)
  15. Economist Intelligence Unit (Great Britain), Middle East annual review, (1975), p.229