Kalanda

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Kalanda
specialty (en) Fassara da field of study (en) Fassara
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na chronology (en) Fassara da conceptual system (en) Fassara
Name (en) Fassara ꠚꠣꠘ꠆ꠎꠤ
Kalandar Burtaniya, 1851, gilt bronze da malachite, tsayi: 20.3 cm, Metropolitan Museum of Art (Birnin New York)
Kalandar Gregorian na zamani na Indonesiya don cocin Katolika

Kalanda tsari ne na tsara kwanaki. Ana yin hakan ne ta hanyar ba da sunaye ga lokuta, yawanci kwanaki, makonni, watanni da shekaru . Kwanan wata ita ce zayyana rana guda da takamaiman rana a cikin irin wannan tsarin. Kalanda kuma rikodin jiki ne (sau da yawa takarda) na irin wannan tsarin. Kalanda kuma na iya nufin jerin abubuwan da aka tsara, kamar kalandar kotu ko jeri ko cikakken jerin takaddun lokaci, kamar kalanda na wasiyya.

Lokuta a cikin kalanda (kamar shekaru da watanni) yawanci, ko da yake ba lallai ba ne, suna aiki tare da zagayowar rana ko wata . Mafi yawan nau'in kalanda na zamani na zamani shine kalandar lunisolar, kalanda na wata wanda lokaci-lokaci yana ƙara wata guda ɗaya don ci gaba da aiki tare da shekarar hasken rana akan dogon lokaci.

Etymology[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An ɗauko kalmar kalanda daga kalendae , kalmar ranar farko ta wata a kalandar Romawa, mai alaƙa da kalmar fi'ili calare 'kira', yana nufin "kira" na sabon wata lokacin da aka fara ganinsa. [1] calendarium Latin yana nufin 'littafin lissafi, rijista' (kamar yadda aka daidaita asusu kuma ana karɓar basussuka akan kalandar kowane wata). An karɓi kalmar Latin a cikin Tsohon Faransanci azaman calendier kuma daga can a cikin Turanci ta Tsakiya azaman calender ta 13 karni ( kalandar rubutun kalmomin farkon zamani ne).

Tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ana ganin Equinox daga kalandar astronomic na Pizzo Vento a Fondachelli Fantina, Sicily

A hanya na rana da wata ne mafi salient akai-akai akai-akai faruwa na halitta al'amurran da suka shafi da amfani ga lokaci, kuma a pre-zamani al'ummomi a duniya lunation da kuma shekara da aka fi amfani a matsayin lokaci raka'a. Duk da haka, kalandar Romawa tana ƙunshe da ragowar tsohuwar shekara ta hasken rana ta watanni 10 kafin Etruscan. [2]

Kalandar jiki na farko da aka yi rikodin, wanda ya dogara da haɓakar rubuce-rubuce a cikin Gabas ta Tsakiya ta Tsakiya, su ne kalandar Masarawa da ta Sumerian Age Age .

A lokacin Vedic Indiya ta ɓullo da ingantacciyar hanyar kiyaye lokaci da kalanda don al'adun Vedic . A cewar Yukio Ohashi, kalandar Vedanga a tsohuwar Indiya ta dogara ne akan nazarin taurari a lokacin Vedic kuma ba a samo shi daga wasu al'adu ba.

Yawancin tsarin kalanda a cikin Tsohon Gabas ta Tsakiya sun dogara ne akan kalandar Babila tun daga zamanin ƙarfe, daga cikinsu akwai tsarin kalanda na Daular Farisa, wanda hakan ya haifar da kalandar Zoroastrian da kalandar Ibrananci .[ana buƙatar hujja]

Yawancin kalandar Hellenic an haɓaka su a Girka na gargajiya, kuma a lokacin Hellenistic sun haifar da kalandar tsohuwar Roman da kuma kalandar Hindu daban-daban .

Kalanda a zamanin da sun kasance lunisolar, dangane da gabatarwar watanni na tsaka-tsaki don daidaita hasken rana da shekarun wata. Yawancin wannan ya dogara ne akan kallo, amma akwai yuwuwar an yi yunƙurin farko don yin ƙima da tsarin haɗin gwiwar algorithmically, kamar yadda ya tabbata a cikin kalandar Coligny na ƙarni na 2 na ɓarna.

Julius Kaisar ya gyara kalandar Romawa a cikin 46 BC. Kalandarsa ta "Julian" ba ta dogara da duban wata ba, amma ya bi tsarin algorithm na gabatar da ranar tsalle duk shekara huɗu. Wannan ya haifar da rabuwar watan kalanda daga lunation .

Kalandar Musulunci ta ginu ne a kan haramcin shiga tsakani ( nasi' ) da Muhammadu ya yi, a cikin al'adar Musulunci da aka yi kwanan watan huɗubar da aka yi a ranar 9 ga watan Zu al-Hijjah AH 10 (kwanakin Yuli: 6 Maris 632). Wannan ya haifar da kalandar tushen lura da ke canzawa dangane da yanayi na shekarar rana.

Gyaran zamani[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Sake fasalin kalanda na farko zamani ya haifar da kalandar Gregorian, wanda aka gabatar a cikin shekara ta 1582 kuma bisa lura da canjin lokaci mai tsawo tsakanin kalandar Julian da shekarar hasken rana.

wannan kalanda ce

An sami shawarwari na zamani da yawa don sake fasalin kalanda na zamani, kamar Kalanda na Duniya, Kafaffen Kalanda na Duniya, Kalanda Holocene, da Kalanda na Dindindin na Hanke-Henry . Irin waɗannan ra’ayoyin ana yin su ne daga lokaci zuwa lokaci, amma sun kasa samun karɓuwa saboda asarar ci gaba da hargitsi mai yawa da aiwatar da su zai kunshi, da kuma tasirinsu kan zagayowar ayyukan addini.

Tsarukan aiki[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kalanda

Cikakken tsarin kalanda yana da ranar kalanda daban-daban na kowace rana. Don haka zagayowar mako shi kadai ba cikakken tsarin kalanda ba ne; haka nan kuma ba tsarin sunaye kwanaki a cikin shekara ba tare da tsarin tantance shekarun ba.

Tsarin kalanda mafi sauƙi kawai yana ƙididdige lokutan lokaci daga ranar tunani. Wannan ya shafi ranar Julian ko Lokacin Unix . Kusan kawai bambancin da zai yiwu shine amfani da kwanan wata mabambanta, musamman, wanda bai yi nisa ba a baya don ƙara ƙarami lambobi. Lissafi a cikin waɗannan tsarin al'amari ne na ƙari da ragi.

Sauran kalandun suna da raka'o'in lokaci (ko mahara) mafi girma.

Kalandun da ke ƙunshe da matakin zagaye ɗaya:

  • mako da ranar mako - wannan tsarin (ba tare da shekara ba, adadin mako yana ci gaba da karuwa) ba shi da yawa
  • shekara da kwanan wata a cikin shekara, misali, tsarin kwanan wata na ISO 8601

Kalandun tare da matakan hawan keke biyu su ne kamar haka:

  • shekara, wata, da rana Yawancin tsarin, gami da kalandar Gregorian (da kuma wanda ya gabace shi sosai, kalandar Julian ), kalandar Musulunci, kalandar Hijri na Rana da kalandar Ibrananci.
  • shekara, mako, da ranar mako - misali, ranar mako na ISO

Za a iya aiki tare da cycles tare da abubuwan mamaki na lokaci-lokaci:

Kalandar Dieu-est-Mon'plaisir[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Amfani da kalandar jama'a na yanzu a cikin duniya. Wasu ƙasashe suna amfani da ƙarin kalandar da ba a jera su a nan ba wanda ke ƙayyade bukukuwa da sauran al'adu, misali kalandar Sinanci ko na Musulunci .

Ana ƙididdige kalandar Dieu-est-Mon'plaisir sosai kuma tana farawa kowace shekara a daidai lokacin bazara a faɗuwar rana a Urushalima .

Amfani[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Addini[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Almanac Hindu ( pancanga ) na shekara ta 1871/2 daga Rajasthan (Library of Congress, Asian Division)

Tsarin tsari[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kalanda daga Petaluma da Santa Rosa Railroad

Kalmar kalanda ta shafi ba kawai ga tsarin da aka ba da ba na kiyaye lokaci ba har ma ga takamaiman rikodin ko na'urar da ke nuna irin wannan makirci, alal misali, littafin alƙawari a cikin nau'i na kalandar aljihu (ko mai tsarawa na sirri ), kalanda na tebur, kalanda na bango., da dai sauransu.

Software[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Software na Kalanda yana ba masu amfani da sigar lantarki ta kalanda, kuma tana iya ba da littafin alƙawari, littafin adireshi, ko lissafin lamba. Kalanda daidaitaccen siffa ce ta PDAs da yawa, EDAs, da wayoyi . Software ɗin na iya zama fakitin gida da aka tsara don amfanin mutum ɗaya (misali, Tsawon Walƙiya don Mozilla Thunderbird, Microsoft Outlook ba tare da Exchange Server ba, ko Kalanda Windows ) ko wataƙila fakitin da ke da hanyar sadarwa wanda ke ba da damar musayar bayanai tsakanin masu amfani (misali, Mozilla Sunbird, Windows Live Kalanda, Google Calendar, ko Microsoft Outlook tare da Exchange Server).

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Jerin kalanda
  • Kalanda zuwan
  • Gyaran kalanda
  • Lissafin kalandar
  • Doka (kotu)
  • Tarihin kalanda
  • Horology
  • Jerin ma'auni gama gari na duniya
  • Jerin bukukuwan da ba na hukuma ba ta kwanan wata
  • Real-Time Clock (RTC), wacce ke karkashin manhajar Calendar akan kwamfutocin zamani.
  • Nau'in lokaci

Nassoshi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary
  2. "Religion in the Etruscan Period" in Roman Religion in the Encyclopædia Britannica

Hanyoyin haɗi na waje[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]