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Murar alade

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.

Murar alade cuta ce da ake samunta ta hanyar nau'in kan ƙwayoyin cuta na murar alade. Kwayar cutar murar alade ( SIV ) ko cutar mura ta asali ( S-OIV ) tana nufin kowane nau'in dangin mura na ƙwayoyin cuta da ke da alaƙa a cikin aladu . Tun daga 2009, an gano nau'ikan SIV sun haɗa da mura C da nau'ikan mura A da aka sani da H1N1, H1N2, H2N1, H3N1, H3N2, da H2N3 . [1] Kwayar cutar mura ta aladu ta zama ruwan dare a cikin mafi yawan aladu a duk duniya. Wayar da kwayar cutar daga aladu zuwa mutane ba kasafai ba ne, kuma ba koyaushe yana haifar da rashin lafiyar ɗan adam ba, galibi yana haifar da samar da ƙwayoyin rigakafi a cikin jini kawai. Idan yadawa yana haifar da rashin lafiyar ɗan adam, ana kiranta zoonotic swine flu. Mutanen da ke fuskantar aladu akai-akai suna cikin haɗarin kamuwa da cutar murar alade.

Kusan tsakiyar karni na 20, an sami damar gano nau'ikan murabba'in mura, wanda ke ba da damar ganewar asali ga mutane. Tun daga wannan lokacin, 50 kacal aka tabbatar da irin wannan watsa. Waɗannan nau'ikan mura na aladu ba safai suke wucewa daga mutum zuwa mutum ba. Alamomin cutar murar aladun zoonotic a cikin mutane sun yi kama da na mura da na cututtuka masu kama da mura kuma sun haɗa da sanyi, zazzabi, ciwon makogwaro, ciwon tsoka, ciwon kai mai tsanani, tari, rauni, ƙarancin numfashi, da rashin jin daɗi na gaba ɗaya.

An kiyasta cewa, a cikin bala'in mura na 2009, 11-21% na yawan jama'ar duniya na lokacin (na kusan biliyan 6.8), daidai da kusan mutane miliyan 700 zuwa biliyan 1.4, sun kamu da cutar - ƙari, a cikin cikakkiyar sharuddan, fiye da Mutanen Espanya . cutar mura . An tabbatar da mutuwar mutane 18,449. Koyaya, a cikin binciken 2012, CDC ta kiyasta sama da 284,000 masu yuwuwar mutuwa a duk duniya, tare da lambobi daga 150,000 zuwa 575,000. [2] [3] A watan Agustan 2010, Hukumar Lafiya ta Duniya ta ayyana cutar ta murar aladu a hukumance. [4] [5]

Babban alamun cutar mura alade a cikin mutane

An ba da rahoton bullar cutar murar aladu a Indiya a cikin 2015, tare da fiye da 31,156 tabbatacce lokuta da mutuwar 1,841.

Alamomi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A cikin aladu, kamuwa da mura na alade yana haifar da zazzaɓi, rashin jin daɗin jiki, atishawa,, atishawa, tari , wahalar numfashi, jawar ido ko kumburi, da rage ci. [6] A wasu lokuta kamuwa da cuta na iya haifar da zubar da ciki . Duk da haka, yana yiwuwa aladu masu kamuwa da cuta ba za su iya nuna alamun ba. [7] Kodayake mace-mace yawanci ba ta da yawa (kimanin 1-4%), [8] kwayar cutar na iya haifar da asarar nauyi da rashin girma, wanda hakan ke haifar da asarar tattalin arziki ga manoma. [6] Alade masu kamuwa da cuta na iya rasa nauyi zuwa kilogiram 12 na nauyin jiki a cikin tsawon mako uku zuwa hudu. [6] Alade suna da masu karɓa waɗanda duka ƙwayoyin cutar mura da na dabbobi masu shayarwa za su iya ɗaure su; wannan yana haifar da kwayar cutar ta iya canzawa da canzawa zuwa nau'i daban-daban. [9] Mura A ita ce ke da alhakin cutar da alade, kuma an fara gano shi a cikin 1918. [9] Yawancin lokaci ana ganin aladu a matsayin "tasoshi masu haɗaka", wanda ke taimakawa wajen canzawa da kuma haifar da nau'in cututtuka da ke yadawa ga wasu dabbobi masu shayarwa, kamar mutane. [9] Kamuwa da kwayar cutar murar aladu kai tsaye daga aladu ga mutane abu ne mai yiyuwa lokaci-lokaci (murar alade zoonotic ). [10] A cikin duka, an san lokuta 50 sun faru tun bayan rahoton farko a cikin littattafan likitanci a 1958, wanda ya yi sanadiyar mutuwar mutane shida. [11] Daga cikin wadannan mutane shida, daya yana da ciki, daya yana da cutar sankarar bargo, daya yana da lymphoma na Hodgkin kuma biyu an san cewa suna da lafiya a baya. Daya daga cikin wadannan ba a san inda yake ba. [11] Duk da waɗannan ƙananan lambobi na kamuwa da cuta, ainihin adadin kamuwa da cuta na iya zama mafi girma, tunda yawancin lokuta kawai suna haifar da cuta mai sauƙi, kuma wataƙila ba za a taɓa ba da rahoto ko ganowa ba.[11]

Acikin wannan faifan,In Dr. Joe Bresee, with CDC's Influenza Division,Yayi bayanin alamomin murar alade.

Ilimin kwayar cutar Virus din[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Watsuwarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Tsakanin aladu[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Mura ta zama ruwan dare gama gari a cikin aladu, tare da kusan rabin aladu masu kiwo sun kamu da cutar a Amurka. [12] Kwayoyin rigakafin ƙwayoyin cuta kuma suna da yawa a cikin aladu a wasu ƙasashe. [12]. Babban hanyar watsuwarta ita ce ta hanyar hulɗa kai tsaye tsakanin dabbobin. [13] Waɗannan cuɗanya na kurkusa sun zama ruwan dare musamman yayin jigilar dabbobi. Har ila yau , noma mai zurfi na iya ƙara haɗarin watsuwarta, kamar yadda aladu ke tasowa a kusa da juna. [14] [15] Canja wurin kwayar cutar kai tsaye mai yiwuwa yana faruwa ko dai ta hanyar aladu suna taɓa hanci, ko ta busasshiyar ƙoƙo. Watsawar iska ta iska ta iska ta hanyar tari ko atishawa da aladu ke samarwa suma wata muhimmiyar hanyar kamuwa da cuta ce. [13] Kwayar cutar kan yadu da sauri ta cikin garken garken, inda ta harba aladun cikin 'yan kwanaki kadan. [16] Hakanan ana iya yada cutar ta hanyar dabbobin daji, irin su boar daji, wanda zai iya yada cutar tsakanin gonaki.[17].


Zuwa ga mutane[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Mutanen da ke aiki tare da kaji da alade, musamman waɗanda ke da tsananin bayyanar, suna cikin haɗarin kamuwa da cutar zoonotic tare da kamuwa da cutar mura a cikin waɗannan dabbobin, kuma sun zama yawan rundunonin ɗan adam waɗanda zoonosis da sake fasalin zasu iya faruwa tare. [18] Alurar riga kafi na waɗannan ma'aikata game da mura da kuma sa ido kan sabbin nau'ikan mura a tsakanin wannan jama'a na iya zama muhimmin ma'aunin lafiyar jama'a. [19] An rubuta isar da mura daga aladu zuwa mutanen da ke aiki da alade a cikin wani ɗan ƙaramin binciken da aka yi a cikin 2004 a Jami'ar Iowa. [20] Wannan binciken, da sauransu, ya zama tushen shawarwarin cewa mutanen da ayyukansu suka haɗa da kula da kiwon kaji da alade su zama abin da aka fi mayar da hankali kan ƙara sa ido kan lafiyar jama'a. [18] Sauran sana'o'in da ke cikin haɗarin kamuwa da cutar su ne likitocin dabbobi da masu sarrafa nama, kodayake haɗarin kamuwa da cuta ga ƙungiyoyin biyu ya yi ƙasa da na ma'aikatan gona. [21]

Tsarin Halittar kwayar cuta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Tsarin H1N1 Virion.
Babban alamun cutar murar alade a cikin alade

Kwayar cutar mura tana da kusan zagaye. Ita kwayar cuta ce a lullube; Layer na waje wani nau'i ne na lipid membrane wanda aka samo daga kwayar halitta wanda kwayar cutar ta ninka. An saka su a cikin membrane na lipid shine "spikes", waɗanda sune sunadaran-ainihin glycoproteins, saboda sun ƙunshi furotin da ke da alaƙa da sukari-wanda aka sani da HA ( hemagglutinin ) da NA ( neuraminidase ). Waɗannan su ne sunadaran da ke ƙayyade nau'in ƙwayar cutar mura (A/H1N1, misali). HA da NA suna da mahimmanci a cikin amsawar rigakafi da kwayar cutar; ƙwayoyin rigakafi (sunadarai da aka yi don yaƙar kamuwa da cuta) daga waɗannan spikes na iya kariya daga kamuwa da cuta. Sunadaran NA shine makasudin magungunan rigakafin Relenza da Tamiflu . Har ila yau, an haɗa shi a cikin membrane na lipid shine furotin M2, wanda shine manufar antiviral adamantanes amantadine da rimantadine

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. "Western Stars Ride into Portsmouth". Portsmouth Daily Times. Portsmouth, Ohio. June 4, 1997. p. A4. Retrieved January 25, 2014.
  2. "Johnny Crawford ... 'the Son of Rifleman'". TV Week Magazine. The Evening Independent. St. Petersburg, Florida. May 24, 1959. p. 7. Retrieved January 25, 2014
  3. "Answers: Johnny Crawford A Mixture". The Evening Independent. St. Petersburg, Florida. November 20, 1963. p. A9. Retrieved January 25, 2014. His mother is from Belgium
  4. "Facts about Johnny Crawford : Classic Movie Hub (CMH)". Archived from the original on May 5, 2021. Retrieved May 5, 2021
  5. Gates, Anita (May 5, 2021). "Johnny Crawford, a Western Hero's Son on 'The Rifleman,' Dies at 75". The New York Times. Archived from the original on May 6, 2021. Retrieved May 7, 2021
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 "Johnny Crawford - Television Academy". Emmys.com. Retrieved July 16, 2018.
  7. "Johnny Crawford". Billboard.com. Retrieved July 16, 2018
  8. "Johnny Crawford Discography - USAt". 45cat.com. Retrieved August 21, 2021.
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 "Indian Paint". TVGuide.com. Retrieved July 16, 2018.
  10. "The Rifleman Q&A – Johnny Crawford (Mark McCain)". Amc.com. Retrieved July 16, 2018.
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 "Johnny Crawford - The Restless Ones". Celebhost.net. Retrieved July 16, 2018.
  12. 12.0 12.1 "Johnny Crawford: The Naked Ape". Mary Anderson. Retrieved January 25, 2014.
  13. 13.0 13.1 "Angry Woman – Victoria Jackson on "Tonight Show" b/w". Youtube. Archived from the original on December 13, 2021. Retrieved January 25, 2014.
  14. "See Johnny Crawford in his first acting role in 20 years". MeTV. Retrieved October 26, 2019.
  15. "Playboy Jazz Festival - Free Concert in Beverly Hills - May 2nd, 2010 - TheUrbanMusicScene.com - Concerts & Festivals!". Concerts.theurbanmusicscene.com. April 27, 2010. Retrieved July 16, 2018.
  16. "RIGHT ON TARGET". Qctimes.com. Retrieved July 16, 2018
  17. "Amazon.com: Customer reviews: Sweepin' the Clouds Away (Remastered)". Amazon.com. Retrieved July 16, 2018
  18. 18.0 18.1 Empty citation (help)
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