Mutanen Ashanti

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Mutanen Ashanti
Máscara de oro - tesoro del rey Kofi Kolkalli.jpg
Jimlar yawan jama'a
2,800,000
Yankuna masu yawan jama'a
Ghana
Addini
Katolika, Protestan bangaskiya, Musulunci da Judaism (en) Fassara
Asante
Asantefo
Harsuna
Mutanen Ashanti na kassr Ggana kenan

Ashanti ( /æ ʃ ɑː n t i / ( </img> / )), Kuma aka sani da Asante, wani bangare ne na Akan kabila da suke da 'yan qasar zuwa Ashanti yankin na zamani Ghana. Twi yana magana da sama da mutane miliyan tara na Asante a matsayin yare na farko ko na biyu.

Attajirai, masu arzikin gwal Asante sun haɓaka babbar Daular Ashanti mai tasiri, tare da Tafkin Volta da Gulf na Guinea. An kafa daular ne a 1670, kuma Asante babban birnin Kumasi an kafa shi a 1680 ta hannun Asantehene (sarki) Osei Kofi Tutu I bisa shawarar Ɔkͻmfoͻ Anͻkye, firaminista. Kasancewa a mahadar kasuwancin Saharar Sahara, matsugunin Babban birnin na Kumasi ya taimaka sosai ga haɓakar arzikinta. A tsawon lokacin rayuwar Kumasi, akwai wasu abubuwa masu ban mamaki da suka haɗu don canza garin Kumasi zuwa cibiyar kuɗi da babban birnin siyasa. Babban dalilan da suka haifar da lamarin sun hada da rashin amincin da ake da shi ga sarakunan Asante da kuma ci gaban arzikin Kumasi, wanda aka samu a wani bangare daga cinikin gida na babban birni da kayan masarufi kamar zinare, bayi, da bijimi.

Sunaye[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Asalin Ashanti

A Asante yare na Twi, Asantefo ( /æ s ɑː n t ɪ f oʊ / ASS -ahn- TIF -oh ). mufuradi namiji: Asantenibarima, tilo mace: Asantenibaa . Sunan Asante "mai son yaƙi" a al'adance masana sun tabbatar da cewa ya samo asali ne daga 1670s yayin da Asante ya kasance daga kasancewa jihar mai biyan haraji zuwa masarauta mai matsakaicin ra'ayi. Asantehene Osei Tutu I, shugaban sojoji kuma shugaban dangin Asante adwinehene, shine ya kafa Daular Asante. [1] Osei Tutu Na sami goyon bayan wasu shugabannin dangi kuma, yayi amfani da Kumasi a matsayin babban cibiyar, ya rinjayi jihohin Akan. Osei Tutu ya kalubalanci kuma a ƙarshe ya kayar da Denkyira a 1701, kuma wannan shine tabbataccen asalin zamani.

Labarin kasa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yankin Ashanti yana da wuri mai canzawa, gaɓar teku da tsaunuka, wurin ajiyar namun daji da tsaftataccen yanayi da wuraren shakatawa na ƙasa, gandun daji da filayen ciyayi, yankuna masu noman shuke-shuke da kusa da savannas, wadatar da ɗumbin ma'adanai na masana'antu., galibi mafi yawan gwal na zinariya .

Yankin Ashanti da suka sauka gida ne ga wani tafkin kogin mai aman wuta, Lake Bosumtwi, kuma Ashanti tana iyaka da yamma zuwa Lake Volta a tsakiyar yankin Ghana na yanzu. Yankin Ashanti (Masarautar Ashanti) yanki ne mai yawan dazuzzuka, galibi mai ni'ima ne kuma har zuwa wani tsauni. Akwai yanayi biyu-lokacin damina (Afrilu zuwa Nuwamba) da kuma rani (Disamba zuwa Maris). Hasasar tana da rafuka da yawa ; lokacin rani, amma yana da matuƙar lalacewa. Yankin Asante yana da zafi kowace shekara.

Yau mutanen Ashanti sun kusan miliyan 3. Asante Twi, harshe mafi rinjaye, memba ne na yaren Central Tano a cikin yarukan Kwa . karfin siyasa na Ashanti ya haɗu da Asantehene Otumfuo Nana Osei Tutu II a matsayin cikakken mai mulki kuma shugaban siyasa na Ashantis da Yankin Ashanti, tare da wakilin Ashanti na jam’iyya ɗaya zuwa ɗaya na Jam’iyyar New Patriotic Party, kuma tun lokacin yankin r Ashanti (da Masarautar Ashanti ) ƙungiyar siyasa ta ƙasa tare da Ghana, Ashanti ta kasance mai tasiri sosai.

Ashantis suna zaune a Yankin Ashanti da Brong Ahafo a Ghana. Babban birnin Kumasi, babban birnin Ashanti (Masarautar Ashanti), ya kuma kasance babban birni mai tarihi na Masarautar Ashanti. Yankin Ashanti a halin yanzu yana da yawan mutane miliyan 11 (11,000,000).

A yau, kamar yadda yake a da, Yankin Ashanti na ci gaba da bayar da gagarumar gudummawa ga tattalin arzikin Ghana. Ashanti tana da wadataccen kayan ma'adinai na masana'antu da kayan aikin gona, Ashanti ita ce ke da alhakin yawancin kayan abinci na cikin gida na Ghana kuma ga canjin kuɗin da Ghana ke samu daga koko, kayan aikin gona, zinariya, bauxite, manganese, da sauran ma'adanai na masana'antu, da katako. Kumasi babban birni da yankin Ashanti suna samar da kashi 96% na kayan da aka fitarwa na Ghana.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Daular Ashanti[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin 1670s Ashantee ta kasance daga kasancewa jihar mai biyan haraji zuwa masarautar Denkyira mai matsakaiciyar matsayi. Asantehene Osei Kofi Tutu I, shugaban sojoji kuma shugaban dangin Oyoko, shine ya kafa masarautar Ashanti. [1] Osei Tutu ya sami goyon bayan sauran shugabannin dangi tare da amfani da Kumasi a matsayin cibiyar, ya rinjayi jihohin da ke kewaye da shi. Osei Tutu ya kalubalanci kuma a ƙarshe ya kayar da Denkyira a cikin 1701, kuma da girman kai daga wannan, sunan Asante ya zama.

Da yake ya fahimci raunin wata ƙungiyar ƙawance ta jihohin Akan, Osei Tutu ya ƙarfafa haɗin kan ƙungiyoyin Akan da ke kewaye da shi tare da faɗaɗa tsarin shari'a a cikin gwamnatin da ke yankin. Don haka, wannan ƙungiyar ta sassauƙa ta ƙananan-biranen birni ta zama masarauta ko daula da ke neman faɗaɗa ƙasarta. Sabbin yankuna da aka ci nasara suna da zabin shiga daular ko zama jihohin masu biyan haraji. [2] Opoku Ware I, magajin Osei Tutu, ya faɗaɗa kan iyakokin. [3]

Sarauta da 'yanci[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bikin doya na Ashanti , karni na 19 na Thomas Edward Bowdich

Asasar Ashanti ta tsayayya da yunƙurin da Turawa, galibi Masarautar Burtaniya, don cinye su. Ashanti ta iyakance tasirin Birtaniyya a yankin Ashanti, yayin da Birtaniyya ta hade yankunan makwabta. An bayyana 'yan Ashanti a matsayin mutane masu tsananin tashin hankali wadanda sarki "zai iya kawo mutane 200,000 a cikin filin kuma a bayyane yake cewa jarumawan ba sa jin tsoron bindigogin Sniper da bindigogi masu saukar ungulu 7".

Ashanti yana ɗaya daga cikin statesan tsirarun ƙasashen Afirka waɗanda suka yi adawa da mulkin mallaka na Turai. Tsakanin 1823 da 1896, United Kingdom of Great Britain da Ireland sun yi yaƙe-yaƙe huɗu da sarakunan Ashanti: yaƙe-yaƙe na Anglo-Ashanti . A cikin 1901, daga karshe Birtaniyyawa suka kayar da mulkin bayan yakin 1900 na Zinare na Zinare kuma Ashanti Confederacy ta zama kariyar Birtaniyya, da Kare Ashanti, a cikin 1902, kuma an dakatar da ofishin Asantehene tare da babban birnin Ashanti Kumasi hade zuwa daular Biritaniya. ; Koyaya, Ashanti har yanzu galibi suna mulkin kansu. Ashanti bai ba da fifiko ba ga ikon mulkin mallaka. A cikin 1926, Turawan Ingila sun ba da izinin mayar da Asantehene Prempeh I - wanda suka yi hijira zuwa Seychelles a 1896 - kuma suka ba shi damar daukar taken Kumasehene, amma ba Asantehene ba. Koyaya, a cikin 1935, daga ƙarshe Birtaniyyawa ta ba Ashanti ikon cin gashin kanta a matsayin Masarautar Ashanti, kuma taken Ashanti King na Asantehene ya farfado.

Saboda dadewar mu'amala tsakanin Ashanti da ikon Turai, Ashanti suna da adadi mafi yawa na tarihin tarihi a yankin Saharar Afirka . A cikin 1920s Burtaniya ta sanya addinin Ashanti, dangi, da tsarin shari'a a cikin ayyuka kamar Dokar Ashanti ta RS Rattray da Tsarin Mulki.

Al'adu da al'adu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bikin Akwasidae a Fadar Manhyia a shekarar 2009.

Al'adun Ashanti suna bikin Adae, Adae Kese, Akwasidae, Awukudae da kuma bikin Doyar Ashanti . Seperewa, mai kaɗa-garaya 10-14 mai kaɗa-kaɗa, da gangariyar Fontomfrom, su ne kayan wasan kwaikwayo guda biyu waɗanda ke da alaƙa da Ashanti da tufafin Ashanti Kente.

Ashanti wata al'umma ce ta ma'aurata inda ake samun asalin asali ta hanyar mace. A tarihi, wannan dangantakar zuriyar ta ƙaddara haƙƙin ƙasa, gadon dukiya, ofisoshi da lakabi. Gaskiya ne cewa Ashanti suna gadon dukiya daga ɓangaren uba na dangin.

Ashanti mai wankin rai (Ashanti Sunsum Washer)

Kodayake ba a ɗauka da mahimmanci kamar uwa ba, amma hulɗar namiji yana ci gaba a wurin haihuwa bayan aure.

A tarihi, an aurar da yarinya Ashanti da zoben zinare da ake kira " petia " (Ina son ku), idan ba a yarinta ba, nan da nan bayan bikin balaga. Ba su dauki aure a matsayin " awade " a matsayin wani muhimmin abu na al'ada ba, amma a matsayin jihar da ke zuwa nan ba da jimawa ba kuma a al'adance bayan al'adar balaga. Tsarin sha’awar balaga ya kasance kuma yana da mahimmanci kamar yadda yake nuna wucewa daga yarinta zuwa girma a cikin wannan ɗabi’a ana ƙarfafa ta kafin aure. Ashanti din ya bukaci cewa dangin yaron su basu kayayyaki daban daban na yarinyar, ba a matsayin 'farashin amarya' ba, amma don nuna yarjejeniya tsakanin dangin biyu.

Doka da tsarin shari'a[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin kundin tsarin dangi da tsarin shari'a na Ashanti a cikin Dokar Ashanti ta RS Rattray da Tsarin Mulki Dokar Ashanti ta fayyace cewa, an haramta yin jima'i tsakanin namiji da wasu mata, duk da cewa ba shi da nasaba ta jini. Hukuncin laifi shine kisa, kodayake ba ya ɗauke da irin wannan ƙyamar ga dangin Ashanti kamar lalata da ɗan adam. Dangane da jima'i tsakanin namiji da ɗayan mata masu zuwa haramun ne:

  1. 'Yar'uwar' yar uwa daya uba daya, amma ta wata uwa daban;
  2. 'Yar kanin uba;
  3. Mace mai uba daya;
  4. Matar dan’uwa;
  5. Matar ɗa;
  6. Uwar mata;
  7. Matar kawu;
  8. Matar kowane irin mutum “kamfani” guda;
  9. Matar kowane namiji mai irin wannan sana'ar ko sana'ar;
  10. Matar bawan mutum;
  11. Wata matar mahaifin daga dangi daban.

Harshe[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kalmomin gaishe Ashanti Twi; " akwaba " (barka da zuwa) da kuma " ɛte sɛn " (yaya kuke).
An Ashanti Twi speaker.

Mutanen Ashanti suna magana da Ashanti Twi, wanda shine harshen hukuma na Yankin Ashanti kuma babban yare da ake magana da shi a Ashanti da kuma mutanen Ashanti. Yaran Ashanti sama da miliyan 9 suna magana da yaren Ashanti a matsayin yare na farko ko na biyu. Harshen Ashanti shine asalin aikin da aka yi amfani da shi don karatu da rubutu a cikin Ashanti, a matakin ilimin firamare da na firamare (Firamare 1-3) K – 12 (ilimi), kuma ya yi karatu a jami'a a matsayin digiri na farko ko kuma digiri na biyu a cikin Ashanti.

Harshen Ashanti da Ashanti Twi suna da wasu siffofi na musamman na yare kamar sautin, jituwa wasali da haɓakawa .

Ashanti suna bin addinin Akan da addinin Ashanti (addinin gargajiya wanda yake da alama yana mutuwa sannu a hankali amma ana farfaɗo shi ne kawai a manyan lokuta na musamman - duk da haka yana fuskantar farfaɗowar duniya a duk faɗin ƙauyuka), sannan Kiristanci ( Roman Katolika da Furotesta ) da Islama .

Ashanti mazauna[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ashanti suna zaune ne a Yankin Ashanti, musamman a babban birnin Ashanti na Kumasi, kuma, saboda cinikin bayi na Atlantika, sanannen diasporaan asalin Ashanti sun wanzu a yankin Caribbean, musamman a Jamaica . An aika bayin da aka kama aka sayar da su ga Burtaniya da Yaren mutanen Holland tare da gabar tekun zuwa West Indies, musamman Jamaica, Barbados, Antilles Netherlands, British Virgin Islands, Bahamas, Guyana, Suriname, da sauransu. Ashanti sanannu ne masu adawa da Fante Confederacy da mutanen Birtaniyya, saboda Ashanti suna kasuwanci ne kawai da Dutch a lokacin hawan su zuwa zama mallakin yawancin yanki na ƙasar Ghana ta yanzu.

Sunan Coromantee (daga Fort Kormantse, wanda Dutch ta saya a 1665) ya fito ne daga asalin asalin Burtaniya a kan Gold Coast don karɓar bautar Ashanti, duk da cewa Dutch ɗin ke amfani da wannan ginin kuma ba ta da tarihin kasuwanci zuwa Jamaica yayin da suke ƙarƙashin Dutch mallaka. Tabbacin sunayen Ashanti da Akan-rana da Ashanti da sunayen-Akan (amma Ingilishi ba shi da suna), alamun Adinkra a kan gidaje, labaran Anansi da yare na Picais na Jamaica wanda Twi ke tasiri sosai, duk ana iya samun su a tsibirin Jamaica . Edward Long da farar fata masu shuka Burtaniya da suka gabace shi, sun bayyana "Coromantees" kamar yadda Turawan Burtaniya da ke Gold Coast za su yi "Ashantis", wanda ya kasance "mai son yaki" Edward Long ya faɗi cewa wasu a kusa da "Ashantis" da "Coromantees" suna tsoron su kamar yadda ake jin tsoron su a Jamaica da kuma daga ƙasan can na Gold Coast.

Dangane da BioMed Central (BMC biology) a cikin 2012, matsakaiciyar Jamaica tana da 60% na Ashanti matrilineal DNA kuma, a yau Ashanti ita kaɗai ce ƙabilar da aka san ta da Jamaican zamani. Shahararrun mutanen Jamaica kamar su: Marcus Garvey da matarsa ta farko, Amy Ashwood Garvey, sun fito ne daga zuriyar Ashanti. Abu ne gama gari ga yawancin Jamaicans da wannan zuriya. [4] Hakanan akwai mayaƙan 'yanci na Jamaica yayin bautar: Nanny na Maroons (yanzu Jarumar Jamaica ta ƙasa), Tacky da Jack Mansong ko Jack-yatsa uku. Sunaye Nanny da Tacky gurbatattun Ingilishi ne na kalmomin Ashanti da sunaye: "Nanny" gurbacewar kalmar Ashanti ce Nana, ma'ana "sarki / sarauniya / kakara", sunan Tacky rashawa ce ta sunan Ashanti Takyi, kuma Mansong shine cin hanci da rashawa na sunan Ashanti sunan farko Manso, bi da bi.

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Jerin sarakunan Asante

Bayani[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

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  2. Giblert, Erik Africa in World History: From Prehistory to the Present 2004
  3. Shillington, loc. cit.
  4. Comparative studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East, Vols 17-18, Duke University Press, 1997, p. 124.